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Built by John Doddridge at a date unknown. Probably the first dwelling erected in 
Independence township, Washington county, Pa. 

Notes on the Settlement 
and Indian Wars 

Of the Western Parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania from 

1763 to 1783, inclusive, together with a Review 

of the State of Society and Manners of the 

First Settlers of the Western Country. 


With a Memoir of the Author by 
His Daughter 


Republished with the addition of new and valuable material. 

By John S. Ritenour and Wm. T. Lindsey. 


Copyright 1912 

By , 

\ ! J"6hn s. fciXtf >i:q<jR ; 

lanti * '* ' V. 



Preface ; , 5 

Statement to the Reader, by Dr. Doddridge 7 

Preface to the First Edition, by Dr. Doddridge 11 


1. State of the Wilderness , 19 

2. Remains of an Extinct People 26 

3. Origin of the American Indians 39 

4. Changes in the System of Weather 51 

5. Beasts and Birds 57 

6. Number and Variety of Serpents 65 

7. Indigenous Fruits of the Country 70 

8. Account of a Hermit 76 

9. Settlement of the Country 80 

- 10. House Furniture and Diet »6 

11. Dress of the Indians and First Settlers 91 

12. The Fort and Other Defenses 94 

13. Caravans and Modes of Trade \^6 . 

14. Subsistence by Hunting 98 

15. The Wedding and Mode of Living 102 

16. The House Warming 106 

17. Labor and its Discouragements 109 

18. The Mechanic Arts 110 

19. Diseases and Their Remedies 116 

20. Games and Diversions 121 

21. The Witchcraft Delusion 125 

22. Law, Morality and Religion @> 

23. Cruelty to Slaves and Servants 135 

24. Western Civilization 142 

25. Indian Mode of Warfare 158 

26. The War of 1763 52 

27. Gov. Dunmore's War 171 


iv Contents. 

28. The Death of Cornstalk , 180 

29. The Wappatomica Campaign 182 

30. Gen. Mcintosh's Campaign 184 

31. The Moravian Campaign 188 

32. The Indian Summer 204 

33. Crawford's Campaign 206 

34. Attack on Rice's Fort 217 

35. Expected Attack on my Father's Fort 221 

36. Coshocton Campaign 224 

37. Captivity of Mrs. Brown 226 

38. Escape of Lewis Wetsel 229 

39. The Struggle of Adam Poe. (Andrew Poe.) 232 

40. The Affair of the Johnsons 237 


Memoir of the Rev. Joseph Doddridge, by His Daughter, Narcissa 

Doddridge 243 

The Doddridge Family 272 

Sketch of Major Samuel McColloch, by Narcissa Doddridge 274 

Capture of Members of the Doddridge Family by Indians, by 

Narcissa Doddridge . . 278 

Van Meter's Fort, by Narcissa Doddridge . . . . , 282 

Story of Capt. Oliver Brown 284 

The Teter and Manchester Families, by Wm. T. Lindsey 286 

Distinguished Men of West Middletown, by Wm. T. Lindsey 290 

Logan, Michael Cresap and Simon Girty, by John S. Ritenour.. .. 293 
Indian Population of the United States, by E. Dana Durand, 

Director of the Census 307 

The Frontier Forts of Washington County 310 

An Elegy on His Family Vault, by Joseph Doddridge 313 


This is the third printing of " Doddridge's Notes." The first 
was in 1824, by Mr. Doddridge himself, at the office of the Wells- 
burg, Va., Gazette. It consisted exclusively of the " Notes." 
Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, former governor of Pennsylvania, well- 
known as a lover of old books, says, in a few lines inscribed on 
the margin of a first copy which he owned, that Dr. Doddridge 
" folded the paper on which it was printed and tanned the leather 
with which it was bound." 

The second edition, edited by Alfred Williams, of Circleville, 
O., was printed at Albany, N. Y., in 1876, by Joel Munsell. Miss 
Narcissa Doddridge had designed personally undertaking this 
enterprise herself, but death prevented. Her family then took 
it up, and at their request it was completed under the supervision 
of Mr. Williams. 

Miss Doddridge's memoir of her father embodies much im- 
portant historical information respecting the foundation of the 
Episcopal church in Western Virginia and Ohio. The liberty has 
been exercised of somewhat abridging its unessential fullness for 
this -edition, but it has not been thus deprived in any degree of 
either interest or value. The elisions have been confined to 
prolixities in the correspondence of Dr. Doddridge and his 
friends. The text of Miss Doddridge is practically untouched. 

The reminiscences of Rev. Thomas Scott in the second edition 
are omitted from this edition because all the information they 
contain has been written into the memoir by Miss Doddridge. 

In addition to the memoir, the 1876 edition contained an 
appendix comprising a number of sketches bearing on the pioneer 
life of this region in the closing years of the eighteenth century. 
These are all preserved in the present publication, excepting three 
which are of comparative unimportance. Fresh contributions, 

vi Preface. 

however, are numerous valuable and enlightening footnotes by 
the late James Simpson, of Cross Creek, Washington county, and 
others ; a list of the frontier forts of Washington county ; a com- 
pilation reciting the story of the origin of Logan's " Lament," 
and detailing concisely the later unhappy career and tragic death 
of that celebrated Indian; a sketch of the short life and early 
death of Michael Cresap, and the final enforced withdrawal of 
Simon Girty, the renegade, from American soil, to die in his 
old age in poverty, intemperance and obscurity, on the Canadian 
farm near Detroit with which he had been rewarded by British 
gratitude for his countless bloody crimes against the white settlers 
of the western frontier; an account of the noted frontiersman, 
Capt. Samuel Teter, and his descendants, together with a brief de- 
scription of the notable brick mansion raised on the site of Fort 
Teter by Isaac Manchester a hundred years ago on the skirts of 
civilization, and still preserved near West Middletown in as good 
condition as when built. 

There is also a pertinent statistical table from E. Dana Dur- 
and, Director of the Census, showing the estimated Indian popu- 
lation of the United States at various periods from 1789 to 1910, 
inclusive, and how this population is now distributed among the 
several states. The elegy by Dr. Doddridge in the appendix is 
preserved merely as an example of early western frontier poetry. 

The footnotes in this 1912 edition are all original with it 
excepting the eleven which Dr. Doddridge himself prepared to 
accompany the first printing. These eleven are indicated with a 
bracketed capital D (D). The second edition contained no other 

J. S. R. W. T. L. 

To the Reader. ?• • 

After considerable delay I have fulfilled my engagement to 
the public with respect to the history of the settlement and wars 
of the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania. The causes 
of the delay of the work were unavoidable, and a recital of them 
can be of no service. 

Whether the Notes are well executed, or otherwise, must be 
left to the candid decision of my country, and I am well aware 
the decision will speedily be made. It will be the opinion of 
some readers that I have bestowed too great a portion of the 
book on the primitive aspect of the country, and the history of 
the state of society and manners of its early inhabitants. My 
reason for having bestowed so much attention on these subjects 
is this : these matters of our early history, which, if faithfully 
preserved, will hereafter be highly interesting, are fast hastening 
into oblivion, and in a few more years would be totally lost. On 
the contrary, the events of the war are much longer remembered. 

Had we a similar history of the early state of any of the 
European countries, to that which is here presented to the world, 
of our own, with how much interest would this record be read 
by all classes of people. For instance, had we the memorials of 
the people who erected those rude monuments which are scat- 
tered over our country, the record would give a classic character 
to every section of the new world ; but in every region of the 
world, except our own, the commencement of the period of their 
history was long posterior to that of their settlement ; their early 
history is therefore buried in impenetrable oblivion, and its place 
is occupied by immense regions of fable and conjecture. 

To the two first parts of this history, it is presumed, no 
great additions will hereafter be necessary. Future generations 
will be competent to mark any changes which may take place in 
the physical condition, and in the scientific and moral state of 

8 Early Settlement and Indian Wars. 

our country, from the data here given, and unquestionably the 
changes which, are to take place in all those departments, in the 
progress of time, will be great indeed. 

The history of our Indian wars is, in every respect, quite 
imperfect. The very limited range of the war, which I had in 
view, in this work, is not fully executed. The want of health, 
and in some instances the want of proper information, have 
prevented the relation of several events which took place in this 
section of the country in the course of our conflicts with the sons 
of the forest, and which, although of minor importance in their 
final results, would nevertheless form an interesting portion of 
the history of those conflicts. 

The various attacks on Wheeling fort, and the fatal am- 
buscade near Grave creek, have been omitted for want of a 
correct account of those occurrences. These omissions are the 
less to be regretted as Noah Zane, Esq., has professed a deter- 
mination to give the public the biography of his father, Col. 
Ebenezer Zane, the first proprietor and defender of the important 
station at Wheeling. This work will be no more than a measure 
of justice to the memory of a man who held such an important 
and perilous station as that which fell to the lot of Col. Zane, 
and who filled that station with so much honor to himself and 
advantage to our infant country, as he did. This biography will 
contain an accurate account of all the attacks on Wheeling, as 
well as all other events of the war which took place in its imme- 
diate neighborhood. 

A well written history of the whole of our wars with the 
Indians in the western regions would certainly be a valuable ac- 
quisition to our literature. It would, however, be a work of 
time and considerable labor, as its materials are scattered over a 
large tract of country, and in point of time extend through half 
a century. 

The whole amount of our present memorials of this widely 
extended warfare consists merely of detached narrations, and 
these are for the most part but badly written. In many instances 

To the Reader. 9 

they are destitute of historical precision with regard to the order 
of time, and the succession of facts, so that they are read only 
as anecdotes, and of course with but little advantage to science. 

This work is desirable, on many accounts. The bravery, \ 
victories and sufferings of our forefathers, ought to be correctly ) 
and indelibly recorded. Those who have lived and died for*) 
posterity ought to be rewarded with imperishable fame in the ( . 
grateful remembrance of their descendants. The monuments/ 1 
conferred on moral worth, by the pen of the historian, are mow' 
durable than those erected by the chisel of the sculptor. 

A measure of justice is certainly due to our barbarian ene- 
mies themselves. For whatever of system, prudent foresight 
and arrangement, they observed in their wars with us, they ought 
to have full credit. For the full amount of all the patriotic .. 
motives by which these unfortunate people were actuated in their 
trfoody conflicts, they deserve our sincerest commiseration. 

The wars of these people are not to be regarded as wholly 
the offspring of a savage thirst for blood. They fought for their 
native country. They engaged in the terrible war of 1763 with 
a view to recover from the possession of the white people the 
whole of the western settlements. Their continuance of the 
war, after the conclusion of our revolutionary contest, had for 
its object the preservation of as much of their country as they 
then had in possession. On the part of the most intelligent of 
the Indian chiefs, they fought from a motive of revenge and 
with a valor inspired by desperation. They foresaw the loss of 
their country and the downfall of their people, and therefore 
resolved on vengeance for the past, and the future wrongs to be 
inflicted on them. 

There is yet another reason for the work under considera- 
tion. The present generation are witnesses of both the savage\ 
and civilized state of mankind. Both extremes are under ourJ 
inspection. To future generations the former will exist only im 
history. The Indian nations are now a subjugated people, and 
every feature of their former state of society must soon pass 
away. They will exist only through the medium of their ad- 
mixtures with the white people. Such has been the fate of many 

10 Early Settlement and Indian Wars. 

nations. Where are now the Assyrians, Chaldeans and Romans? 
They no longer exist; and yet the English, French and Italians 
are, in part, descendants of the ancient Romans. Such will be 
the fate of the aborigines of our country. They will perish, or 
lose their national character and existence by admixtures with 
their conquerors. To posterity therefore their history will be 
highly acceptable. Indeed it may be said of all history, that like 
good wine it grows better by age. 

In the execution of this work I have aimed at truth and 
nothing but truth. Impartiality imposes no restraint on my pen ; 
for independently of the circumstance that the contents of this 
history, in general, interfere with no party, I am incumbered with 
but few individual obligations of gratitude. To political party, 
religious and other communities, I owe no obligations of any 
kind for any benefits conferred on me, so that I have felt fully 
at liberty to speak the truth concerning all classes of our people, 
and I trust I have done so. 

If any material facts in the historical parts of this work 
have been omitted, the omission has happened from want of in- 
formation. Incorrect statements, if there be any, have taken 
place in consequence of improper information. In either case 
I am not blamable, as I have done the best my circumstances 
allowed in collecting materials for the work. 

Should my humble attempts at writing the history of my 
country meet with good acceptance among my fellow citizens I 
shall continue to collect, from all quarters, the materials for the 
work herein recommended, as a desideratum in the literature of 
our country. 

As aids in this work I earnestly invite communication from 
all those gentlemen who possess a knowledge of occurrences 
which took place during our Indian war, and not narrated in 
this work. I am particularly anxious to obtain the history of the 
settlement of the Dunkards, on Dunkard creek, and the Dunkard 
bottom of Cheat river. 

Joseph Doddridge. 

Wellsburg, June 17, 1824. 


For some years past I have had it in view to write the 
Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars of the western parts of 
Virginia and Pennsylvania, which are now presented to the 
public. At times I was deterred from commencing the work by 
an apprehension of my inability to execute a task of so much 
labor and difficulty : a labor, not of compilation, as most histories 
are, but consisting mainly of original composition from memory 
of events which took place when I was quite young. 

Encouraged, however, by the often repeated solicitations of 
those whose friendship I esteem, and whose good opinion I 
respect, I concluded that, as with my forefathers I had toiled 
amongst the pioneers of our country in " turning the wilderness 
into fruitful fields," I would venture to act in the same character, 
as an historian of that part of the western country with which 
I am best acquainted, and whose early history has never yet, to 
any extent, been committed to record, in hopes that having saved 
the principal materials of this history from oblivion, some abler 
hand may hereafter improve upon the work, by giving it any 
enlargement, different arrangement, or embellishment of style, 
which it may be thought to require. 

Many considerations present themselves to the generous and 
enlightened mind of the native of the west, to induce him to 
regard a work of this kind as a sacred duty to his country and 
his ancestors, on the part of him who undertakes to execute it, 
rather than a trial of literary skill, a toil for literary fame, or a 
means of procuring gain. 

Something is certainly due to the memory of our brave fore- 
fathers, who, with but little aid from the colonial governments 
before the revolutionary war, and with still less assistance from 
the confederation, after the declaration of independence, subdued 
the forest by their persevering labor, and defended their infant 
country by their voluntary and unrequited military service 
against the murderous warfare of their savage enemies. 


12 Early Settlement and Indian Wars. 

The extensive catacombs of ancient Greece and Palestine, 
the pyramids of Egypt, and even the rude sepulchral monuments 
of our own country, serve to show the sacred regard of genera- 
tions of remote antiquity for the remains of the illustrious dead. 
This pious regard for the ashes of ancestors is not without its 
useful influence on the morals and piety of their descendants. 
The lettered stone and sculptured monument contain the most 
impressive lessons of biography, because the mournful remains 
of the subjects of those lessons are so near at hand, when they 
are presented to us on the sepulchres where their ashes repose. 

Is the memory of our forefathers unworthy of historic or 
sepulchral commemoration? No people on. earth, in similar cir- 
cumstances, ever acted more nobly or more bravely than they 
did. No people of any country, or age, ever made greater sacri- 
fices for the benefit of posterity than those which were made by 
the first settlers of the western regions. What people ever left 
such noble legacies to posterity as those transmitted by our fore- 
fathers to their descendants ? A wilderness changed into a fruit- 
ful country, and a government the best on earth. They have 
borne the burden and heat of the day of trial. They have re- 
moved every obstacle from our path, and left every laudable 
object of ambition within our reach. 

Where shall we now find the remains of the valiant pioneers 
of our country, so deserving the grateful remembrance of their 
descendants ? Alas ! many of them, for want of public burying 
grounds, were buried on their own farms, which their labor had 
ravished from the desert. The land has passed to other hands, 
and the fragile wooden enclosures which once surrounded their 
graves have fallen to decay, and never to be replaced. The 
swells which once designated the precise spot of their interment 
have sunk to the common level of the earth. In many instances 
the earthy covering of their narrow houses will, if they have 
not already, be violated with the plow-share, and the grain grow- 
ing over them will fill the reaper's sickle, or the grass the mower's 
scythe. Ungrateful descendants of a brave and worthy people 

Preface. 13 

to whom you owe your existence, your country and your liberty, 
is it thus you treat with utter neglect the poor remains of your 
ancestors ? 

In how many instances has the memory of far less moral 
worth than the amount possessed by many of the fathers of our 
western country, occupied the chisel of the sculptor, the song of 
the poet, and the pen of the historian ; while the gloomy shade 
of impenetrable oblivion is rapidly settling over the whole history, 
as well as the remains, of the fathers of our country. 

Should any one say " no matter what becomes of the 
names, or remains of these people," it is answered, if such be 
your insensibility to the calls of duty, with regard to the memory 
of your ancestors, it is not likely that your name will, or ought 
to, live beyond the grave. You may die rich; but wealth will be 
your all. Those worthy deeds which spring from the better, the 
generous feelings of our nature, can never be yours; but must 
the well earned fame of the benefactors of our country perish as 
quickly as a prodigal offspring may dissipate your ill gotten 
estates? No! This would be an act of injustice to the world. 
They lived, toiled and suffered for others; you, on the contrary, 
live for yourself alone. Their example ought to live, because it 
is worthy of imitation ; yours, on the contrary, as an example of 
sordid avarice, ought to perish forever. 

The history of nation origin has been held sacred among all 
enlightened nations, and indeed has often been pursued beyond 
the period of the commencement of history far into the regions 
of fable. Among the Greeks the founders of their nation and 
the inventors of useful arts were ranked among the gods, and 
honored with anniversary rites of a divine character. The 
Romans, whose origin was more recent and better known, were 
not slow in recording the illustrious deeds of the founders of 
their empire, and bestowing anniversary honors upon their mem- 
ory. The benefits of the histories of those illustrious nations 
were not confined to themselves alone. They gave light to the 
world. Had they never existed what an immense deduction 

14 Early Settlement and Indian Wars. 

would have been made from the literary world. The fabulous 
era would have been drawn nearer to us by at least two thousand 

National history is all important to national patriotism, as 
it places before us the best examples of our forefathers. We 
see the wisdom of their councils, their perseverance in action, 
their sufferings, their bravery in war, and the great and useful 
results of their united wisdom and labors. We see in succession 
every act of the great drama which led us from infancy to matur- 
ity, from war to peace, and from poverty to wealth, and in pro- 
portion as we are interested in the results of this drama we value 
the examples which it furnishes. Even the faults which it 
exhibits are not without their use. 

History gives a classic character to the places to which it 
relates, and confers upon them a romantic value as scenes of 
national achievements. What would be the value of the famous 
city of Jerusalem were it not for the sacred history of the place? 
It is a place of no local importance in any respect whatever. 
Palestine itself, so famous in history, is but a small tract of 
country, and for the most part poor and hilly. The classic char- 
acter of Greece and Rome has given more or less importance to 
almost every mountain, hill and valley, lake and island, which 
they contain, on account of their having been the places of some 
great achievements, or of their having given birth to illustrious 
personages. Classic scenes, as well as classic monuments and 
persons, constitute am impressive part of national history, and 
they contribute much to the patriotism of the nation to which 
they belong. 

If the Greeks should succeed in their present contest with 
the Turks, their liberty will be justly attributable, in a great 
degree, to the potent efficacy of the history of their ancestors. 
This history may produce another Leonidas, Epaminondas, Ly- 
curgus, Sophocles, Timon and Demosthenes, to rival the mighty 
deeds of their forefathers, and establish a second time the in- 
dependence of their native country. 

Preface. 15 

The history of our own country ought to furnish the first 
lessons of reading for our children, but unfortunately most of 
them are too large for school books. The selections in common 
use for schools are mostly foreign productions. They are good 
in themselves ; but better adapted to mature age than youth, 
because the historical facts to which they allude have reference 
to times, places and persons of which they have no knowledge, 
and therefore must be read by our children without an under- 
standing of their contents. This circumstance retards the prog- 
ress of the pupil. This practice ought to be discontinued ; our 
youth ought first to be presented with the history of their own 
country, and taught to believe it to be of greater importance to 
their future welfare than that of any other nation or country 

The notes now presented to the public embrace no very great 
extent of our country," nor do they detail the events of many 
years, yet the labor of collecting and arranging them was con- 
siderable, as there never existed any printed records of the 
greater number of events herein related; or if such did exist, 
they never were within the reach of the author. 

The truth is, from the commencement of the revolutionary 
war until its conclusion, this country and its wars were little 
thought of by the people of the Atlantic states, as they had their 
hand's full of their own share of the war, without attending to 
ours. Far the greater number of our campaigns, scouts, build- 
ings, and defenses of forts were effected without the aid of a 
man, a gun, a bullet, or charge of powder from the general gov- 
ernment. The greater number of our men were many years in 
succession engaged in military service along our frontiers, a 
considerable part of their time from spring till winter, without 
an enlistment by government or a cent of pay. Their officers 
were of their own election. Their services were wholly voluntary, 
and their supplies while in service were furnished by themselves. 
Thus owing to our distant situation, and the heavy pressure of 
the revolutionary war upon the general government, the report 
of the small but severe and destructive conflicts which very 
frequently took place in this country was lost in the thunder of 

16 Early Settlement and Indian Wars; 

the great battles which occurred along our Atlantic border; cam- 
paigns begun and ended without even a newspaper notice ; as a 
printing press was then unknown in the country. 

It was not until after the conclusion of the revolutionary 
war that the general government undertook to finish the Indian 
war, first by placing a cordon of spies, and rangers, and forts, 
along the frontiers, and afterwards by the campaigns of Harmar, 
St. Clair, and Wayne. These latter campaigns are matters of 
history, and need not be repeated here. 

The want of printed documents was not the only difficulty 
the author had to contend with; when he traveled beyond the 
bounds of his own memory he found it extremely difficult to 
procure information from the living concerning the events which 
he wished to relate; in personal interviews with several gentle- 
men extensively concerned in the events of the war, they prom- 
ised to furnish the documents required, but they have not been 
furnished, and he soon found that he had no chance of obtaining 
them but that of writing them from their verbal narrations. 

I do not intend this observation as a reflection on the in- 
tegrity of the gentlemen to whom I allude. They are men who 
are not liberal scholars, and therefore not in the habit of writing 
on historical subjects, so that however vivid their remembrance 
of the transaction in question, when they undertake its narration 
on paper, they never can please themselves, and therefore give 
up the task for fear of public exposure; not knowing that the 
historian will give the facts narrated by incompetent scribes his 
own dress and arrangement. 

In delineating the manners and customs of the early inhabi- 
tants of our country, the author presents to his readers a state 
of society with every advantage afforded by experience to aid 
him in giving its faithful portrait, for it was the state of society 
in which he himself was raised, and passed his early years. 

In this department of history every reader wishes to be told 
not only the truth, but the whole truth. Let the picture of 
human manners be ever so rude, barbarous or even savage, he 
wishes to see it in its full dimensions, and in all its parts. The 
reader, it is hoped, will not complain if the author has introduced 

Preface. 17 

him to the interior of the cabins, the little forts and camps with 
their coarse furniture, which were tenanted by our forefathers. 
The rude accommodations presented to his inspection, in the 
homely visit, will form an agreeable and even a romantic contrast 
to the present state of society in our country. This contrast will 
show him what mighty changes may be effected under an en- 
lightened and free government in the course of a few years ; 
while the worst states of society in other regions of the world 
have remained the same from time immemorial, owing to the 
influence of that despotism which regards any change of the 
manners or the conditions of society as criminal, and therefore 
prevents them by the severest penalties, because ignorance and 
poverty are favorable to the perpetuity of that slavery, on the 
part of the common people, which is essential to its existence. 

In the whole of these Notes the author has given the English 
names, alone, to our plants, birds and beasts. Men of science 
may apply the Linnean names if they choose ; the mere English 
reader can do better without them. 

Thus, reader, the author has brought his work to a conclu- 
sion. He has faithfully endeavored to fill up the little chasm 
which existed in the history of our country. He can only answer 
for a good intention, and a strict regard to truth in all his narra- 
tions.; for all its results to his country, and himself personally, 
he most willingly submits to the imperial court of public opinion, 
from whose awful decisions there is no appeal ; without invoking 
that justice which, whether asked or unasked, the work will be 
sure to receive. 



Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 


State of the Wilderness. 

To a person who has witnessed all the changes which have 
taken place in the western country, since its first settlement, its 
former- appearance is like a dream, or romance. He will find it 
difficult to realize the features of that wilderness which was the 
abode of his infant days. The little cabin of his father no longer 
exists: the little field and truck patch, which gave him a scanty 
supply of coarse bread and vegetables, have been swallowed up 
in the extended meadow, orchard, or grain field. The rude fort, 
in which his people had resided so many painful summers, has 
vanished, and " Like the baseless fabric of a vision left not a 
wreck behind." Large farms, with splendid mansion houses and 
well filled barns, hamlets, villages, and even cities, now occupy 
the scenes of his youthful sports, hunting or military excursions. 
In the place of forest trees or hawthorn bushes he sees the 
awful forum of justice, or the sacred temple with its glittering 
spire pointing to the heavens; and instead of the war whoop of 
savages or the howling of wolves he hears the swelling anthem 
or pealing organ. 

Every where surrounded by the busy hum of men, and the 
splendor, arts, refinements and comforts of civilized life, his 
former state and that of his country have vanished from his 
memory ; or, if sometimes he bestows a reflection on its original 
aspect, the mind seems to be carried back to a period of time 
much more remote than it really is. The immense changes which 
have taken place in the physical and moral state of the country 


20 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

have been gradual, and, therefore, scarcely perceived from year 
to year ; but the view, from one extreme to the other, is like the 
prospect of the opposite shore, over a vast expanse of water, 
whose hills, valleys, mountains and forests present a confused 
and romantic scenery, which loses itself in the distant horizon. 

One advantage, at least, results from having lived in a state 
of society ever on the change, and always for the better, it 
doubles the retrospect of life. With me, at any rate, it has had 
that effect. Did not the definite number of my years teach me 
the contrary, I should think myself at least one hundred years 
old, instead of fifty. The case is said to be widely different with 
those who have passed their lives in cities, or ancient settlements, 
where, from year to year, the same unchanging aspect of things 
presents itself. There life passes away as an illusion, or dream, 
having been presented with no striking events, or great and im- 
portant changes, to mark its different periods, and give them an 
imaginary distance from each other, and it ends with a bitter 
complaint of its shortness. It must be my own fault if I shall 
ever have occasion to make this complaint. I do not recollect 
to have ever heard it made by any of my contemporary country- 
men, whose deaths I have witnessed. 

A wilderness of great extent, presenting the virgin face of 
nature, unchanged by human cultivation or art, is certainly one 
of the most sublime terrestrial objects which the Creator ever 
presented to the view of man ; but those portions of the earth 
which bear this character derive their features of sublimity from 
very different aspects. The great deserts of Africa wear an im- 
posing aspect, even on account of their utter barrenness of vege- 
tation, where no tree affords fruit, or shelter from the burning 
heat of the day, no bird is heard to sing, and no flower expands 
its leaves to the sun, as well as from their immense extent. 

In the steppes of Russia, the oriental plain of Tartary, the 
traveler, did not his reason correct the illusion of his senses, at 
the rising and setting of the sun, would imagine himself in the 
midst of a boundless ocean, so vast, so level and monotonous is 
the prospect around him. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 21 

What must be the awful sublimity of the immense regions 
of polar solitude, where the distant sun reflects his dazzling rays 
from plains of snow, and mountains of ice, but without warming. 

The valley of the Mississippi, whose eastern and western 
boundaries are the Alleghany and Rocky Mountains, the northern 
chain of lakes which separate us from Canada, and the southern, 
the gulf of Florida, in addition to the imposing grandeur of its 
vast extent, is an immense region of animal and vegetable life, 
in all their endless varieties. In all this vast extent of country 
no mountain rears its towering head to vary the scenery, and 
afford a resting place for the clouds, no volcano vomits forth its 
smoke, flame and lava in sublime but destructive grandeur. 
Even those portions of this valley which in ages past were the 
beds of lakes, but have been drained by the sinking of the rivers, 
present a rich vegetable mould. 1 

This great country seems to have been designed by Divine 
Providence for the last resort of oppressed humanity. A fruitful 
soil, under a variety of climates, supplies abundantly all the 
wants of life, while our geographical situation renders us uncon- 
querable. From this place of refuge we may hear, as harmless 
thunder, the military convulsions of other quarters of the globe, 
without feeling their concussions. Vice and folly may conquer 
us : the world never can. Happy region ! large and fertile 
enough for the abode of many millions. Here the hungry may 
find bread, and conscience the full possession of its native rights. 

i There is every evidence that those tracts of our country which con- 
sist of beds of rounded gravel and stones have formerly been lakes, 
which have been drained by the lowering of the beds of the rivers. These 
tracts of country have been covered with a vegetable mould, from the 
decay of vegetable matters on their surface, so as to have become good land 
for cultivation. Such are the Pickaway and Sandusky plains, and indeed 
the greater part of the Scioto country, as well as many other tracts of land 
along other rivers. The Ohio river has lowered its bed from fifty to eighty 
feet. Steubenville, Beavertown and Cincinnati stand on the first alluvion 
of the river ; this alluvion is at least seventy feet above the present bed of the 
river. This phenomenon of the lowering of the waters is not confined to 
our own country. The former bed of the Red sea is from thirty to forty 
feet above the present surface of its waters. The Black sea is sinking by 
the wearing down of the canal of Constantinople ; and it seems every way 
probable that a considerable portion of the deserts of Africa, next the sea, 
were once covered with the waters of the Atlantic. Large tracts of our 
southern sea coasts are evidently alluvial. The causes of the sinking of the 
beds of rivers, and the recession of the sea form its shores, must be left to 
the investigation of geologists. (D). 

22 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

With the geography and geology of this country I have no 
concern. I leave these subjects to the geographer and natural 
historian. The aspect which it bore at the time of its discovery 
and settlement must alone be presented to the reader. 

One prominent feature of a wilderness is its solitude. Those 
who plunged into the bosom of this forest left behind them 
not only the busy hum of men, but domestic animal life generally. 
The departing rays of the setting sun did not receive the requiem 
of the feathered songsters of the grove, nor was the blushing 
aurora ushered in by the shrill clarion of the domestic fowls. 
The solitude of the night was interrupted only by the howl of 
the wolf, the melancholy moan of the ill-boding owl, or the shriek 
of the frightful panther. Even the faithful dog, the only stead- 
fast companion of man among the brute creation, partook of the 
silence of the desert; the discipline of his master forbid him to 
bark, or move, but in obedience to his command, and his native 
sagacity soon taught him the propriety of obedience to this 
severe government. The day was, if possible, more solitary than 
the night. The noise of the wild turkey, the croaking of the 
raven, or " the woodpecker tapping the hollow beech tree," did 
not much enliven the dreary scene. 

The various tribes of singing birds are not inhabitants of the 
desert; they are not carnivorous and therefore must be fed from 
the labors of man. At any rate they did not exist in this country 
at its first settlement. 

Let the imagination of the reader pursue the track of the 
adventurer into this solitary wilderness. Bending his course 
towards the setting sun, over undulating hills, under the shade of 
large forest trees, and wading through the rank weeds and grass 
which then covered the earth. Now viewing from the top of a 
hill the winding course of the creek whose stream he wishes to 
explore, doubtful of its course, and of his own, he ascertains the 
cardinal points of north and south by the thickness of the moss 
and bark on the north side of the ancient trees. Now descending 
into a valley and presaging his approach to a river by seeing 
large ash, bass-wood and sugar trees, beautifully festooned with 
wild grape vines. Watchful as Argus, his restless eye catches 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 23 

every thing around him. In an unknown region, and surrounded 
with dangers, he is the sentinel of his own safety, and relies on 
himself alone for protection. The toilsome march of the day 
being ended, at the fall of night he seeks for safety some narrow, 
sequestered hollow, and by the side of a large log builds a fire, 
and, after eating his coarse and scanty meal, wraps himself up 
in his blanket, and lays him down on his bed of leaves, with his 
feet to the little fire, for repose, hoping for favorable dreams 
ominous of future good luck, while his faithful dog and gun 
repose by his side. 

But let not the reader suppose that the pilgrim of the wilder- 
ness could feast his imagination with the romantic beauties of 
nature without any drawback from conflicting passions. His 
situation did not afford him much time for contemplation. He 
was an exile from the warm clothing and plentiful mansions of 
society. His homely woodsman's dress soon became old and 
ragged ; the cravings of hunger compelled him to sustain from 
day to day the fatigues of the chase. Often had he to eat his 
venison, bear meat, or wild turkey, without bread or salt. Nor 
was this all ; at every step the strong passions of hope and fear 
were in full exercise. Eager in the pursuit of his game, his too 
much excited imagination sometimes presented him with the 
phantom of the object of his chase in a bush, a log, or mossy 
bank', and occasioned him to waste a load of his ammunition, 
more precious than gold, on a creature of his own brain, and he 
repaid himself the expense by making a joke of his mistake. His 
situation was not without its dangers. He did not know at what 
tread his foot might be stung by a serpent, at what moment he 
might meet with the formidable bear, 1 or, if in the evening, he 

i It is said, that for some time after Braddock's defeat, the bears, hav- 
ing feasted on the stain, thought that they had a right to kill and eat every 
human being with whom they met. An uncle of mine, of the name of Teter. 
had like to have lost his life by one of them. It was in the summer time, 
when bears were poor, and not worth killing; being in the woods, he 
saw an old male bear winding along after him ; with a view to have the 
sport of seeing the bear run, he hid himself behind a tree ; when the bear 
approached him. he sprang out and hallooed at him ; but cuffee, instead of 
running off as he expected, jumped at him with mouth wide open; my 
uncle stopped him by applying the muzzle of his gun to his neck, and firing 
it off ; this killed him in an instant. If his gun had snapped, the hunter 
would have been torn to pieces on the spot. After this, he says he never 
undertook to play with a bear. (D). 

24 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

knew not on what limb of a tree, over his head, the murderous 
panther might be perched, in a squatting attitude, to drop down 
upon and tear him to pieces in a moment. When watching a 
deer lick from his blind at night the formidable panther was 
often his rival in the same business, and if, by his growl, or 
otherwise, the man discovered the presence of his rival, the lord 
of the world always retired as speedily and secretly as possible, 
leaving him the undisturbed possession of the chance of game 
for the night. 

The wilderness was a region of superstition. The adven- 
turous hunter sought for ominous presages of his future good or 
bad luck in every thing about him. Much of his success de- 
pended on the state of the weather; snow and rain were favor- 
able, because in the former he could track his game, and the 
latter prevented them from hearing the rustling of the leaves 
beneath his feet. The appearance of the sky, morning and even- 
ing, gave him the signs of the times with regard to the weather. 
So far he was a philosopher. Perhaps he was aided in his prog- 
nostics on this subject by some old rheumatic pain, which he 
called his weather clock. Say what you please about this, doctors, 
the first settlers of this country were seldom mistaken in this 
latter indication of the weather. The croaking of a raven, the 
howling of a dog, and the screech of an owl, were as prophetic of 
future misfortunes among the first adventurers into this country, 
as they were amongst the ancient pagans ; but above all, their 
dreams were regarded as ominous of good or ill success. Often 
when a boy I heard them relate their dreams, and the events 
which fulfilled their indications. With some of the woodsmen 
there were two girls of their acquaintance, who were regarded 
as the goddesses of their good or bad luck. If they dreamed of 
the one, they were sure of good fortune; if of the other, they 
were equally sure of bad. How much love or aversion might 
have had to do in this case I cannot say, but such was the fact. 

Let not the reader be surprised at the superstition which 
existed among the first adventurers into the western wilderness. 
Superstition is universally associated with ignorance, in all those 
who occupy perilous situations in life. The comets used to be 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 25 

considered harbingers of war. The sea captain nails an old 
horse shoe to the foot of the mast of his ship to prevent storms. 
The Germans used to nail the horse shoe on the door-sill to 
prevent the intrusion of witches. The German soldier recites a 
charm, at the rising of the sun, when in the course of the day 
he expects to be engaged in battle, by the means of which he 
fancies that he fortifies himself against the contact of balls of 
every description. 1 Charms, incantations, and amulets, have con- 
stituted a part of the superstition of all ages and nations. Philos- 
ophy alone can banish their use. 

The passion of fear excited by danger, the parent of super- 
stition, operated powerfully on the first adventurers into this 
country. Exiled from society, and the comforts of life, their 
situation was perilous in the extreme. The bite of a serpent, a 
broken limb, a wound of any kind, or a fit of sickness in the 
wilderness, without those accommodations which wounds and sick- 
ness require, was a dreadful calamity. The bed of sickness with- 
out medical aid, and, above all, to be destitute of the kind atten- 
tion of a mother, sister, wife, or other female friends, those 
ministering angels in the wants and afflictions of man, was a 
situation which could not be anticipated by the tenant of the 
forest with other sentiments than those of the deepest horror. 

Many circumstances concurred to awaken in the mind of the 
early adventurer into this country the most serious and even 
melancholy reflections. He saw everywhere around him indubit- 
able evidences of the former existence of a large population of 
barbarians, which had long ago perished from the earth. Their 
arrow heads furnished him with gun flints ; stone hatchets, pipes, 
and fragments of earthen ware, were found in every place. The 
remains of their rude fortifications were met with in many 
places, and some of them of considerable extent and magnitude. 
Seated on the summit of some sepulchral mound containing the 
ashes of tens of thousands of the dead, he said to himself: 
" This is the grave, and this, no doubt, the temple of worship of 

i Many years ago I saw a manuscript of this wonderful charm, but 
have so forgotten its contents that I cannot now undertake to give a trans- 
lation of it. (D) 

26 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

a long succession of generations long since mouldered into dust ; 
these surrounding valleys were once animated by their labors, 
hunting and wars, their songs and dances ; but oblivion has drawn 
her impenetrable veil over their whole history; no lettered page, 
no sculptured monument informs who they were, from whence 
they came, the period of their existence, or by what dreadful 
catastrophe the iron hand of death has given them so complete an 
overthrow, and made the whole of this country an immense Gol- 

Such, reader, was the aspect of this country at its first dis- 
covery, and such the poor and hazardous lot of the first adven- 
turers into the bosoms of its forests. How widely different is 
the aspect of things now, and how changed for the better the 
condition of its inhabitants! If such important changes have 
taken place in so few years, and with such slender means, what 
immense improvements may we not reasonably anticipate for the 
future ! 

Remains of an Extinct People. 

The western country, in common with almost every other 
region of the earth, exhibits evidences of a numerous population 
which must have existed and perished long anterior to the period 
of history. The evidences of the most remote population of our 
country are found only in the few and rude remains of their 
works which have escaped the ravages of time. Such of these 
antiquities as have come under the notice of the author shall be 
described with some remarks upon them. 

Arrow heads, at the first settlement of the country, were 
found everywhere. These were made of flint stone of various 
sizes and colors, and shaped with great art and neatness. Their 
fabrication required more skill and labor than that of making 
our ordinary gun flints. From the great numbers of these arrow 
points, found all over the country, it is presumable that they 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 27 

must have been in general use, by a large population, and for a 
great length of time. The author has never been informed 
whether, at the discovery and settlement of America by the 
Europeans, the Indians were in the habit of using them. Some 
of these arrow points were of great size and weight, so that those 
who used them must have been gigantic fellows, and of great 
muscular strength. For a long time after the settlement of the 
country the Indian arrow heads furnished the main supply of 
gun-flints for our hunters and warriors, many of whom preferred 
them to the imported flints. The arrow points have nearly van- 
ished from the country. I have not seen one for many years. 

Stone pipes and hatchets were frequently found here in early 
times. The pipes were rudely made, but many of them of very 
fanciful shapes. The existence of these pipes shows very clearly 
that the practice of smoking acrid substances is of great antiquity. 
Before the use of tobacco, the Indians smoked the inner bark of 
the red willow mixed with sumac leaves. They do so still, when 
they cannot procure tobacco. 

Some fragments of a rude kind of earthen ware were found 
in some places. It was made of potter's-earth mixed with calcined 
shells, and burnt to a proper hardness. This ware was no doubt 
used for cooking. 

Some rude trinkets of copper have been found in some of 
the Indian graves. These, however, were but few in number, and 
exhibited no skill in the art of working metals. Many years ago 
I procured ten copper beads, which were found in one of the 
smaller graves on Grave-creek -flat. The whole number found at 
the time was about sixty. They appeared to have been made of 
hammered wire, cut off at unequal lengths, and in some of them 
the ends were not more than half their surface in contact, and 
so soldered. 

The ancient forts, as they are called, are generally formed in 
the neighborhood of the large graves along the river, and mostly 
on the first alluvion of their bottoms. They are of all shapes and 
various dimensions. They have been so often described by dif- 
ferent authors that a description of them is not necessary here. 
Whether they were really fortifications, or ordinary inclosures of 

28 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

their towns, is not so certain. It is said to be a common practice 
among the Indians of Missouri to inclose a piece of ground, which 
they intend for a town, with stockades, on each side of which they 
throw up a mound of earth, and that, when one of their towns 
has been so long deserted that the stockading has rotted down, 
the remaining mound of earth has precisely the same appearance 
as one of the ancient forts. If this was their origin, and most 
probably it was, they were fortifications in the same degree that 
the walls of all ancient towns and cities were, and not otherwise. 
The circular mounds at Circleville, in Ohio, are the only ones I 
have ever seen, which appear to have been exclusively intended 
for a fortress. 

The sepulchral mounds make by far the greatest figure among 
the antiquities of our country. In point of magnitude some of 
them are truly sublime and imposing monuments of human labor 
for the burial of the dead. 

The large grave, on Grave-creek flat, is the only large one in 
this section of the country. 1 The diameter of its base is said to 
be one hundred yards, its altitude at least seventy-five feet, some 
give it at ninety feet. The diameter at the top is fifteen yards. 
The sides and top of the mound are covered with trees, of all 
sizes and ages, intermingled with fallen and decaying timber, like 
the surrounding woods. Supposing this august pyramid to contain 
human bones, in equal proportion with the lesser mounds which 
have been opened from time to time, what myriads of human 
beings must repose in its vast dimensions. 2 

The present owner of this mound, the author has been in- 
formed, has expressed his determination to preserve it in its 
original state during his life. He will not suffer the axe to violate 
its timber, nor the mattocks its earth. May his successors to the 

i Mr. A. B. Tomlinson opened this Grave Creek mound in 1888. (See 
"Foster's Prehistoric Races," page 190.) 

2 President Jefferson mentions having made a perpendicular cut through 
an Indian grave on the river Rivanna, near Monticello, with a view to 
examine its internal structure and contents. The base of the grave was 
forty feet in diameter, its height seven feet and a half. After a careful 
examination of the bones contained in the sepulchre, he concluded that it 
might contain one thousand skeletons. Supposing this estimate correct, what 
must be the number of skeletons contained in the great pyramid of Grave 
creek? Those who are curious enough to make the calculation are requested 
to do so. and give the result. — Notes on Virginia, p. 131. (D) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 29 

title of the estate forever feel the same pious regard for this 
august mansion of the dead, and preserve the venerable monu- 
ment of antiquity from that destruction which has already anni- 
hilated, or defaced, a large number of the lesser depositories of 
the dead. 

Most of the writers on the antiquities of our country repre- 
sent the sepulchral mounds under consideration as peculiar to 
America. Were such the fact, they would be objects of great 
curiosity indeed ; as their belonging exclusively to this quarter of 
the globe would go to show that the aborigines of America were 
different from all other nations of the earth, at least in their 
manner of disposing of their dead. 

But the fact is not so. The history of these ancient 
sepulchres of the dead embraces Europe, Asia and Africa, as 
well as North and South America. Large groups of those mounds 
are met with in many places between St. Petersburgh and Mos- 
cow in Russia. When the people of that country are asked if 
they have any tradition concerning them they answer in the 
negative. They suppose that they are the graves of men slain 
in battle; but when, or by whom constructed, they have no 
knowledge. Near the mouth of the river Don there is a group 
of five mounds which from time immemorial have been de- 
nominated The Five Brothers. Similar mounds are very num- 
erous along the shores of the Black sea, and those of the sea of 
Azof, and throughout the whole country of the Crimea. They 
are found throughout ancient Greece. In the neighborhood of 
ancient Troy there are several of them nearly as large as any 
in America. The mound described by Robbins, in the vicinity of 
Wadinoon in Africa, is certainly an ancient sepulchral mound 
although he a natural one. 1 

This is more probable as the remains of fortifications or 
town-walls, similar to those in our country, exist in abundance 
in the neighborhood of Wadinoon. On the hills near Cambridge 
in England are shown two large barrows as the tombs of Gog 
and Magog. The cairns of Scotland are structures of the same 

i For description see " Robbins' Journal," page 220. 

30 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

kind, but made wholly of stone. Peru and Mexico contain a 
vast number of those mounds of all shapes and of the largest 
dimensions. Lastly, the famous pyramids of Egypt have been 
ascertained to be sepulchral edifices. In all probability they are 
coeval with the sepulchral monuments of other quarters of the 
globe already mentioned. They were designed for the last and 
permanent exhibition of the regal grandeur of those monarchs 
by whom they were successively erected. 

The great number and' magnitude of the sepulchral monu- 
ments of antiquity serve to show that during the time of their 
erection, over so large a portion of the earth, mankind generally 
must have been actuated by a strong desire to preserve the remains 
of the dead from dissolution, and their names and renown, as 
far as possible, from oblivion. The extensive catacombs of 
Egypt, Syracuse and Palestine, are fully illustrative of the general 
wish for the preservation of the body after death, and post- 
humous fame. What must have been the labor and expense of 
excavating limestone or marble rocks to such vast extent and with 
such exquisite workmanship for the purpose of furnishing ele- 
gant and imperishable recesses for the dead. 

The ancient Egyptians held the first rank, among the nations 
of antiquity, in their care and skill for preserving the remains of 
their dead. 1 To the most splendid and extensive catacombs they 
added the practice of embalming their bodies; many of which 
have so far escaped the ravages of time. These embalmed bodies, 
preserved from putrefaction by serates and bandages of linen, 
are still found, sometimes in solitary cells, and sometimes in 
large numbers, in newly discovered catacombs; but for want of 
letters, their early history has vanished forever. 

i Upwards of twenty years ago the author saw a hand and part of the 
arm of an Egyptian mummy in the Franklin library of Philadelphia. It 
was covered with two bandages of what is called six hundred linen. Be- 
tween the skin and the first bandage there was a layer of plaster of some 
kind of gum, and the same between the first and outer bandage. The thumb 
and fingers were separately, and very neatly, bandaged. It was, in size and 
appearance, the left hand of a small woman. This relic of antiquity is no 
doubt several thousand years old. (D) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 31 

While the ancient Egyptians skillfully preserved the indi- 
vidual bodies of their dead, other nations were in the practice of 
collecting the bones of their people and depositing them in 
sepulchral monuments of a national character. 

Nearly all the sepulchral mounds which have been thoroughly 
opened, in Asia and America, contain, about the center of the 
bottom, a coffin, of vault of stone, containing but one skeleton. 
This, we may reasonably suppose, was the sarcophagus of the 
patriarch, or first monarch of the tribe or nation to which the 
sepulchre belonged. Thenceforward all his people were deposited 
in the grave of the founder of the nation. In process of time, 
the daily increasing mound became the national history. Its age 
was the age of the nation, and its magnitude gave the census of 
their relative numbers, and military force, with regard to other 
nations about them. What a sublime spectacle to the people to 
whom it belonged must one of those large sepulchres have been ! 
The remains of the first chief of the nation, with his people, and 
their successors, through many generations, reposing together in 
the same tomb ! 

It is a well known fact that some nations of Indians, ever 
since the settlement of America by the Europeans, have been in 
the habit of collecting the bones of their dead, from every quarter, 
for the purpose of depositing them, with those of their people, 
at their chief towns. This must have been the general practice 
during the time of the erection of the large ancient graves of our 
country ; for the bones found in those of them which have been 
opened have been thrown promiscuously together in large col- 
lections, as if emptied out of baskets or bags. 

Besides the large graves, smaller ones are found in many 
places, remote from the large mounds and all traces of the 
ancient forts. Most of these are made wholly of stone, and for 
the most part contain but a single skeleton. Were these solitary 
mounds erected to the memory of the individual whose remains 
they cover ? Such appears to have been the fact. That a similar 
custom prevailed among the ancient Hebrews, we have an evi- 
dence in the burial of Absalom, the rebellious son of David, who, 
although unworthy of a place in the royal sepulchre, was never- 

32 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

theless honored with such a rude monument of stones as we 
often meet with in our country. After he was slain by Joab, the 
commander-in-chief of his father's army, " They took Absalom 
and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and cast a very great 
heap of stones upon him." 

From all these facts it appears that the strong desire of 
posthumous fame induced those nations, amongst whom the art 
of writing was unknown, to preserve the remembrances of their 
chiefs, or friends, by erecting over their dead bodies a heap of 
earth, or a pile of stones, as well as to make the congregated 
dead of many generations a national monument and a national 

Nearly all the sepulchral mounds which have been opened in 
Asia and America have been found to contain more or less char- 
coal and calcined bones. From this fact it appears that those 
ancient tombs were altars for sacrifice. The early histories of 
the Greeks and Romans inform us that it was customary to offer 
sacrifices on the tombs of heroes slain in battle, with the revolting 
fact that the victims offered on those sepulchral altars were often 
the prisoners taken in war. 

Islanders, surrounded by a great extent of ocean, and thereby 
precluded from emigrations, are less liable to change their lan- 
guages, manners and customs, than the inhabitants of continents. 
Hence those of the Society islands of the South sea, and those 
of the Sandwich islands of the Pacific, still continue the ancient 
practice of depositing the bones of their dead in mounds, or as 
they call them morai ; and these morai are their temples, on the 
tops of which their idols are placed for worship. The truth is, 
these mounds were the high places of the pagan nations, men- 
tioned in the Old Testament, and among these we may safely 
reckon the famous tower of Babel. 

It was on the top of one those mounds, in the island of 
Owhyhee, that Capt. Cook, wrapped up in three hundred ells of 
Indian cloth, and mounted on a scaffold of rotten railing, was 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 33 

worshipped as a god, under the name of Oranoo ; but while re- 
ceiving the devotions of the islanders he was every moment afraid 
of tumbling down and breaking his neck. 1 

Having given the history of the ancient sepulchral mounds, 
as they exist in every quarter of the globe, two questions only 
remain for discussion : At what period of the world were they 
erected, and whether by a barbarous or civilized people? 

The great antiquity of the monuments in question may be 
ascertained by many facts which cannot fail to strike the notice 
of an attentive observer of the relics of antiquity. In America, 
as far as the author knows, none of the large mounds are found 
on the first or lower bottoms of our rivers, but always on the 
second or highest alluvion; and such is their situation in Asia 
and Europe. None of them are to be seen on those tracts of 
country which were the beds of lakes or inland seas, such as the 
great oriental plain of Tartary, a great part of which was formerly 
covered by the waters of the Black and Caspian seas, and those 
of the sea of Azof, but which have been drained off by the break- 
ing down of the Thracian Bosphorus, which formed the canal of 
Constantinople; but they are found in abundance along the 
higher grounds of the southern and western shores of those 
seas, and in the neighboring country of Crim Tartary. The gain 
of the land upon the waters of our globe has been immensely 
great; but this gain has been but slowly made. The very sites 
of our ancient tombs give a very remote antiquity for the period 
of their erection. Their situations, mainly along the large rivers 
and on the shores of lakes, announce the primeval state of 
nations. As the spoils of the water are more easily obtained 
than those of the forest, and these last more easily than the pro- 
ductions of the earth, the first employment of man must have been 
that of fishing, and his first food the productions of the waters. 

These mounds and forts are not found in any great numbers 
along the shores of the main oceans. This circumstance goes to 
show that those by whom they were made were not in the prac- 

i For a particular description of the antiquities of our country, the 
reader is referred to the ingenious notes of Caleb Atwater, Esq., of Circle- 
ville, lately published in the Archaeological Americana. (D) 

34 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

tice of navigating the great seas. That their existence is of higher 
antiquity than the commencement of the period of history is evi- 
dent from the fact that none of them contain a single inscription 
of any kind. Even the famous pyramids of Egypt do not contain 
a single letter or hieroglyphic to announce the time when, or 
the persons by whom, they were erected. If letters had been in 
use at the time of the building of those stupendous repositories 
of departed grandeur they would doubtless have been used to 
announce the names and honor of those who erected them for 
sepulchral and imperishable monuments of their own power, 
wealth and majesty. 

Another evidence of the great age of these rude remains of 
antiquity is this ; there exists nowhere even a traditionary account 
of their origin. At the earliest period of the Grecian history 
they were supposed, but only supposed, to be the graves of giants. 
After what lapse of time does tradition degenerate into fable? 
At what period of time does fable itself wear out, and consign 
all antiquity to a total and acknowledged oblivion? All this has 
happened with regard to the antiquities under consideration. 

From all these considerations, it appears that any inquiry 
concerning the history of the antiquities of our country would 
be a fruitless research. " Close shut those graves, nor tell a 
single tale," concerning the numerous population whose relics 
they enclose. 

The antiquities of our country do not present to the mind of 
the author the slightest evidences that this quarter of the world 
was ever inhabited by a civilized people before it was discovered 
by the Europeans. They present no traces of the art of building, 
sculpture or painting ; not a stone marked with a hammer is any- 
where to be found. It is supposed, by some, that the aborigines 
of this country were in the habit of using iron tools and imple- 
ments of war; that such was the fact appears to me very doubt- 
ful. There can exist no specimens of iron coeval with the 
antiquities of this country, as iron, in almost any situation, is 
liable to rust and pass to its primitive state of ore. At the dis- 
covery of America the Indians knew nothing of the use of iron. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 35 

Any people who have ever been in the habit of using iron will be 
sure to leave some indelible traces of its use behind them; but 
the aborigines of this country have left none. 

Barbarians, in many instances, have possessed, and do still 
possess, the art of writing; but it is not to be presumed that a 
civilized people ever were destitute of that art. The original in- 
habitants of this country possessed it not, or they would certainly 
have left some traces of it behind them. 

If they possessed some trinkets of copper, silver, gold, or 
even tools and military weapons of iron, they nevertheless furnish 
no evidences of civilization, as all history goes to show that the 
ornamental or military use of these metals is consistent with the 
grossest barbarism. The Calmuc Tartars have their gold and 
silversmiths ; and yet what people on earth are more barbarous 
than the Calmucs. The same may be said of the Circassians ; 
they have an abundance of gold and silver ornaments ; yet they 
are savages. Copper may have found its way to this country 
from Peru, a country in which that metal is abundant; a few 
gold and silver coins, if such have been found in our country, 
may have come from Asia, or even Europe ; but they certainly 
were never manufactured here. 

If at the period of time herein alluded to there was anything 
like civilization in the world, it was exclusively confined to Egypt, 
and the islands in the neighborhood of that country. The pyra- 
mids of Egypt, and the queen's palace in the island of Cyprus, 
are built of hewn stone; but piling up huge stones, in useless 
edifices, by the hands of slaves, is no great evidence of civiliza- 
tion. In fact the edifices themselves, although they manifest a 
degree of mechanical skill, and the use of iron tools, are evidences 
of the grossest barbarism on the part of those by whose orders 
they were built. It was exhausting the lives and resources of a 
nation in useless monuments, not of national grandeur, but solely 
for that of the individual monarch. 

It is not worth while to amuse ourselves with the fanci- 
ful creations of a vivid imagination unsupported by facts. The 
evidences of science and civilization are not furnished by the 
antiquities of our country, and in vain, beyond the period of 

36 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

history, do we look for them in any other region of the earth. 
By what events could the monuments of arts, sciences and civili- 
zation, have been utterly destroyed? Storms, earthquakes, vol- 
canoes, and- war, destructive as they are, are not sufficiently so to 
efface them. The shores of our rivers and lakes have been in- 
habited by a race of barbarians, who have subsisted by hunting 
and fishing. They have left us their forts or town walls, and 
their graves, and but little else. If they had left behind them any 
monuments of arts and sciences, they in like manner would have 
descended to us ; but nothing of the kind has come to our hands. 
They were not, therefore, possessed of those arts and sciences 
which are essential to a civilized state of society. It is often 
asked whether those people, who have left behind them the 
antiquities of our country, were the ancestors of the present 
Indians? Unquestionably they were; and, reader, their cotem- 
poraries of Europe and Asia were your ancestors and they were 
mine. Humiliating as this statement may seem, it must be true; 
otherwise there must have been two creations of the human race, 
and this we have no reason to suppose. 

Perhaps the moral philosopher might say with truth, that the 
intellectual faculties of man, on a general scale, like those of the 
individual, have been doomed to pass through a tedious infancy, 
nonage and youth, before they shall reach the zenith of manhood. 
However rude, and indicative of barbarism, the antiquities which 
those remote generations have left behind them, their relation to 
us, as ancestors, is no way dishonorable to us. It is only saying 
that theirs was the infant state of the intellectual faculties of 
man. What were the intellectual faculties of Sir Isaac Newton 
in his infancy, and nonage, in comparison to the state of their 
full development, when he not only grasped the dimensions of 
our globe, but, in the science of astronomy, whirled in triumph 
through the signs of heaven? Yet it is no way dishonorable to 
this prince of philosophers that he was once an infant and a boy. 

It may be asked, by what events has all remembrance of 
those remote generations been so far effaced that even the fabu- 
lous era of the world has left them in total and acknowledged 
oblivion ? Here we are truly in the dark. One-third of the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 37 

period of time assigned for the duration of the world passed 
away before the dreadful catastrophe of the flood, " When all 
fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of 
heaven were opened, and rain was upon the earth forty days and 
forty nights." 

To this it may be objected, even by the believer, that in all 
probability this flood did not extend to every region of the globe, 
but might have been confined to that part of it which was 
known to the writer of the sacred history. This point cannot be 
easily settled ; but admitting that such was the fact ; and admitting 
for the moment all the objections of that too fashionable philos- 
ophy which rejects the authenticity of Divine revelation alto- 
gether, what would be the result? Would the limitation of the 
extent of the history of this destruction, on the one hand, or 
the total denial of its authenticity on the other hand, have any 
bearing on the physical evidences of the mighty revolutions which 
have taken place on our globe? The natural history of those 
revolutions is exhibited, and its awful import cannot be mistaken. 
The philosopher sees all over the surface of the earth, and even 
within its bowels, the spoils of the ocean. All fossil coal, he says, 
was vegetable matter. If so, by what tremendous convulsions 
have such immense quantities of vegetable matters been buried, 
over, so great a portion of the globe, and at such depths below 
its surface? All limestone, marble and selenite, he says, have 
been formed from the shells of the numerous tribes of shell fish, 
because, like those shells, they are carbonates of lime ; and yet 
there is no description of stone more abundant than the carbon- 
ates of lime. If this be correct, what must be the age of the 
world, and what destructive revolutions must have rent and 
changed the position of its component parts in every quarter ! 

Yet it seems every way probable that those destructive con- 
vulsions which have been occasioned by floods, earthquakes and 
subterranean fires, never took place over the whole extent of the 
globe at any time; but have affected different regions in succes- 
sion so that, however great the destruction of animated nature at 
any one of those tremendous revolutions, the greater amount of 
it still remained in other regions. 

38 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

After having passed in review the antiquities of our country, 
particularly the melancholy monuments of the ancient dead, what 
have we gained? Simply this, that the generations of remote 
antiquity were everywhere the same, at least in their reverence 
for the dead, whose monuments constitute almost the only history 
which they have left behind them ; and that, for want of letters, 
and other testimonials of arts and sciences, we are warranted in 
saying that their state of society must have been that which we 
denominate the barbarous; yet their history, rude as it is, is 
entitled to respect. They were no doubt the antediluvian race: 
they were the primeval fathers of mankind, the immediate pro- 
genitors of our race, to whom the munificent creator gave 
dominion over the " fish of the sea, the fowl of the air, and every 
living thing that moveth upon the earth." From them we have 
inherited our existence and our charter to this possession of the 
world. Even the barbarous state of society is entitled to respect ; 
for barbarism has its virtues. 

Much as the physical happiness of man has been augmented 
by civilization, how far has his moral state received improvement 
from the augmentation of his science and civilization ? Have they 
made his heart the better? Have they taught him the noble 
philanthropy of the good Samaritan? Or has he only ex- 
changed the ferocity of the savage for the cunning of the 
sharper? Are the vices of our nature diminished in force, or 
are they only varnished like a whited sepulchre and placed 
under concealment, so as to obtain their objects with greater 
effect and on a broader scale? Have the political institutions of 
the world become sources of freedom, peace and good will to the 
people? Let the boasted region of our forefathers, enlightened 
Europe, answer the inquiry. There legal contributions, insupport- 
able in their amount, induce all the miseries of pauperism ; royal 
ambition presents its millions of subjects to the deadly machinery 
of modern warfare ; but are the valiant dead honored with a 
monument of their existence and bravery? No! that insatiable 
avarice which knows nothing sacred makes a traffic of their bones, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 39 

while the groaning engine converts them to powder to furnish 
manure for an unfriendly soil. If this is civilization, pray what 
is barbarism? 

A veneration for antiquity seems to be natural to man ; hence 
we consider as barbarians those who demolish the relics of an- 
tiquity. We justly blame the Turks for burning the fine marble 
columns of ancient Greece into lime; but do we display a juster 
taste, with regard to the only relics with which our country is 
honored ? When those relics shall have disappeared, and nothing 
but their history shall remain, will not future generations pro- 
nounce us barbarians for having demolished them ? Those vener- 
able sepulchral mounds ought to be religiously preserved, and 
even planted with evergreens. They would figure well in our 
grave yards, public squares and public walks ; but what is likely 
to be their fate? If in fields, for the sake of a few additional 
ears of corn, or sheaves of wheat, they are plowed down. If 
within the limits of a town, demolished to afford a site for a 
house, or garden, or to fill up some sunken spot, while the walls 
which inclosed the town or fort of the. ancients are made into 
brick. Such is man ! Such are the enlightened Americans ! 

Origin of the American. Indians. 

Whether the Indians of North and South America, and the 
Tartars of the north-eastern coasts of the Pacific ocean, have 
had a common origin, is an inquiry which has long exercised the 
ingenuity of the statesmen and historians of our country, some 
of whom have derived our aboriginal population from Asia, while 
others of them confer the honor of having given population to 
Asiatic Tartary, to America. 

Resemblance of languages, manners and customs, mode of 
life, religious ceremonies, and color, are regarded as evidences of 
a community of origin. 

40 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Of these tests the first, namely, that of a similarity of lan- 
guages, is considered the most important and conclusive, and 
has therefore received the greatest amount of attention from the 

Dr. Barton, a former professor of medicine in the University 
of Pennsylvania, has given a vocabulary of about fifty cor- 
responding words, of about eighty different languages of the 
North and South American Indians, and about thirty of those 
of the Asiatic Tartars, for the purpose of showing the identity of 
their origin by the resemblance of their languages. 

To the mind of the author of this work, this laborious re- 
search has resulted in nothing very conclusive ; as from the 
specimens given in those vocabularies the resemblance between 
these numerous languages appears as small as can well be imag- 
ined. This want of success in the learned author is not to be 
wondered at: as nothing is more permanent than a written lan- 
guage, so nothing can be more fleeting and changeable than an un- 
written one. 

The languages in question are all of the latter class, that is 
to say, they are all unwritten languages and, of course, constantly 
on the change, so that if they had all originally sprung even from 
the same language, in the lapse of some thousands of years, they 
would no doubt have been as wide of the original, and as different 
from each other, as the various languages of these wandering 
tribes are at present. 

What is the Hebrew language at present? A mere written 
language, and nothing else. Its pronunciation has gone with the 
breath of those who spoke it. Had it not been a written language 
what traces of it would now remain ? Most likely all traces of it, 
by this time, would have been wholly obliterated. Many words 
of it might have remained among the Arabs, Copts and Syrians, 
while the original would have been buried in utter oblivion. 

The present languages of Europe exhibit clearly what im- 
mense changes take place in languages in the lapse of a few 
centuries. The English, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese 
languages, have all sprung from the downfall of the Roman 
empire, and all these languages are composed mainly of the Ian- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 41 

guages of the Roman empire, and the German, that of their 
conquerors ; and yet how different are their languages from each 
other. A man of science can readily trace out their resemblance 
to each other. Not so with the illiterate, to whom they are all 
distinct languages, as much so as they would have been if they 
had no common origin. Had these languages never been written, 
the community of their originals would, in all human probability, 
have been lost sight of long before this time. 

For proof that such would have been the case, let it be 
understood that the English language is made up of Latin and 
German. Take all the words which have been derived from those 
two languages from a page of English, and you will have but a 
few shreds from other languages behind; yet when an English- 
man hears the German spoken, his ear scarcely recognizes a single 
word which bears any resemblance to his own language ; so widely 
different are the pronunciations of these languages although so 
nearly allied to each other. The same observations would hold 
good with regard to the Latin language, did we use the pro- 
nunciation of Cicero and Virgil in reading and speaking it. On 
this subject we may go farther, and suppose all the languages 
above enumerated to have been unwritten from their first forma- 
tion till this date, and now for the first time to be committed to 
writing; out of a dozen scribes, scarcely any two of them would 
spell the same words with the same letters. This difference of 
orthography would still further obliterate the traces of the com- 
munity of the originals of those kindred languages, so far as the 
mere sound is concerned in perpetuating the remembrance of 
their common origins. 

The present German language is cleft into a great variety of 
dialects, so widely different from each other that the peasantry of 
different districts of the German empire do not well understand 
each other. Yet a scholar in that language readily discovers that 
all of those dialects have had a common origin, and by strict 
attention to the varied pronunciation of the diphthongs and triph- 
thongs which in that language are very numerous he can under- 
stand them all. Not so were the language unwritten. 

42 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The present Saxon language is common German. How 
widely different must it have been among our forefathers, several 
centuries ago, from what it is now ! 

It seems every way probable that the Gaelic of the highlands 
of Scotland, the Welsh of England, and the Irish, were originally 
the same language; but for a long time past they have been 
three distinct languages. 

The reader by this time I trust must see that among wan- 
dering barbarians, constantly forming new tribes, and seeking 
new habitations, languages, so far as the mere sound of words 
is concerned, furnish, after the lapse of several thousand years, 
but a poor test of community of origin. With reference to the test 
of a common origin, furnished by similarity of languages, Mr. 
Jefferson has ventured the probability of there being twenty rad- 
ical languages among the American Indians for one amongst the 
Asiatic Tartars, and hence he gives America the honor of having 
given population to Tartary. His words are these : 

" But imperfect as is our knowledge of the languages spoken 
in America, it suffices to discover the following remarkable fact ; 
arranging them under the radical ones to which they may be 
palpably traced, and doing the same by those of the red men of 
Asia, there will be found probably twenty in America for one 
in Asia of those radical languages, so called, because if they 
were ever the same they have lost all resemblance to each other." 
Notes on Virginia, p. 137. 

A gigantic conclusion! A conclusion which an accurate 
knowledge of one hundred of the languages of America and Asia 
would scarcely have warranted. With all deference to the usual 
accuracy of this illustrious philosopher, it may be said that a zeal 
for the honor of the aborigines of his native country must have 
led him to confer upon them the priority of claim to individual 
and national existence. 

There is one feature of language much more permanent than 
its sound, and that is the arrangement of its sentences, with re- 
gard to the nominative case, with its verb, and objective case. 
On this test, it seems to me, some reliance may be placed with 
safety, as it does not appear likely that any people ever made 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 43 

any change in their mode of expression: because it is the ar- 
rangement of the members of a sentence which fixes the regular 
succession of ideas. If the agent is first in the sentence, then 
the action, and lastly the subject of the action, the ideas of those 
who speak a language so arranged, follow each other in the same 
order; should the members of the sentence be differently dis- 
posed, a corresponding difference will take place in the thoughts 
of those who speak the language in question. From all this it is 
reasonable to infer that the arrangement of sentences, especially 
among barbarians who have no written languages, is the most 
unvarying feature of all their dialects. In this respect at least, 
" words and things." 

In the Hebrew the verb stands almost uniformly at the 
beginning of the sentence, next the nominative, and then the ob- 
jective case. It would be of some importance to know whether 
this arrangement is that of Asiatic languages generally, and 
whether our Indian languages have the same arrangement of sen- 

In the German, which is probably one of the oldest languages 
of the world, the nominative case is at the beginning of the sen- 
tence, then the objective case, and last of all the verb.. 

In the English the nominative is the beginning of the sen- 
tence, next the verb, and lastly the objective case, so that the cases 
in our language are determined by the position of the nouns and 
not by their terminations. 

In the Latin and Greek languages there seems to have been 
no definite arrangement of the members of a sentence, nor was 
it requisite there should, as their concord and government were 
determined by the termination of their verbs and substantives. 

The test of a sameness in the arrangement of the members 
of sentences has, as far as I know, never been attended to, in 
any attempt to discover a resemblance between the Asiatic and 
American languages. A likeness in the sounds of words alone 
has been regarded as furnishing the evidences of their affinity. 
But who shall determine the point in question? Where shall we 
find a philologist sufficiently versed in the languages of Asiatic 
Tartary, and those of the Indians of America, to determine the 

44 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

question of their resemblance to each other? As these languages 
contain no science, and are therefore not worth learning, it is not 
likely that such a person will be found before the Indian languages 
shall have vanished from the earth. 

With the religious rites and ceremonies of the Tartars, and 
American Indians, we are too little acquainted to justify any 
conclusion concerning the identity of their origin from them. 
The most that we know on this subject is that their pawaws or 
priests are professed sorcerers, who are supposed capable of in- 
flicting misfortunes, disease and death, by charms and incanta- 
tions. The angikoks of Greenland, and Esquimaux, were men of 
the same profession. Most likely the Tartar priesthood is of the 
same cast. 

The next thing to be considered is the sameness of color as 
having relation to the question under discussion. Here, it is 
hoped, a little prolixity in stating the physical causes of all the 
varieties of human colors will be excused. On this subject two 
questions present themselves. First, what is color ; and, secondly, 
what are the natural causes of the various colors of the human 

Color is a certain arrangement of particles on the surface of 
bodies, so constituted as to reflect, or absorb, the rays of light in 
such a manner as to make a specific impression on the organs of 
vision denominated color. That arrangement of particles on the 
surface of bodies which absorbs all the rays of light is denomin- 
ated black; on the contrary, that which reflects them at their 
angle of incidence produces the white color. The various angles 
of reflection of the rays of light constitute the ground work of 
all colors between the extremes of black and white. Color is 
therefore a mere modification of particles on the surface of 

There are four cardinal varieties of human color. First, the 
clear white of the hyperborean, such as that of the Swedes, 
Danes, and Poles, and others in the same parallels of latitude. 
Secondly, the swarthy color of the inhabitants of the south of 
Europe, and the northern parts of Africa and Asia. Thirdly, the 
jet black of the negroes, and Abyssinians of Africa, but with this 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 45 

difference, that the latter have the features of Europeans, and 
long straight hair: and lastly, the red, or copper color of the 
Asiatic Tartars, and American Indians. Varying with the paral- 
lels of latitude from that of Sweden to the torrid zone, the 
human skin exhibits every possible shade of difference between 
the white and the deepest black. 

Concerning the physical cause of the various colors of man- 
kind, a great variety of opinions has been entertained. I shall 
however take no notice of any of them, but give that theory on 
this subject which appears to be founded in truth, and which now 
generally prevails. It is that which attributes all the varieties of 
human color to the influence of climate, and different modes of 
living. Every phenomena of the subject in question evidently 
coincides with this opinion. 

The sciences of anatomy and physiology have clearly decided 
that the rete mucosum of the skin is the basis of its color. 
This, however, requires some explanation. The skin consists of 
three membranes. The outer one is the epidermis, or scarf skin, 
the second is the rete mucosum, or, as the expression imports, a 
mucous membrane, or net work, which lies immediately under 
the scarf skin, and lastly the true skin. This latter, or true skin, 
is perfectly white in all people; the epidermis, or scarf skin, is 
universally transparent. Through this transparent scarf skin, 
the "color of the rete mucosum, underneath, is discovered. That 
the state of the rete mucosum, with regard to color, is varied by 
the influence of climate, and modes of life, there can be no 
doubt. The zones of the earth are scarcely better marked out 
by their parallels of latitude, than are the inhabitants of their 
respective latitudes, designated by their shades of color, from 
the white of the north, to the black of the tropical regions. Those 
latter regions alone exhibit considerable variety of color. Their 
inhabitants are not all black. It may be said, however, that none 
of them are white. There must be something peculiar in the air, 
and certain portions of Africa, which gives the sooty color of 
the negro and Abyssinian. Physiology will in time discover 
this phenomenon. 

46 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Whatever may have been the original color of mankind, a 
change once induced by removals from one region to others 
would be augmented through successive generations until the 
influence of climate would have exerted its full effect. Even the 
influence of mothers to have their offspring of that color esteemed 
most beautiful would have considerable effect in hastening on 
the change from the original color. The shining black, among 
the Africans, is equal in point of beauty to the lily and the rose 
among the whites. The sight of a white person, among those of 
the Africans who have not been in the habit of seeing Europeans, 
never fails to excite the deepest horror. At first sight they ascribe 
the whiteness of the skin to some loathsome and incurable disease. 

Evidences of the influence of climate on the human color 
present themselves constantly to our observation. The descend- 
ants of the Africans in our country are far from having the 
sooty black color of their forefathers, the natives of Africa. 
The latter are distinguished from the former at first sight. 
In America there are many full blooded negroes scarcely a shade 
nearer the black than many of our mulattoes. These are denom- 
inated white negroes. Africa exhibits none of this description. 
These people exhibit one presumptive evidence that the original 
color of mankind was white. The skin of a full blooded negro 
infant, for some time after birth, is nearly white. It is not until 
the skin of the child has been exposed to the air for some time 
that the rete mucosum becomes of such a texture as to exhibit 
the black color. 

Many of our young men of a fair complexion, after per- 
forming several voyages down the river, and among the West 
India islands, return swarthy men, and remain so for life. Every 
mother is aware of the influence of the sun in tanning their 
children, especially during the prevalence of the equinoctial wind 
in the spring of the year, and therefore take every pains to pre- 
vent their blasting influence on the lily and the rose of their little 
progeny during that season. 

It may be asked, why the Indian color in America among 
the white people? Why this difference of color in the same 
region? All circumstances alike, the red color of the Indian is 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 47 

the color which is natural to our country. Many of those of the 
white people who have been brought up among the Indians from 
their infancy differ from them but little in point of color, and 
are to be distinguished from them only by the differences in their 
features. There are many of our white people of a darker hue 
than many of the Indians. We do not so readily perceive this, 
because a white man, let his color be ever so dark, is still a white 
man, while an Indian with a whiter skin is still an Indian. We 
lose sight of the color of both in the national character of each, 
of which we never lose sight. Were any number of- white people 
to adopt the Indian mode of living in its full extent, in a few 
generations the difference of color between them and the Indian 
would not be great. How much whiter is a French Canadian 
boatman than an Indian? Scarcely a single shade. Thus physi- 
ology has ascertained beyond a shadow of doubt that the rete 
mucosum is the basis of the human color, and innumerable facts 
go to show that the various states of this membrane, which ex- 
hibit all the varieties of the human color, are occasioned by the 
influence of different climates and modes of living. 

But from the varieties of this membrane, so slight in them- 
selves that physiology can scarcely discover them, except in their 
effects, what mighty consequences have arisen ! What import- 
ant conclusions have been drawn ! 

An African is black, has a woolly head, and a flat nose, he is 
therefore not entitled. to the rights of human nature! But he is 
a docile being, possessed of but little pride of independence, and 
a subject of the softer passions, who rather than risk his life in 
the defense of his liberty will " Take the pittance and the lash." 
He is, therefore, a proper subject for slavery. 

The Indian has a copper colored skin, and therefore the 
rights of human nature do not belong to him ! But he will not 
work, and his high sense of independence, and strong desire of 
revenge, would place in danger the property and life of the 
oppressor who should attempt to force him to labor. He is, 
therefore, to be exterminated ; or at least despoiled of his country, 
and driven to some remote region where he must perish ! Such 
has been, and such is still to a certain extent, the logic of nations 

48 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

possessed of all the science of the world! — of Christian nations. 
How horrid the features of that slavery to which this logic has 
given birth ! The benevolent heart bleeds at the thought of the 
cruelties which have always accompanied it; amongst the Mo- 
hammedans as soon as the Christian slave embraces the religion 
of his master, he is free; but among the followers of the Messiah, 
the slave may indeed embrace the religion of his master; but he 
still remains a slave; although a Christian brother. 

It is a curious circumstance, that while our missionaries are 
generously traversing the most inhospitable regions, and endeav- 
oring, with incessant toil, to give the science of Europe and 
America, together with the Christian revelation, to the benighted 
pagans, most of the legislatures of our slave holding states have 
made it a highly penal offense to teach a slave a single letter. 
While at great expense and waste of valuable lives we are en- 
deavoring to teach the natives of Africa the use of letters, no 
one durst attempt to do the same thing for the wretched de- 
scendants of slavery in America. Thus our slavery chains the 
soul as well as the body. Would a Mussulman hinder his slave 
from learning to read the Koran? Surely he would not. 

We are often told by slaveholders that they would willingly 
give freedom to their slaves if they could do it with safety; if 
they could get rid of them when free ; but are they more danger- 
ous when free than when in slavery ! But admitting the fact, 
that owing to their ignorance, stupidity and bad habits, they are 
unfit for freedom we ourselves have made them so. We debase 
them to the condition of brutes, and then use that debasement as 
an argument of perpetuating their slavery. 

I will conclude this digression with the eloquent language of 
President Jefferson on the subject: "Human liberty is the gift 
of God, and cannot be violated but in his wrath. Indeed I 
tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just and that 
his justice cannot sleep forever: that considering numbers, 
nature, and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of 
fortune, an exchange of situation is among the possible events: 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 49 

it may become probable by supernatural interference. The Al- 
mighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a 

But to return. Why this great solicitude of the learned to 
discover the genealogy of the American Indians. This solicitude 
is like many other fashionable pursuits of the present day. It 
is like a voyage to the northern polar regions, or a journey into 
Africa ; in the former of which nothing is seen but immense 
islands of ice, and in the latter little else than regions of arid 
deserts ; but the voyager and traveler return home rich in dis- 
coveries — of red snow — the probable cause of the aurora borealis 
— or of an hidden catacomb, full of mummies, and the huge head 
of the lesser Memnon. Besides actual discoveries, both are rich 
— in conjectures of little or no importance to the world. 1 

We might say to the Englishman, the Frenchman, and Ger- 
man, what is your origin ? He knows more of his own genealogy 
than he does of that of the American Indians. The blood of fifty 
nations, for aught he can tell to the contrary, runs in his veins. 
He may be related to the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, 
Greeks, Romans, Copts and many other smaller nations, whose 
very names have long since been buried in oblivion. 

Thus while you are anxiously inquiring for the origin of 
the -poor savages of America, you forget your own. Perhaps at 
this moment you know nothing of your immediate ancestry, 
beyond your grandfather, or at the farthest your great-grand- 

If we should infer a community of origin between the Tar- 
tars of Asia and the American Indians, from a resemblance of 

i Many suppose that some of the Indians are of Jewish origin. This 
may indeed be the case, for at an early period of the Jewish history, Shal- 
maneser, the king of Assyria, took Samaria after a siege of three years' con- 
tinuance. "And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel into Assyria, and 
put them in Halak, and in Habor, by the river Gozan, and in the city of the 
Medes." From these places it is highly probable many of the Jews found 
their way into Eastern Tartary, and from thence to America, but with the 
loss of their natural character, language and religion. Ten of the twelve 
tribes were carried off by Shalmaneser. After this event, history no longer 
recognizes those tribes as Jews ; thenceforward the kingdom of Israel con- 
sisted only of the tribes of Juda, Benjamin, and part of the tribe of Levi. So 
large a number of prolific people, must have soon associated themselves, by 
traveling, commerce, and intermarriage, with all the surrounding nations, and 
of course their descendants would be as likely to find their way to America, 
as any other people. — II Kings. Chap. 18. — Notes on Virginia, p. 222. (D) 

50 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

color, it would be no more than saying that the same causes will, 
in similar circumstances, produce the same effects; the sun and 
air will produce the same effects on man in Tartary that they 
do in America in the same latitudes. It is now too late, or soon 
will be so, to find anything like a solution of this question from 
any resemblance between the languages of these people. The 
religious worship of savages is everywhere pretty much the 
same, and therefore throws no light on the subject. On their 
traditions no reliance can be placed, because to a people who 
have no written science the past is a region of fabulous un- 

It is enough for the solution of this question that the navi- 
gation of the northern Atlantic, and northern Pacific, has at all 
times been practicable, even to the imperfect navigation of the 
nations inhabiting their shores, and that they at all times carried 
on a constant intercourse with each other, especially across the 
northern Pacific. 

But to which continent shall we ascribe the honor of having 
given population to the other? This is the most important point 
in this discussion, but can it ever be settled? For my part I am 
perfectly willing to concede to the old world the honor of, having 
given population to the new. It is much the largest continent, 
and by far the first in arts and sciences. Besides placing some 
reliance on the oldest, and not the least authentic history in the 
world, I can see no reason why the garden of Eden, near the 
head of the Persian gulf, was not a point from which the whole 
world might as conveniently be peopled, and in as short a time, 
as from any other spot which a geographer can point out. 

On the whole, the race of mankind constitutes an exclusive 
genus of animated beings ; man is therefore an unit, and as such 
must have had one common origin, " no matter what color an 
Indian or an African sun may have burnt upon him." He 
justly claims a kindred relation to the whole of his race. What 
though the severe cold of the arctic circles has dwindled their in- 
habitants down to a dwarfish stature. What though in more 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 51 

fortunate climates we meet with Anakim, or Patagonians, in all 
the essentials of his physical and moral character man is the 
same in every region of the globe. 

May this paternal relation be everywhere recognized. May 
a just and enlightened policy, and above all may the holy religion 
of the good Samaritan, induce the strong to respect the claims of 
the weak upon his justice and humanity, and " To do unto others 
as he would they should do unto him." 

Changes in the System of Weather. 

Great changes have taken place in our system of weather, 
since the settlement of the western country, yet these changes have 
been so gradual that it is no very easy task to recollect or de- 
scribe them. At the first settlement of the country the summers 
were much cooler than they are at present. For many years we 
scarcely ever had a single warm night during the whole summer. 
The evenings were cool, and the mornings frequently uncomfort- 
ably cold. The coldness of the nights was owing to the deep 
shade of the lofty forest trees, which everywhere covered the 
ground. In addition to this, the surface of the earth was still 
further shaded by large crops of wild grass and weeds, which 
prevented it from becoming heated by the rays of the sun during 
the day. At sun down the air began to become damp and cool, 
and continued to increase in coldness until warmed by the sun- 
shine of the succeeding day. This wild herbage afforded pasture 
for our cattle and horses from spring till the onset of winter. 
To enable the owner to find his beasts, the leader of each flock of 
cattle, horses and sheep, was furnished with a bell, suspended 
to the neck by a leathern or iron collar. Bells, therefore, con- 
stituted a considerable article of traffic in early times. 

One distressing circumstance resulted from the wild herb- 
age of our wilderness. It produced innumerable swarms of 
gnats, mosquitoes and horse flies. These distressing insects gave 

52 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

such annoyance to man and beast that they may justly be ranked 
among the early plagues of the country. During that part of the 
season in which they were prevalent, they made the cattle poor 
and lessened the amount of their milk. In plowing they were 
very distressing to the horses. It was customary to build large 
fires of old logs about the forts, the smoke of which kept the 
flies from the cattle, which soon learned to change their position, 
with every change of wind, so as to keep themselves constantly 
in the smoke. 

Our summers in early times were mostly very dry. The 
beds of our large creeks, excepting in the deep holes, presented 
nothing but naked rocks. The mills were not expected to do any 
grinding after the latter end of May, excepting for a short time 
after a thunder gust; our most prudent housekeepers, therefore, 
took care to have their summer stock of flour ground in the 
months of March and April. If this stock was expended too 
soon there were no resources but those of the hominy block or 
hand mill. It was a frequent saying among our farmers that 
three good rains were sufficient to make a crop of corn, if they 
happened at the proper times. The want of rain was compen- 
sated in some degree by heavy dews, which were then more 
common than of late, owing to the shaded situation of the earth, 
which prevented it from becoming either warm or dry, by the 
rays of the sun, during even the warmest weather. Frost and 
snow set in much earlier in former times than of late. I have 
known the whole crop of corn in Greenbrier destroyed by frost 
on the night of the twenty-second of September. The corn in 
this district of country was mostly frost-bitten at the same time. 
Such early frosts, of equal severity, have not happened for some 
time past. Hunting snows usually commenced about the middle 
of October. November was regarded as a winter month, as the 
winter frequently set in with severity during that month, and 
sometimes at an early period of it. 

For a long time after the settlement of the country we had 
an abundance of snow, in comparison to the amount we usually 
have now. It was no unusual thing to have snows from one to 
three feet in depth, and of long continuance. Our people often 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 53 

became tired of seeing the monotonous aspect of the country .so 
long covered with a deep snow, and " longed to see the ground 
bare once more." I well remember the labor of opening roads 
through those deep snows, which often fell in a single night, to 
the barn, spring, smoke house and corn crib. The labor of 
getting wood, after a deep fall of snow, was in the highest degree 
disagreeable. A tree, when fallen, was literally buried in the 
snow, so that the driver of the horses had to plunge the whole 
length of his arms into it to get the long chain around the butt 
end of the tree to haul it home. The depth of the snows, the 
extreme cold and length of our winters, were indeed distressing 
to the first settlers, who were but poorly provided with clothing, 
and whose cabins were mostly very open and uncomfortable. 
Getting wood, making fires, feeding the stock, and going to mill, 
were considered sufficient employment for any family, and truly 
those labors left them little time for anything else. 

As our roads, in early times, did not admit of the use of 
sleighs, the only sport we had in the time of a deep snow was 
that of racing about on the crust of its surface. This was formed 
by a slight thaw succeeded by a severe frost. On this crust we 
could travel over logs, brush, and owing to great drifts of snow 
in many places, over the highest fences. These crusts were often 
fatal to the deer. Wolves, dogs and men could pursue them 
without breaking through the crust. The deer, on the contrary, 
when pursued, owing to the smallness of their hoofs, always 
broke through it unless when it was uncommonly hard. The 
hunters never killed the deer in the dead of winter, as their skins 
and flesh were then of but little value. Taking advantage of 
them in the time of a crust they held a dishonorable practice, 
and they always relieved them from the pursuit of wolves and 
dogs whenever it fell in their way to do so. Foreigners, however, 
who were not in the habit of hunting, often pursued and caught 
them on the crust for the sake of informing their friends in the 
old country by letter that they had killed a deer. 

An incident happened in my father's neighborhood which 
for some time was highly satisfactory to the hunters, as it looked 

54 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

like a providential punishment for taking advantage of the deer 
in time of a crust, as well as a means of putting an end to the 
unlawful sport. 

A Captain Thomas Wells, 1 a noted warrior, hunter and 
trapper, was informed by one of his neighbors who came to his 
house to borrow a bag, that a deer had been killed by the wolves, 
the night before, not far from his house, and that the deer had 
not been wholly devoured. They concluded that as the wolves 
would visit the place the succeeding night, for the purpose of 
finishing their prey, they might catch one of them in a wolf trap. 
They accordingly set a large trap in the head of a spring, close 
by the relics of the deer. The spring had melted the snow as it 
fell, and it was then covered with a thick coat of dry leaves; 
under these leaves the trap was concealed. 

Shortly after they had finished their work a couple of new 
comers from Ireland, in pursuit of a deer with dogs, came to 
the place, and seeing the bones of the deer called a halt to look 
at them. One of them, whose feet happened to be very cold, 
stepped on the dry leaves over the spring, and placed one of his 
feet in the wolf trap, which instantly fastened on his foot with 
its merciless jaws. With great labor, difficulty and delay, the 
foot was extricated from the trap. The first house they called 
at, after the accident, was that of the man who had assisted Capt. 
Wells to set the trap. They complained bitterly of the occurrence, 
and said that they had wrought full half an hour before they 
could get the wicked thing off the foot. They wondered whether 
there was no law in America to punish people for setting such 
wicked things about the woods, to catch people by the feet. 
The gentleman heard their complaint, without letting them know 
that he had any hand in setting the trap. Fortunately the trap 
struck the Hibernian across the sole of his shoe, which being 
thick and frozen prevented the mischief it would otherwise have 
done him ; if the jaws of the trap had reached his ankle, the 
bones of his leg must have been broken to pieces by them. The 

i Thomas Wells, here named, lived on the farm where Thos. M. Patter- 
son now resides in Cross Creek township. — (Simpson.) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 55 

jokes that were carved out of this event throughout the neigh- 
borhood, and the high glee with which the hunters related the 
tale, served to show the foreigners the detestation in which the 
practice of killing deer in the winter season was held, and in 
a great measure put a stop to their sport. 

But to return. The spring of the year in former times was 
pretty much like our present springs. We commonly had an 
open spell of weather during the latter part of February, denom- 
inated by some pawzmwing days and by others weather breeders. 
The month of March was commonly stormy and disagreeable 
throughout. It was a common saying that we must not expect 
spring until the borrowed days, that is, the three first days of 
April were over. Sugar was often made in the early part of April. 
It sometimes happened that a great part of April was but little 
better than March, with regard to storms of rain, snow and a 
cold chilling air. I once noticed forty frosts after the first day 
of April; yet our fruit that year was not wholly destroyed. We 
never considered ourselves secure from frost until the first ten 
days of Mav had past. During these days we never failed of 
having cold, stormy weather, with more or less frost. 

On the whole, although the same variable system of weather 
continues, our springs were formerly somewhat colder, and ac- 
companied with more snow, than they are now, but the change, 
in these respects, is no way favorable to vegetation, as our 
latest springs are uniformly followed by the most fruitful 
seasons. It is a law of the vegetable world that the longer the 
vegetative principle is delayed, the more rapid when put in 
motion. Hence those northern countries which have but a short 
summer, and no spring, are amongst the most fruitful countries 
in the world. In Russia, Sweden and Denmark, the transition 
from winter to summer occupies but a very few days ; yet a 
failure of a crop in those countries is but a rare occurrence: 
while in our latitudes, vegetation prematurely put in motion, 
and then often checked " by the laggering rear of winter's frost," 
frequently fails of attaining its ultimate perfection. 

From this history of the system of the weather of our early 
times, it appears that our seasons have already undergone great 

56 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

and important changes. Our summers are much warmer, our 
falls much milder and longer, and our winters shorter by at least 
one month, and accompanied with much less enow and cold than 
formerly. What causes have effected these changes in our system 
of weather, and what may we reasonably suppose will be the 
ultimate extent of this revolution, already so apparent, in our 
system of weather? 

In all countries the population of a desert by civilized and 
agricultural people has had a great effect on its climate. 

Italy, which is now a warm country, with very mild winters 
was, in the time of Horace and Virgil, as cold and as subject to 
deep snows as the western country was at its first settlement. 
Philosophy has attributed the change of the seasons in that 
country to the clearing of its own forests, together with those 
of France to the north, and those of Germany to the east and 
north of Italy. 1 The same cause has produced the same effect 
in our country. Every acre of cultivated land must increase the 
heat of our summers, by augmenting the extent of the surface 
of the ground denuded of its timber, so as to be acted upon and 
heated by the rays of the sun. 

The future prospect of the weather throughout the whole 
extent of the western country is not very flattering. The ther- 
mometer in the hottest parts of our summer months already 
ranges from ninety to one hundred degrees. A frightful degree 
of heat for a country as yet not half cleared of its native timber! 
When we consider the great extent of the valley of the Missis- 
sippi, so remote from any sea to furnish its cooling breezes, with- 
out mountains to collect the vapors, augment and diversify the 
winds, and watered only by a few rivers, which in the summer 
time are diminished to a small amount of water, we have every 
data for the unpleasant conclusion that the climate of the western 
regions will ultimately become intensely hot and subject to dis- 
tressing calms and droughts of long continuance. 

i Vides. ut alta stet nive candidum 

Soracte ; nee jam sustineant onus 
Sylvse laborantes ; geluque, 

Flumina constiterint acuto? — Hor., lib. 1, Ode ix. 
— (D) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 57 

Already we begin to feel the effects of the increase of the 
heat of summer in the noxious effluvia of the stagnant water of 
the ponds and low grounds along our rivers. These fruitful 
sources of pestilential exhalations have converted large tracts 
of our country into regions of sickness and death, while the ex- 
cessive heat and dryness of our settlements, remote from the 
large water courses, have been visited by endemic dysenteries in 
their most mortal states. Thus the most fortunate regions of 
the earth have drawbacks from their advantages which serve in 
some degree to balance the condition of their inhabitants with 
that of the people of countries less gifted by nature in point of 
soil, climate and situation. 

The conflict for equilibrium between the rarified air of the 
south and the dense atmosphere of the north will continue for- 
ever the changeable state of weather in this country, as there 
is no mountainous barrier between us and the northern regions 
of our continent. 

Beasts and Birds. 

The reader need not expect that this chapter will contain a 
list of all the beasts and birds which were tenants of the western 
wilderness at the time of its first settlement. I shall only briefly 
notice a few of those classes which have already totally or par- 
tially disappeared 'from the country, together with those which 
have emigrated here with our population. This enumeration, as 
far as it goes, will serve to show the natural historian a distinc- 
tion between those beasts and birds which are naturally tenants 
of the wilderness and refuse the society of man, and those which 
follow his footsteps from one region to another, and although 
partially wild yet subsist in part upon his labors. 

The buffalo and elk have entirely disappeared from this 
section of the country. Of the bear and deer but very few 
remain. The wolves, formerly so numerous, and so destructive 

58 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

to the cattle, are now seldom heard of in our older settlements. 
It may seem strange that this ferocious and cunning animal, so 
long the scourge of the mountainous districts of Europe, should 
have so suddenly disappeared from our infant country. The 
sagacity of the wolves bids defiance to the most consummate 
craft of the hunters, many of whom, throughout life, never 
obtained a single chance to shoot at one of them. Sometimes, 
indeed, they outwitted them by pit- falls and steel traps; but no 
great number were killed by either of these means ; nor had the 
price set upon their scalps by the state legislatures any great 
effect in diminishing their number and depredations. By what 
means then did their destruction happen? On this subject I will 
hazard the opinion that a greater number of them were destroyed 
by hydrophobia than by all other means put together. That this 
disease took place amongst them at an early period is evident 
from the fact that nearly forty years ago a Captain Rankin of 
Raccoon creek, in Washington county, Pa., was bitten by a mad 
wolf. A few years ago Mr. John M'Camant of this county met 
with the same misfortune. In both cases the wolf was killed, 
and I am sorry to add both these men died, after having suffered 
all the pains and horrors accompanying that most frightful of all 
diseases, that inflicted by the bite of a rabid animal. 

An animal so ferocious as a wolf, and under the influence of 
madness, bites everything he can reach ; of course the companions 
of his own den and thicket are the first victims of his rage. 
Hence, a single wolf would be the means of destroying the whole 
number of his fellows, in his immediate neighborhood at least. 
In the advanced state of the disease they lose their native wild- 
ness, leave their dens and thickets and seek the flocks and herds 
about farm houses, and in some instances have attempted to 
enter the houses themselves for the purpose of doing mischief. 

The buzzards, or vultures, grey and bald eagles, ravens, or 
as they were generally called corbies, were very numerous here 
in former times. It was no uncommon thing to see from fifty to 
one hundred of them perched on the trees over a single carcase 
of carrion. All these large carnivorous birds have nearly dis- 
appeared from our settlements. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 59 

The wild turkeys, which used to be so abundant as to supply 
no inconsiderable portion of provision for the first settlers, are 
now rarely seen. 

The different kinds of wood-peckers still remain in the 
country, with the exception of the largest of that genus of birds, 
the wood-cock, which is now very scarce. 

The black and grey squirrels still remain in the country. 
These beautiful but destructive little animals gave great annoy- 
ance to the first settlers of our country, by devouring large 
quantities of their corn in the fields before it was fit for gather- 
ing. There is something singular in the history of the squirrels. 
Sometimes in the course of a few years they become so numerous 
as to threaten the destruction of whole crops; when, as if by 
common consent, they commence an emigration from west to 
east, crossing the river in countless numbers. At the commence- 
ment of their march they are very fat, and furnish an agreeable 
article of diet; but towards its conclusion they become sickly 
and poor, with large worms attached to their skins. After this 
emigration they are scarce for some years, then multiply, emi- 
grate, and perish as before. The cause of this phenomenon is, 
1 believe, unknown. It cannot be the want of food; for the 
districts of countries which they leave are often as fruitful or 
more so than those to which they direct their course. 

The terrible panther, as well as the wild cat, have also taken 
their leave of us. 

Thus, in far less time than it cost the Jews to rid themselves 
of the serpents and beasts of prey which infested the " hill 
country of Judea," we have freed ourselves from those which 
belonged to our country. Our flocks and herds are safe from 
their annoyance, and our children are not torn to pieces by " a 
she bear out of the wood." 

In return for the beasts and birds which have left us, we 
have gained an equal number from the Atlantic side of the 
mountains, and which were unknown at the first settlement of 
the country. 

60 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Our mornings and evenings are now enlivened with the 
matins and vespers of a great variety of singing birds, which 
have slowly followed the emigration from the other side of the 

The honey bees are not natives of this country; but they 
always keep a little in advance of the white population. We 
formerly had some professed bee hunters; but the amount of 
honey obtained from the woods was never considerable, owing 
to the want of a sufficient quantity of flowers to furnish it. 

Crows and black birds have of late become very plenty. 
They were not natives of the wilderness. 

Rats, which were not known here for several years after 
the settlement of the country, took possession of it, in its whole 
extent, in one winter season. Children of twelve years old, and 
under, having never heard their name, were much surprised at 
finding a new kind of mice, as they called them, with smooth tails. 

Opossums were late comers into the country. Fox-squirrels 
have but a very few years ago made their appearance on this side 
of the mountains. 

Thus our country has exchanged its thinly scattered popu- 
lation of savages for a dense population of civilized inhabitants, 
and its wild beasts and large, carnivorous fowls, for domesticated 
animals and fowls, and others which although wild are inoffensive 
in their habits, and live at least partially on the labors of man. 
This has been effected here perhaps in less time than such im- 
portant changes were ever effected in any other region of the 

The cases of the two unfortunate victims of the hydrophobia, 
here alluded to, deserve some notice. 

Capt. Rankin was bitten by the wolf in his own door. Hear- 
ing in the dead of night a noise among his beasts in the yard, 
he got up and opened the upper part of his door, which was a 
double one. The wolf instantly made a spring to get into the 
house. Rankin, with great presence of mind, caught the wolf 
in his arms as he was passing over the lower half of the door 
and held him fast on its upper edge, and against the door post, 
until a man belonging to the household jumped out of bed, got 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 61 

a knife and cut the wolf's throat ; but the wolf in the mean time 
bit him severely in the wrist. If I recollect rightly he lived but 
a short time afterwards. 1 

Mr. John M'Cammant, who lived but a few miles from this 
place on the road to Washington, met a similar death, much in 
the same way. Hearing an uproar among his beasts, not far 
from the house, he went to see what was the matter. He had 
not gone far before the wolf sprang at him and bit him severely 
in the left breast. Being a very strong, resolute man, he caught 
the wolf by the jaws, and held them apart, calling on an appren- 
tice lad to bring an axe to knock the wolf on the head. He came 
with all speed, but finding he had no chance of striking the wolf, 
without risking an injury to his master, he dropped the axe, ran 
back to the house and got a butcher knife, with which he cut 
the wolf's throat. It was between seven and eight weeks before 
the virus took effect, so as to produce the symptoms of the 
terrible disease which followed. 

From the time I first heard of his being bitten by the wolf 
I anticipated the consequence with horror, and the more so 
because he applied to a physician who had the reputation of 
curing the bite of a mad animal with a single pill. Placing con- 
fidence in this nostrum, he neglected all other medical aid. In 
this pill I had no confidence, having previously seen and examined 
one of them, and found it made of ingredients possessed of 
scarcely any medicinal efficacy whatever. On the Thursday pre- 
ceding his death he became slightly indisposed. On Friday and 
Saturday he had the appearance of a person taking an intermittent 
fever. On Sunday the hydrophobia came on. It was then I first 
saw him. Having never seen the disease before, I was struck 
with consternation at his appearance. Every sense appeared to 
have acquired an hundred fold excitability. The slightest im- 

i Capt. Zachariah Rankin died on the farm now occupied by Alex Mc- 
Calmont, near Hickory, Washington county, Pa., about the 20th of October, 
1785. His will as seen in the register's office at Washington, Pa., is dated 
Oct. 17, 1785, and is witnessed by Robert Lysle, Thomas Cherry and Isaac 
Wells. He died three days after he wrote his will. He was attended by 
Robert Lysle, Aaron Lysle, John Lysle, James Edgar, and some others whose 
names I have forgotten. He was buried in the old Cherry grave yard, in 
Mt. Pleasant township, Washington county. — (Simpson.) 

02 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

pression upon any of them gave him a thrill of the deepest 
horror. Noise, the sight of colored clothing, the sudden passage 
of any person between him and the light of the window or candle, 
affected him beyond description. 

On Sunday night his convulsive fits came on. He was then 
fastened by his hands and feet to the bed posts, to prevent him 
from doing mischief. At three o'clock on Monday evening he 
became delirious, his fits ceased, and at two o'clock in the morn- 
ing death put a period to his sufferings. 1 

It is impossible for language to describe this terrible disease. 
The horror of mind which he continually suffered was equal to 
that which would be felt by the most timid lady on being com- 
pelled to go alone at midnight into a grave yard, with an entire 
certainty of seeing a ghost in the most frightful form which a 
disordered imagination ever ascribed to a departed spirit. He 
several times requested the physicians to bleed him to death. 
Several veins were opened but the blood had so far lodged itself 
in engorgements in the viscera that none could be discharged 
from the veins. He then requested that some of his limbs might 
be cut off, that the same object might be effected that way. 
Finding this request would not be complied with, he looked up 
to his rifle and begged of me with tears in his eyes to take it 
down and shoot him through the head, saying " I will look at you 
with delight and thankfulness, while you are pulling the trigger. 
In doing this you will do right. I know from your countenance 
that you pity»me ; but you know not the thousandth part of what 
I suffer. You ought 'to put an end to my misery, and God him- 
self will not blame you for doing so." What made these requests 
the more distressing, was the circumstance that they did not 
proceed from any derangement of mind ; on the contrary, except- 
ing during the time of his fits, which lasted only a few seconds at 
a time, he was in the full exercise of his understanding. His 

i John McCamant died in February, 1807. He was bitten December 
25, 1806. He was buried at L«ower Buffalo church, Brooke county, W. Va. 
About 1854 his remains were disintered and removed to Washington, Pa., 
by his daughter, Mrs. Joseph Henderson. Mr. McCamant's residence was on 
the Wellsburg pike, the first farm on the Virginia side, west of Dr. Park- 
inson's as one goes from Independence to Wellsburg. Jacob Dimit, the last 
man who helped attend McCamant, died December 2, 1883. — (Simpson.) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 63 

discourse until about three o'clock on Monday evening was quite 
rational. He requested prayers to be made for him, and delib- 
erately gave directions about the place of his interment, and 
funeral sermon, all which requests were complied with. 

The reader, no doubt, wishes to know as much as possible 
concerning the famous pill, an improper reliance on which termin- 
ated in the death of Mr. M'Cammant. I have had an opportunity 
of examining two of them at a considerable distance of time 
apart. The first I saw was about five times as large as one of 
Anderson's pills, and composed of Burgundy pitch and green rue. 
The second was made of the same material, with a narrow strip 
of paper rolled up in the middle of it. The paper contained about 
a dozen ill-shapen letters, but not so arranged as to spell any 
word in any language with which I am acquainted. The physician 
who gave those pills reported that he got the recipe for making 
them from a priest of Abyssinia. Such is the superstition which 
still remains attached to the practice of the healing art, and from 
which, in all likelihood, it will never be separated. But why then 
the celebrity of this pill, as a preventive of canine madness ? Has 
it never had the effect ascribed to it? Certainly never. 

Far the greater number of those who are said to be bitten 
by rabid animals have been bitten by animals either not really 
mad, -or not in such a state of madness as to communicate the 

An event which fell under my own observation several years 
ago will serve to explain this matter. Several children, one of 
whom was my own, were said to have been bitten by a mad cat, 
which was instantly killed. On inquiry I found that there was 
no report of mad animals in the neighborhood. I then gave it 
as my opinion that the apparent madness of the cat proceeded 
only from caterwauling. This did not satisfy any one but my- 
self, so I had to treat the children as I should have if the cat 
had been really mad, and thus got the credit of curing four 
cases of canine madness : a credit which I never deserved. 

A few years ago a gentleman of my neighborhood brought 
me his daughter who he said had been bitten by a mad cat. I 
asked if the cat was a male one ; he answered in the affirmative. 

64 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

He said he had imprisoned him in a closet. I am glad of that, 
said I, keep him there a few days, and you will find him as well 
as ever he was; and so it turned out. 

Dogs are subject to a similar, madness from the same cause. 
In this state, like cats, they are apt to bite even their best friends. 
In this case the animal is reported to be mad and instantly killed. 
In such cases these pills, as well as other nostrums for this 
disease, do wonders ; that is where there is nothing to be done. 1 

i Mr. Doddridge does not do justice to this cure that Mr. McCamant 
used. It was a pill gotten from Dr. Marchand. of Fayette county, Pa., and 
there was no doubt it cured many, or prevented them from going mad. Dr. 
Marchand bound all who got the pill from him that they would never use 
liquor of any kind. McCamant disregarded this injunction and the conse- 
quence was he went mad and died. The Hon. Joseph R. Reed, of Iowa, his 
mother and brother, were bitten in 1839 by a mad dog. The brother went 
mad and died. Joseph and his mother got this pill and were cured. Mrs. 
Reed died in 1874. Mr. Reed himself was alive in 1888. But this cure is 
now lost to the world, as" the last of the Marchands who knew its secret 
died in the army during the civil war. — (Simpson.) 

Dr. Doddridge does not specifically state that the pills which were 
believed to cure hydrophobia came from Dr. Marchand of Fayette county ; 
this statement is by Simpson. The Marchands were prominent citizens, and 
widely known professionally. Dr. David Marchand, a native of Berne, 
Switzerland, settled in 1770 on Little Sewickley Creek, about six miles 
southwest of Greensburg, Westmoreland county, Pa. He is said to have 
been a physician of rare ability ; certainly his practise was very extensive 
in Westmoreland and adjoining counties. He died July 22, 1809. His three 
sons, Daniel, David and Louis, all became physicians. Dr. Daniel settled 
in Uniontown, Pa., and Dr. Louis in Jefferson township, Fayette county, Pa., 
five miles below Brownsville, on the Monongahela river. After some years 
of rural practise, following his graduation in 1809, in Philadelphia, from the 
University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Louis Marchand went to Uniontown to take 
up the practise of his brother Daniel, who had died there March 13, 1822. 
Dr. Louis died in 1857. (See Ellis' History of Fayette County.) It was 
some one, or likely all, of this Marchand family of doctors who, according 
to Simpson, prescribed the pill reputed to be a specific for rabies. ^_One of 
Dr. Louis' children was Samuel Sackett Marchand, also a doctor, who prac- 
tised in Westmoreland county. He enlisted in Co. H., 136th regiment, Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers (Col. Bayne's) and was wounded at Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 13, 1862, dying in Libby prison Feb. 28, 1863. This is the Marchand 
referred to by Simpson as the last who knew the secret of the pill that 
would cure the rabies. David Marchand, Jr., served two terms in congress. 
— (J. S. R.) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 65 

Number and Variety of Serpents. 

Among the plagues of the Jews, at the time of their settle- 
ment in the land of Canaan, that of the serpents, which abounded 
in that country, was not the least. In like manner the early 
settlers of this country were much annoyed by serpents. Of the 
poisonous kinds of them we had but two, the rattlesnake and the 
copper-head, both of which were very numerous in every section 
of the country, but especially the rattlesnake. We had also 
different kinds of black snakes, with a number of lesser sorts, but 
these last are not poisonous. The bite of the rattlesnake was 
frequently mortal, always extremely painful ; that of the copper- 
head not much less so. 

Let the reader imagine the situation of our first settlers, with 
regard to those poisonous reptiles, when informed that an harvest 
day seldom passed in which the laborers did not meet with more 
or less of them. The reaper busily employed with his sickle was 
suddenly alarmed by the whiz of a rattlesnake at his feet; he 
instantly retreated, got a club, and giving the snake a blow or 
two finished his execution by striking the point of the sickle 
through its head and holding it up to the view of the company. 
It was then thrown aside by the root of a tree, or in a bunch of 
bushes, and then labor recommenced. This often happened a 
half dozen times in the course of a single day. This was not the 
worst. Owing to the heavy dews and growth of rank weeds 
among the small grain, it was requisite to let the grain lie in 
grips a day or more to dry before it was bound up. The rattle- 
snakes often hid themselves under these handfulls of grain, and 
hence it often happened that they were taken up in the arms of 
those who were employed in gathering and binding them. If the 
laborer happened to be even an old man, stiffened with toil and 
the rheumatism, he dropped all and sprang away with all the 

66 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

agility of a boy of sixteen, and however brave in other respects 
it was some time before the tremor of his limbs and the palpita- 
tion of his heart wore off. 

Terrible as the serpents were to men, they were still more 
so to our women, to whose lot it generally fell to pull the flax. 
The flax patch was commonly near the grain field. While the 
men were reaping the grain the women were pulling the flax. 
The rattlesnakes were often met with among the flax. When 
this happened the women always screamed with all their might. 
A race then took place among the younger reapers, to decide 
who should have the honor of killing the snake. In the race each 
one picked up a club, and the first of them who reached the 
serpent instantly despatched him. This was a little piece of 
chivalry with which the girls were well pleased. Very few 
women had the hardihood to attack and kill a rattlesnake. At 
the sight of one of them they always gave a loud shriek, as if 
conscious of being the weaker vessel; in similar circumstances a 
man never does this, as he has no one to depend upon for pro- 
tection but himself. I have often seen women so overcome with 
terror at the sight of a rattlesnake as to become almost incapable 
of moving. 

Every season, for a long time, a number of our people were 
bitten by those poisonous reptiles. Some of them died ; those 
of them who escaped death generally suffered a long and painful 
confinement, which left some of them in an infirm state of 
health for the rest of their lives. 

In the fall these reptiles congregate together in cavities 
among the rocks, where it is said that they remain in a dormant 
state during the winter. Whether this is the fact or not I cannot 
tell, never having seen one of their dens opened. 

These dens were common all over the country, and many 
of them well known to our people, who much dreaded the egress 
of their poisonous inhabitants, in the spring of the year, not 
only on account of themselves, but also on account of their 
beasts, many of which were killed by the bites of the snakes. 

There was a den in the neighborhood of my father's place, 
and I well remember a rare piece of sport of the children be- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 67 

longing to the farms about it. It was on a warm day in the 
spring of the year, when we knew that the snakes were out 
among the leaves sunning themselves. We encircled the den, 
including several acres of ground, by parting the leaves so as to 
prevent the fire from spreading through the woods. On the 
inside of this ring we set fire to the dry leaves. In a short time 
we had the fun of seeing the snakes jumping and writhing in the 
blaze of the leaves. After the burning was over we collected a 
considerable pile of our burnt snakes. 

I have heard of but two attempts to demolish the dens of 
the snakes. The first was somewhere in the Alleghany moun- 
tain. My informant told me that by the time they had killed 
about ninety of them they became so sickened by the stench of 
the serpents that they were obliged to quit the work, although 
there was still a great number of them in view. The next attempt 
to destroy a snake den took place between New Lancaster and 
Columbus in the state of Ohio. The snakes had chosen one of 
the old Indian graves, composed mainly of stone, for their resi- 
dence. They gave such annoyance to the settlers in its neigh- 
borhood that they assembled for the purpose of demolishing it. 
In doing so they found several hundred snakes together with a 
vast quantity of the bones of those of them which through a 
long series of years had perished in the den. These were inter- 
mingled with the bones of those human beings for whose sepul- 
ture the mound had been erected. 

Do these reptiles possess that power of fascination which 
has so frequently been ascribed to them? Many of them as I 
have seen I never witnessed an instance of the exercise of this 
power. I have several times seen birds flying about them, ap- 
proaching close to their heads, and uttering noises which seemed 
to indicate the greatest distress ; but on examination always found 
that the strange conduct of the bird was owing to an approach 
of the snake to the nest containing its young. 

That such cases as those above mentioned are often mistaken 
for instances of the exercise of the power of fascination is 
quite certain; nevertheless that this power exists there can be 
no doubt. The greater number of the early settlers say that they 

68 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

have been witnesses of the exercise of this power, and their 
testimony is worthy of credit. It seems from some reports 
worthy of belief that even mankind as well as birds and beasts 
are subject to this fascinating power of serpents. 

A Mr. Walter Hill, a laborer in Maryland in early times, 
informed me that once in the spring of the year, himself and a 
fellow laborer were directed by their employer to clean out the 
barn. In doing this they found a rattlesnake among the rubbish. 
Instead of killing, they threw it into a hogshead, with a view 
to have some sport with him after they had finished their work. 
Accordingly in the evening, when the work was done, my in- 
formant stooped over the top of the hogshead to take a look at 
the snake, when instantly he said, he became sick at the stomach, 
giddy headed, and partially blind. His head sunk downwards 
towards that of the serpent, which was elevated some distance 
above its coil. The eyes of the snake were steadily fixed on his 
and looked, as he expressed himself, like balls of fire. His com- 
panion observing his approach to the snake pulled him away. 
It was sometime before he came to himself. I have heard of an 
instance of the fascination of a young lady of New Jersey. 

This power of fascination is indeed a strange phenomenon. 
Yet, according to the usual munificence of nature, the poor 
miserable snake, which inherits the hatred of all animated nature, 
ought to have some means of procuring subsistence, as well as 
of defense: but he has no teeth or claws to aid him in catching 
his prey, nor feet to assist him in flight or pursuit. His poison, 
however, enables him to take revenge for the hatred entertained 
against him, and his power of charming procures him a scanty 
supply of provision. But what is this power of fascination? Is 
there any physical agency in it ? I think it must be admitted that 
there is some physical agency employed in this matter, although 
we may not be able to ascertain what it is. If there be no such 
agency employed in fascination by serpents, it must be effected 
by a power similar to that which superstition ascribes to charms, 
amulets, spells and incantations. A power wholly imaginary, 
unknown to the laws of nature, and which philosophy totally 
rejects as utterly impossible. On this subject I will hazard the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 69 

opinion that the charm under consideration is effected by means 
of an intoxicating odor which the serpent has the power of 

That the rattlesnakes have the power of giving out a very 
offensive vapor I know by experience, having often smelt them 
in warm sunny days, especially after a shower of rain, when 
plowing in the field. This often happened when I did not see 
any of them ; but it always excited a painful apprehension that 
I should speedily meet with some of them. The odor of a serpent 
is an odor sui generis. A person once accustomed to it can never 
mistake it for anything else. 

I have heard it said, although I cannot vouch for the truth 
of it, that a snake, when in the act of charming, appears, by the 
alternate expansion and depression of its sides, to be engaged in 
the act of blowing with all its might. 

I think it every way probable, that in every instance of fas- 
cination, the position of the snake is to the windward of the 
victim of its charm. But why should this intoxicating odor draw 
its victim to the source from whence it issues. Here I must plead 
ignorance, to be sure ; but does anything more happen to the 
bird or beast in this case than happens to mankind in consequence 
of the use of those intoxicating gases, or fluids, furnished by the 
art of chemistry. 

A person affected by the exhilarating gas clings to the jar 
and sucks the pipe after he has inhaled its whole contents ; and is 
not the madness occasioned by inhaling this gas equal to that 
which takes place in the bird or squirrel when under the influence 
of the charm of the serpent? The victims of this serpentine fas- 
cination scream and run, or flutter about awhile, and then resign 
themselves to their fate. In like manner the person who inhales 
the gas is instantly deprived of reason, becomes frantic, and acts 
the madman ; but should he continue to inhale this gas only for 
a short time death would be the consequence. The same obser- 
vation may be made with regard to alcohol, the basis of ardent 
spirits, a habit of using which occasions a repetition of the in- 

70 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

toxicating draught, until, in spite of every consideration of 
honor, duty and interest, the indulgence ends in a slow but in- 
evitable suicide. 

My reader, I hope, will not complain of the length of this 
article. He perhaps has never seen one of the poisonous reptiles 
which so much annoyed his forefathers ; but in gratitude he ought 
to reflect on the appalling dangers attendant on the settlement of 
his native country. The first settler at night knew not where to 
set his foot without danger of being assailed by the fangs of a 
serpent. Even his cabin was not secure from the invasion of 
the snakes. In the day time, if in the woods, he knew not in 
what bunch of weeds or grass he might provoke a rattlesnake by 
the tread of his foot, or from behind what tree or log he might 
be met by the bullet or tomahawk of an Indian. 

Indigenous Fruits of the Country. 

After having described the western wilderness, an account 
of its native fruits cannot be improper. To the botanist and 
agriculturalist this history cannot fail of being acceptable. To 
the former it will serve to show the great improvement which 
cultivation has made upon the indigenous fruits of the forest. 
To the latter it will point out what plants may yet be cultivated 
with success, although hitherto neglected. For instance, should 
he inquire whether this country is calculated by nature for the 
cultivation of the vine, he has only to ask whether the country 
in its original state produced the fruit of the vine. Those early 
settlers who profited by the indication with regard to the culti- 
vation of the apple tree, furnished by the growth of the crab 
apple in the country, derived great advantage from their correct 
philosophy, in the high price of their fruit, while those who 
neglected this indication, and delayed planting their trees until 
they witnessed the growth of fruit on the trees of their neigh- 
bors, were left several years in the rear in this respect. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 71 

In giving the history of our native fruits I shall follow the 
order in which they ripened from spring until winter, our manner 
of gathering them, with some remarks on the present state of 
those of them which still remain in the country. 

The first fruit which ripened in the country was the wild 
strawberry. It grew on poor land, on which there was no timber. 
There were many such places of small extent, on the points of 
hills along the creeks. They were denominated bald knobs. The 
fruit was small, and much sourer than the cultivated strawberry. 
It was not abundant in any place. 

The service trees were the first in bloom in the spring. Their 
beautiful little flowers made a fine appearance through the woods, 
in the month of April. The berries were ripe in June. They 
are sweet, with a very slight mixture of acidity, and a very 
agreeable flavor. The service trees grew abundantly along the 
small water courses, and more thinly over the hills at a distance 
from them. A few of these trees still remain, but their fruit is 
mostly devoured by the great number of small birds which have 
accompanied the population of the country. Our time for gath- 
ering the service berries, as well as other fruits, was Sunday, 
and in large companies, under the protection of some of our 
warriors in arms. In doing this a great number of the trees 
were cut down, so that our crop of them was lessened every year. 
This fruit may be considered as lost to the country, for although 
the trees might be cultivated in gardens, the berries would all 
be devoured by the small birds before they would be fully ripe. 

Blackberries grew in abundance in those places where, 
shortly before the settlement of the country, the timber had been 
blown down by hurricanes. Those places we called the fallen 
timber. When ripe, which was in the time of harvest, the 
children and young people resorted to the fallen timber in large 
companies, under a guard, for the purpose of gathering the 
berries, of which tarts were often made for the harvest table. 
The fallen timber, owing to a new growth of trees, no longer 
produces those berries, but enough of them are to be had along 
the fences on most of our farms. 

72 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Wild raspberries of an agreeable flavor were found in many 
places, but not plentifully anywhere. 

Gooseberries of a small size, and very full of thorns, but of 
an agreeable taste, grew in some places in the woods. The 
amount of them was but small. Whatever may be the reason, 
this fruit does not succeed well when transplanted into gardens, 
where they flower abundantly, but shed the berries before they 
become ripe. 

Whortleberries were never abundant in this section of the 
country, but they were so in many places in the mountains. 

Wild plums were abundant in rich land. They were of 
various colors and sizes, and many of them of an excellent flavor. 
The wild plums of late years have, like our damson plums, fallen 
off prematurely. The beetle bug, or curculio, an insect unknown 
to the country at its first settlement, but now numerous every- 
where, perforates the green fruit for the deposition of its tgg. 
This occasions a flow of the juice of the fruit, so that it becomes 
gummy and falls off. 

An indifferent kind of fruit, called buckberries, used to 
grow on small shrubs on poor ridges. This fruit has nearly 
vanished from the settled parts of the country. 

Our fall fruits were winter and fall grapes ; the former grew 
in the bottom lands. They were sour, of little value, and seldom 
used. The fall grapes grew on the high grounds, particularly in 
the fallen timber land. Of these grapes we had several varieties, 
and some of them large and of an excellent flavor. We still 
have the wild grapes; but not in such abundance as formerly. 
In process of time they will disappear from the country. 

Black haws grew on large bushes along the moist bottoms 
of small water courses. They grew in large clusters, and ripened 
with the first frosts in the fall. Children were very fond of 
them. Red haws grew on the white thorn bushes. They were of 
various kinds. The sugar haws, which are small, grow in large 
clusters, and when ripe and free from worm, and semi trans- 
parent, were most esteemed. I have a row of about forty trees 
of the white thorn in my garden, which were raised from the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 73 

haws. The berries when ripe are large, and make a fine appear- 
ance, and being almost free from worms the children are very 
fond of eating them. 

Wild cherries were abundant in many places. To most 
people they are very agreeable fruit. They are now becoming 

Pawpaws were plenty along the great water courses and on 
the rich hills. Some people are fond of eating them. Scarcely 
any beast will touch them; even the omnivorous hog never eats 
them. It' is said that raccoons are fond of them. They are still 
plenty in many places. 

The crab apple was very abundant along the smaller water 
courses. The foliage of the tree which bears this fruit is like 
that of the domestic apple tree but not so large. The tree itself 
is smaller, of a slower growth than the orchard tree, and the 
wood of a much firmer texture. It blossoms a little later than 
our orchards, and when in bloom makes a noble appearance, and 
fills the surrounding air with a delicious fragrance. The crab 
appears to be a tree of great longevity. Sour as the crab apples 
were, the children were fond of eating them, especially when in 
the winter season they could find them under the leaves, where, 
defended from the frost, they acquired a fine golden color, a 
fragrant smell, and lost much of their sourness. One or more 
of these indigenous apple trees ought to be planted in every 
orchard, in honor of their native tenancy of our forests, as well 
as for the convenience of our ladies, who are very fond of them 
for preserves, but are sometimes unable to procure them. 

Of hickory nuts we had a great variety ; some of the larger 
shell bark nuts, with the exception of the thickness of their shells, 
were little inferior to the English walnut. Of white walnuts, 
we generally had a great abundance. Of black walnuts, many 
varieties as to size and amount of kernel. Hazel and chestnuts 
were plenty in many places. 

Thus a munificent providence had furnished this region of 
the earth with the greater number of fruits which are to be 
found in the old world; but owing to the want of cultivation, 
they were inferior in size and flavor to the same kinds of fruit 

74 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

in Europe. It has been my fate, as well as that of many others 
in this country, to use, in infancy and youth, the native fruits of 
the wilderness, and in more advanced age to enjoy the same 
kinds of fruits in their most improved state. The salutary 
effects of the cultivation of these fruits are, therefore, present to 
our senses, and we cannot fail to appreciate them. 

It may not be amiss to notice in this place the changes which 
have taken place in the growth and bearing of some of our fruit 
trees since the settlement of the country. 

My father planted peach trees at an early period. For 
some time a crop of peaches once in three or four years was as 
much as we expected. After some time these trees became so 
far naturalized to the climate as to bear almost every year. The 
same observation applies, although in a less degree, to the apple 
trees which were first planted in the country. Their fruit was 
frequently wholly killed by the frost. This has not happened 
for many years past. The pear and heart cherry trees, although 
they blossomed abundantly, bore but little fruit for many years ; 
but in process of time they afforded abundant crops. Such was 
the effect of their becoming naturalized to our climate. 

The peach and pear trees did very well until the year 1806, 
when a long succession of rainy seasons commenced, during 
which the trees overgrew themselves, and the falls being warm 
and rainy they continued their growth until the onset of winter. 
Their branches were then full of sap, and as water occupies a 
greater space when frozen than when fluid, the freezing of the 
water they contained bursted the texture of their wood, and 
rendered them unfit for the transmission of sap the next season. 
This fact leads to the conclusion that those soft-wooded fruit 
trees ought to be planted in the highest situations, and poorest 
land, where they will have the slowest possible growth. The 
few dry seasons we have had latterly, have, in some measure, 
restored the peach trees. If such seasons should continue for 
any length of time, the peaches and pears will again become 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 75 

If annual plants, as well as trees, possess the faculty of 
becoming naturalized to soils and climates remote from those 
in which they are indigenous, what great advantages may we 
not reasonably anticipate for the future prosperity of our coun- 
try, from this important law of the vegetable world? If, by a 
slow progress from south to north, the period of the growth of 
a plant may be shortened to three-fourths, or even less than that, 
of the time of its growth in the south, the sugar cane, already 
transplanted from the islands of the West Indies to the shores of 
the Mississippi, may slowly travel up that river and its branches 
to latitudes far north of any region which has heretofore wit- 
nessed its growth. The cotton plant and coffee tree, in all prob- 
ability, will take the same course. 

The conclusions of philosophy, with regard to the future, 
are prophetic, when correctly drawn from the unerring test of 
experience. In the prospect here presented of the practicability 
of naturalizing the plants of the south to the temperate latitudes 
far north of their native region, it is only saying that what has 
happened to one plant may under similar treatment happen to 
another. For example. How widely different is the large squaw 
corn, in its size and the period of its growth, from the Mandan 
corn. The latter ripens under the fortieth degree of north lati- 
tude; and yet the squaw and Mandan corn are not even different 
species ; but only varieties of the same plant. The squaw corn 
might travel slowly to the north, and ultimately dwindle down 
into Mandan corn ; while the Mandan corn, by being transplanted 
to the south, increases in size and lengthens the period of its 
growth. ^ 

The cherry tree, a native of Cerasia, was once cultivated as 
a tender exotic plant in Italy. It now grows in the open air as 
far north as St. Petersburg in Russia. The palma christi, the 
plant which furnishes the beans of which the castor oil is made, 
is a native of the tropical regions, yet it now flourishes and 
bears fruit abundantly in our latitudes ! I once saw a plant of 
this kind in a garden in this town, the seed of which had come 
from the West Indies, among coffee. The plant was large and 
vigorous ; but owing to its too great a removal, at once, from its 
native soil and climate, it bore no beans. 

76 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

These observations have been made to show that the inde- 
pendence of our country may be vastly augmented by a proper 
attention to the laws of nature with regard to the vegetable 
world, so that we may hereafter cultivate within our own coun- 
try the precious fruits even of the tropical regions. 

Account of a Hermit, 

A man of the name of Thomas Hardie, 1 who from his mode 
of living was properly entitled to the appellation of hermit, lived 
in the neighborhood of my father's place. His appearance, dress, 
and deportment, are among the earliest impressions of my 

He was an Englishman, by birth and education, and an 
ordained clergyman of the Church of England. He must have 
been a man of profound learning. Some of his books in Greek 
and German fell into my hands after his death. His marginal 
remarks in the Greek books showed clearly that he had read 
them with great attention. 

His appearance was in the highest degree venerable. 

He was pretty far advanced in age; his head was bald, his 
hair gray, and his chin decorated with a large well shapen beard. 
His dress was a long robe which reached to his feet, held to- 
gether with a girdle about his loins. This he called his phylactery. 
His clothes were all fastened together with hooks and eyes. 
Buttons and buckles were abominations in his view. 

In the time of the Indian war he went about wherever he 
chose, without arms, believing, as he said, that no Indian would 
hurt him ; accordingly so it turned out, although he frequently 
exposed himself to danger. 

i This Thomas Hardie lived on the farm now occupied by Robert 
Vance, in Independence township. — (Simpson.) 

W est em Virginia and Pennsylvania. 77 

His conversation must have been of the most interesting 
kind. He seemed to be master of every science and possessed 
an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes. . He frequently entertained 
pretty large companies with relations of events in England and 
other parts. In all his anecdotes and historical relations he was 
the only speaker ; for he knew everything and his hearers nothing. 

But, however entertaining this hermit's conversation and 
anecdotes, they were conducted in a very singular way. When 
speaking he seldom kept his seat, but paced the floor from 
one side of the house to the other, sometimes with a slow, meas- 
ured step, sometimes in a quick and irregular gait. During all 
this time he was constantly twitching his beard, and sputtering 
out tobacco spittle in such a way that its drops were almost as 
small as those of mist. Sometimes he would walk up to one of 
his hearers so as to bring his face almost in contact with that 
of the person to whom he was speaking; he would then speak 
in a low tone of voice, almost approaching to a whisper ; during 
this time his hearer was apt to be a little annoyed by the particles 
of tobacco spittle falling on his face and clothing. After talk- 
ing a while in this way he would whirl about and talk again in 
a loud tone of voice. Sometimes the hermit would preach to 
the people in the fort. When he did this he wore a black robe, 
made like the rest of his robes, in the fashion of a morning gown. 
Sometimes he put on bands of the common size and shape. At 
other times he had over his robe a very fine piece of linen, about 
four feet long and about eighteen inches broad. In the middle 
of this there was a hole through which he put his head, so 
that the piece of linen hung down at equal lengths before and 
behind. This decoration gave him a truly venerable appearance. 
I think, from the great extent of his learning, he must have been 
a first rate preacher. In addition to this, to the best of my re- 
collection, his voice and elocution were of the first order. In 
his public services, particularly in the marriage ceremony, which 
it fell to his lot to perform very often for our early settlers, he 
followed the ritual of the Church of England. 

This hermit possessed one art the like of which I never 
witnessed or heard of since. He was in the habit of giving a 

78 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

piece of white paper four or five inches square a single fold, and 
with a very small pair of scissors which he always carried about 
him he would soon produce 'the picture of a buck, an elk, flower- 
pot, turkey, or anything else he chose. These pictures sometimes 
had a single, sometimes a double festoon border which had the 
appearance of fine needlework. While doing this he was com- 
monly engaged in conversation, and appeared to take very little 
notice of what he was doing. I remember I once asked him to 
show me how to make such pictures. He answered with apparent 
chagrin : 

" No, I cannot. It is a star in the head, and you don't 
possess it, therefore say no more about it." 

Mr. Hardie, although he professed himself a clergyman of 
the Church of England, was nevertheless attached to the Dunk- 
ard society, I think on the river Lehigh, but whether he came 
into the country with the Dunkards who made the establishments 
which gave name to Dunkard creek and Dunkard bottom on 
Cheat river, I have not been informed. I have, indeed, never 
been able to obtain the history of the settlement and departure 
of those people from the country. 

Mr. Hardie brought with him into the country an orphan 
lad, whom he raised in his hermitage, and taught him his relig- 
ious principles with such effect that when grown up he suffered 
his beard to grow long. He adopted his master's deportment and 
mode of conversation. He was not, however, the disciple of his 
master in every point. After his beard had grown to a tolerable 
length he engaged in a scout against a couple of Indians who had 
taken two women and a child prisoners from the neighborhood. 
The prisoners were recovered in the evening of the second day 
of their captivity. On this occasion the young Dunkard behaved 
with the utmost bravery. He fired the first gun, and was first 
at the Indian camp to save the prisoners from the tomahawk. 
When the party returned to the fort they unanimously protested 
that so brave a man should not wear such an ugly beard, and 
accordingly shaved it off; but he let it grow again. All this, 
however, did not suit the pacific principles of his master. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 79 

This disciple of the hermit departed from his master in 
another point. He was twice married. This, I believe, dis- 
pleased the old hermit; for soon after the first marriage of his 
pupil he went down among his brethren in the lower part of 
Pennsylvania, where he died. 

Although these hermits seemed wholly devoted to the means 
of securing their future interest, they nevertheless did not en- 
tirely neglect the present world ; but took care to secure them- 
selves two very valuable tracts of land ; the one on Cross Creek, 
where their first hermitage was erected, the other the place now 
owned by Dr. John Cuthbertson, on which the second hermitage 
was established. 

When a boy I was often at the latter hermitage for the 
purpose of receiving instructions in arithmetic from the old 
hermit; although the old man was a good hand at washing and 
cooking, yet the apparent poverty and wretchedness of the 
cabin demonstrated in most impressive manner " that it is not 
good for man to be alone." 

There was something strange in the character and latter 
end of the younger hermit. During the greater part of his time, 
especially in his latter years, he was enthusiastically religious. 
Before eating he commonly read a few verses in his Bible, in- 
stead of saying grace. When alone he was often engaged in 
soliloquies; sometimes he attempted to preach, although he was 
a great stutterer. Several times he became quite deranged. On 
one occasion he took it into his head that he ought to be scourged, 
and actually prepared hickories, stripped himself, and made a 
mulatto man whip him until he said he had enough. Throughout 
life, with the exception of his last year, he was remarkably lazy 
and careless about his worldly affairs, owing to his great devo- 
tion to reading and religious exercises. He was the last in the 
neighborhood at planting, sowing, reaping, and everything else 
on his farm, so that, although he had an excellent tract of land, 
he could hardly make out to live. About a year before his death 
he fell into a consumptive complaint. During this year his 
former religious impressions seemed entirely to have forsaken his 
mind. He became completely the man of the world. Whenever 

80 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

any conversation on religious subjects was offered him by his 
neighbors, who saw that his end was fast approaching, he 
always replied with some observation about building a barn, a 
fence, or something else of a worldly nature. During this year 
he did more worldly business than he ever had done in any ten 
years of his life before. 

I knew an instance of a similar change in the deportment 
of a gentleman whom I attended in a severe attack of the dropsy. 
Before his illness he was an easy, good natured, careless man, 
and a good neighbor; but after his recovery he was excessively 
avaricious, profane in his language, and a tyrant to his family 
and neighbors. Both these men appeared to have undergone an 
entire change in the state of the mind and external deportment. 

The question whether the moral system of our nature is not 
as apt to suffer a deterioration, as to receive an improvement, in 
consequence of severe and long continued fits of sickness, would 
be an interesting subject in moral philosophy, and deserves the 
attention of men of science. 


Settlement of the Country. 

The settlements on this side of the mountains commenced 
along the Monongahela, and between that river and the Laurel 
Ridge, in the year 1772. In the succeeding year they reached 
the Ohio river. The greater number of the first settlers came 
from the upper parts of the then colonies of Maryland and 
Virginia. Braddock's trail, as it was called, was the route by 
which the greater number of them crossed the mountains. A 
less number of them came by the way of Bedford and Fort 
Ligonier, the military road from Pennsylvania to Pittsburg. 
They effected their removals on horses furnished with pack- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 81 

saddles. This was the more easily done, as but few of these 
early adventurers into the wilderness were encumbered with 
much baggage. 

Land was the object which invited the greater number of 
these people to cross the mountain, for as the saying then was, 
" it was to be had here for taking up " ; that is, building a cabin 
and raising a crop of grain, however small, of any kind, entitled 
the occupant to four hundred acres of land, and a preemption 
right to one thousand acres more adjoining, to be secured by a 
land office warrant. This right was to take effect if there hap- 
pened to be so much vacant land, or any part thereof, adjoining 
the tract secured by the settlement right. 

At an early period the government of Virginia appointed 
three commissioners to give certificates of settlement rights. 
These certificates, together with the surveyor's plan, were sent 
to the land office of the state, where they laid six months, to 
await any caveat which might be offered. If none was offered 
the patent then issued. 

There was, at an early period of our settlements, an inferior 
kind of land title denominated a tomahawk right, which was 
made by deadening a few trees near the head of a spring, and 
marking the bark of some one or more of them with the initials 
of the name of the person who made the improvement. I 
remember having seen a number of these tomahawk rights when 
a boy. For a long time many of them bore the names of those 
who made them. I have no knowledge of the efficacy of the 
tomahawk improvement, or whether it conferred any right what- 
ever, unless followed by an actual settlement. These rights, how- 
ever, were often bought and sold. Those who wished to make 
settlement on their favorite tracts of land bought up the toma- 
hawk improvements rather than enter into quarrels with those 
who had made them. Other improvers of the land, with a view 
to actual settlement, and who happened to be stout veteran fel- 
lows, took a very different course from that of purchasing the 
tomahawk rights. . When annoyed by the claimants under those 
rights they deliberately cut a few good hickories and gave them 
what was called in those days a laced jacket, that is a sound 

82 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Some of the early settlers took the precaution to come over 
the mountains in the spring, leaving their families behind to 
raise a crop of corn, and then return and bring them out in the 
fall. This I should think was the better way. Others, especially 
those whose families were small, brought them with them in the 
spring. My father took the latter course. His family was but 
small and he brought them all with him. The Indian meal which 
he brought over the mountain was expended six weeks too soon, 
so that for that length of time we had to live without bread. 
The lean venison and the breast of the wild turkey we were 
taught to call bread. The flesh of the bear was denominated 
meat. This artifice did not succeed very well ; after living in 
this way for some time we became sickly, the stomach seemed 
to be always empty, and tormented with a sense of hunger. I 
remember how narrowly the children watched the growth of the 
potato tops, pumpkin and squash vines, hoping from day to day 
to get something to answer in the place of bread. How delicious 
was the taste of the young potatoes when we got them ! What 
a jubilee when we were permitted to pull the young corn for 
roasting ears ! Still more so when it had acquired sufficient hard- 
ness to be made into johnny cakes by the aid of a tin grater. 
We then became healthy, vigorous and contented with our 
situation, poor as it was. 

My father with a small number of his neighbors made their 
settlements in the spring of 1773. 1 Though they were in a poor 
and destitute situation, they nevertheless lived in peace; but 
their tranquility was not of long continuance. Those most atro- 
cious murders of the peaceable inoffensive Indians at Captina 
and Yellow Creek brought on the war of Lord Dunmore in the 
spring of the year 1774. Our little settlement then broke up. 
The women and children were removed to Morris' fort in Sandy 

i Among those who settled in 1773 with Mr. Doddridge was Alexander 
Wells, who built the mill where Oliver Clemons now lives. John Tennell 
settled where W. V. Walker now lives. Mr. Wells died in 1813, aged 86 
years, and was buried in the old Wells grave yard. — (Simpson.) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 83 

creek glade, some distance to the east of Uniontown. 2 The fort 
consisted of an assemblage of small hovels, situated on the 
margin of a large and noxious marsh, the effluvia of which gave 
the most of the women and children the fever and ague. The 
men were compelled by necessity to return home, and risk the 
tomahawk and scalping knife of the Indians, in raising corn 
to keep their families from starvation the succeeding winter. 
Those sufferings, dangers and losses, were the tribute we had 
to pay to that thirst for blood which actuated those veteran mur- 
derers who brought the war upon us ! The memory of the 
sufferers in this war, as well as that of their descendants, still 
looks back upon them with regret and abhorrence, and the page 
of history will consign their names to posterity with the full 
weight of infamy they deserve. 

A correct and detailed view of the origin of societies, and 
their progress from one condition or point of wealth, science 
and civilization, to another, in these important respects a much 
higher grade, is always highly interesting even when received 
through the dusky medium of history, oftentimes but poorly and 
partially written ; but when this retrospect of things past and 
gone is drawn from the recollections of experience, the impres- 
sions which it makes on the heart are of the most vivid, deep 
and lasting kind. The following history of the state of society, 
manners and customs of our forefathers is to be drawn frOm the 
latter source, and it is given to the world with the recollection 
that many of my cotemporaries, still living, have, as well as 
myself, witnessed all the scenes and events herein described, and 
whose memories would speedily detect and expose any errors 
the work may contain. 

2Veech's "Monongahela of Old" makes mention of this reference to 
the father and family of Dr. Doddridge passing over the " Sandy Creek road " 
in 1774, and Mr. Veech points out that "this was the second road viewed 
and laid out by order of the court of Fayette county after its erection in 
1783. It came from the Ten Mile settlement through Greene county, cross- 
ing the river (Monongahela) at Hyde's Ferry, or mouth of Big. Whitely, 
passing by the south side of Masontown, through Haydentown, or by David 
John's mill, up Laurel Hill, through the Sandy Creek settlement to Daniel 
McPeak's and into Virginia. Morris Fort was on Sandy Creek, in Virginia, 
just outside the Fayette county border. It was much resorted to by the 
early settlers on the upper Monongahela and Cheat rivers, and from Ten 

84 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The municipal, as well as ecclesiastical, institutions of so- 
ciety, whether good or bad, in consequence of their long con- 
tinued use, give a corresponding cast to the public character of 
the society whose conduct they direct, and the more so because 
in the lapse of time the observance of them becomes a matter 
of conscience. This observation applies, in full force, to that 
influence of our early land laws, which allowed four hundred 
acres, and no more, to a settlement right. Many of our first 
settlers seemed to regard this amount of the surface of the earth 
as the allotment of divine providence for one family, and believed 
that any attempt to get more would be sinful. Most of them, 
therefore, contented themselves with that amount; although they 
might have evaded the law, which allowed but one settlement 
right to any one individual, by taking out the title papers in the 
names of others, to be afterwards transferred to them, as if by 
purchase. Some few, indeed, pursued this practice; but it was 
held in detestation. 

My father, like many others, believed, that having secured 
his legal allotment, the rest of the country belonged of right to 
those who chose to settle in it. There was a piece of vacant land 
adjoining his tract amounting to about two hundred acres. To 
this tract of land he had the preemption right, and accordingly 
secured it by warrant; but his conscience would not permit him 
to retain it in his family; he therefore gave it to an apprentice 
lad whom he had raised in his house. This lad sold it to an 
uncle of mine for a cow and a calf and a wool hat. 

Owing to the equal distribution of real property directed by 
our land laws, and the sterling integrity of our forefathers in 
their observance of them, we have no districts of sold land, as it 
is called, that is large tracts of land in the hands of individuals, 
or companies, who neither sell nor improve them, as is the case 
in Lower Canada and the north-western part of Pennsylvania. 
These unsettled tracts make huge blanks in the population of 
the country where they exist. 

The division lines between those whose lands adjoined were 
generally made in an amicable manner, before any survey of them 
was made, by the parties concerned. In doing this they were 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 85 

guided mainly by the tops of ridges and water courses, but par- 
ticularly the former. Hence the greater number of farms in the 
western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia bear a striking 
resemblance to an amphitheatre. The buildings occupy a low 
situation and the tops of the surrounding hills are the boundaries 
of the tract to which the family mansion belongs. 

Our forefathers were fond of farms of this description, be- 
cause, as they said, they are attended with this convenience 
" that everything comes to the house down hill." In the hilly 
parts of the state of Ohio, the land having been laid off in an 
arbitrary manner, by straight parallel lines, without regard to 
hill or dale, the farms present a different aspect from those on 
the east side of the river opposite. There the buildings as fre- 
quently occupy the tops of the hills as any other situation. 

Our people had become so accustomed to the mode of 
" getting land for taking it up," that for a long time it was gen- 
erally believed that the land on the west side of the Ohio would 
ultimately be disposed of in that way. Hence almost the whole 
tract of country between the Ohio and Muskingum was parcelled 
out in tomahawk improvements; but these latter improvers did 
not content themselves with a single four hundred acre tract 
apiece. Many of them owned a great number of tracts of the 
best- land, and thus, in imagination, were as " wealthy as a 
South Sea dream." Many of the land jobbers of this class did 
not content themselves with marking the trees, at the usual 
height, with the initials of their names, but climbed up the large 
beech trees and cut the letters in their bark from twenty to 
forty feet from the ground. To enable them to identify those 
trees, at a future period, they made marks on other trees around 
them as references. 

Most of the early settlers considered their land as of little 
value, from an apprehension that after a few years' cultivation 
it would lose its fertility, at least for a long time. I have often 
heard them say that such a field would bear so many crops and 
another so many, more or less, than that. The ground of this 
belief concerning the short lived fertility of the land in this 
country was the poverty of a great proportion of the land in 

86 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the lower parts of Maryland and Virginia, which, after producing 
a few crops, became unfit for use and was thrown out into 

In their unfavorable opinion of the nature of the soil of our 
country our forefathers were utterly mistaken. The native 
weeds were scarcely destroyed before the white clover and dif- 
ferent kinds of grass made their appearance. These soon cov- 
ered the ground, so as to afford pasture for the cattle, by the 
time the wood range was eaten out, as well as protect the soil 
from being washed away by drenching rains, so often injurious 
in hilly countries. 

Judging from Virgil's 1 test of fruitful and barren soils, the 
greater part of this country must possess every requisite for 
fertility. The test is this : dig a hole of any reasonable dimen- 
sions and depth. If the earth which was taken out, when thrown 
lightly back into it, does not fill up the hole the soil is fruitful ; 
but if it more than fill it up the soil is barren. 

Whoever chooses to make this experiment will find the result 
indicative of the richness of our soil. Even our graves, not- 
withstanding the size of the vault, are seldom finished with the 
earth thrown out of them, and they soon sink below the surface 
of the earth. 


House Furniture and Diet. 

The settlement of a new country, in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of an old one, is not attended with much difficulty, be- 
cause supplies can be readily obtained from the latter; but the 

i Ante locum capies oculis, alteque jubebis 
In solido puteum demitti. omnemque repones 
Rursus humum, et pedibus summas cequabis arenas, 
Si deerunt : rarum, pecorique et vitibus almis 
Aptius uber erit. Sin in sua posse negabunt • 
Ire loca, et scrobibus superabit terra repletis, 
Spissus ager : glebas cunctanes crassaque terga 
Expecta, validis terram proscinde juvencis. 

Vir. Geo., lib., ii, 1, 230. 
— (D) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 87 

settlement of a country very remote from any cultivated region 
is a very different thing, because at the outset, food, raiment, 
and the implements of husbandry are obtained only in small 
supplies and with great difficulty. The task of making new 
establishments in a remote wilderness in a time of profound 
peace is sufficiently difficult ; but when, in addition to all the 
unavoidable hardships attendant on this business, those resulting 
from an extensive and furious warfare with savages are super- 
added, toil, privations and sufferings are then carried to the full 
extent of the capacity of men to endure them. 

Such was the wretched condition of our forefathers in 
making their settlements here. To all their difficulties and pri- 
vations the Indian war was a we'ghty addition. This destructive 
warfare they were compelled to sustain almost single handed, 
because the revolutionary contest with England gave full em- 
ployment for the military strength and resources on the east side 
of the mountains. , 

The following history of the poverty, labors, sufferings, 
manners and customs, of our forefathers, will appear like a col- 
lection of " tales of olden times " without any garnish of lan- 
guage to spoil the- original portraits by giving them shades of 
coloring which they did not possess. I shall follow the order of 
things as they occurred during the period of time embraced in 
these narratives, beginning with those rude accommodations with 
which our first adventurers into this country furnished them- 
selves at the commencement of their establishments. It will be 
a homely narrative ; yet valuable on the ground of its being real 

If my reader, when viewing through the medium which I 
here present the sufferings of human nature in one of its most 
depressed and dangerous conditions, should drop an involuntary 
tear, let him not blame me for the sentiment of sympathy which 
he feels. On the contrary, if he should sometimes meet with a 
recital calculated to excite a smile or a laugh I claim no credit 
for his enjoyment. It is the subject matter of the history and not 
the historian which makes those widely different impressions on 
the mind of the reader. 

88 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

In this chapter it is my design to give a brief account of 
the household furniture and articles of diet which were used 
by the first inhabitants of our country. A description of their 
cabins and half-faced camps, and their manner of building them, 
will be found elsewhere. 

The furniture for the table, for several years after the 
settlement of this country, consisted of a few pewter dishes, 
plates and spoons; but mostly of wooden bowls, trenchers and 
noggins. If these last were scarce, gourds and hard shelled 
squashes made up the deficiency. The iron pots, knives and 
forks, were brought from the east side of the mountains along 
with the salt and iron on pack horses. These articles of furni- 
ture corresponded very well with the articles of diet on which 
they were employed. " Hog and hominy " were proverbial for 
the dish of which they were the component parts. Johnny cake 
and pone were at the outset of the settlements of the country 
the only forms of bread in use for breakfast and dinner. At 
supper, milk and mush was the standard dish. When milk was 
not plenty, which was often the case, owing to the scarcity of 
cattle, or the want of proper pasture for them, the substantial 
dish of hominy had to supply the place of them ; mush was fre- 
quently eaten with sweetened water, molasses, bear's oil, or the 
gravy of fried meat. 

Every family, besides a little garden for the few vegetables 
which they cultivated, had another small enclosure containing 
from half an acre to an acre, which they called a truck patch, 
in which they raised corn for roasting ears, pumpkins, squashes, 
beans and potatoes. These, in the latter part of the summer and 
fall, were cooked with their pork, venison and bear meat for 
dinner, and made very wholesome and well tasted dishes. The 
standard dinner dish for every log rolling, house raising and 
harvest day was a pot pie, or what in other countries is called 
sea pie. This, besides answering for dinner, served for a part 
of the supper also. The remainder of it from dinner, being 
eaten with milk in the evening, after the conclusion of the labor 
of the day. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 89 

In our whole display of furniture, the delft, china and 
silver were unknown. It did not then as now require contribu- 
tions from the four quarters of the globe to. furnish the break- 
fast table, viz : the silver from Mexico ; the coffee from the 
West Indies; the tea from China, and the delft and porcelain 
from Europe or Asia. Yet our homely fare, and unsightly cabins, 
and furniture, produced a hardy veteran race, who planted the 
first footsteps of society and civilization in the immense regions 
of the west. Inured to hardihood, bravery and labor from their 
early youth, they sustained with manly fortitude the fatigue of 
the chase, the campaign and scout, and with strong arms " turned 
the wilderness into fruitful fields " and have left to their de- 
scendants the rich inheritance of an immense empire blessed with 
peace and wealth. 

I well recollect the first time I ever saw a tea cup and 
saucer and tasted coffee. My mother died when I was about 
six or seven years of age. My father then sent me to Maryland 
with a brother of my grandfather, Mr. Alexander Wells, to 
school. At Colonel Brown's in the mountains, at Stony creek 
glades, I for the first time saw tame geese, and by bantering a 
pet gander I got a severe biting by his bill, and beating by his 
wings. I wondered very much that birds so large and strong 
should be so much tamer than the wild turkeys. At this place, 
however, all was right, excepting the large birds which they 
called geese. The cabin and its furniture were such as I had 
been accustomed to see in the backwoods, as my country was 
then called. At Bedford everything was changed. The tavern 
at which my uncle put up was a stone house, and to make the 
change still more complete it was plastered in the inside, both 
as to the walls and ceiling. On going into the dining room I 
was struck with astonishment at the appearance of the house. 
I had no idea that there was any house in 'the world which was 
not built of logs ; but here I looked round the house and could 
see no logs, and above I could see no joists; whether such a 
thing had been made by the hands of man, or had grown so of 
itself, I could not conjecture. I had not the courage to inquire 
anything about it. When supper came on, " my confusion was 

90 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

worse confounded." A little cup stood in a bigger one with 
some brownish looking stuff in it, which was neither milk, hom- 
iny nor broth ; what to do with these little cups and the little 
spoon belonging to them I could not tell; and I was afraid to 
ask anything concerning the use of them. 

It was in the time of the war, and the company were giving 
accounts of catching, whipping and hanging the tories. The 
.word jail frequently occurred: this word I had never heard 
before; but I soon discovered, and was much terrified at its 
meaning, and supposed that we were in much danger of the 
fate of the tories ; for I thought, as we had come from the back- 
woods, it was altogether likely that we must be tories too. For 
fear of being discovered I durst not utter a single word. I 
therefore watched attentively to see what the big folks would 
do with their little cups and spoons. I imitated them, and found 
the taste of the coffee nauseous beyond anything I ever had 
tasted in my life. I continued to drink, as the rest of the com- 
pany did, with the tears streaming from my eyes, but when it 
was to end I was at a loss to know, as the little cups were filled 
immediately after being emptied. This circumstance distressed 
me very much, as I durst not say I had enough. Looking at- 
tentively at the grown persons, I saw one man turn his little 
cup bottom upwards and put his little spoon across it. I ob- 
served that after this his cup was not filled again ; I followed 
his example, and to my great satisfaction the result as to my 
cup was the same. 

The introduction of delft ware was considered by many of 
the backwoods people as a culpable innovation. It was too easily 
broken, and the plates of that ware dulled their scalping and 
clasp knives; tea ware was too small for men; they might do for 
women and children. Tea and coffee were only slops, which in 
the adage of the day " did not stick by the ribs." The idea was 
they were designed only for people of quality, who do not labor, 
or the sick. A genuine backwoodsman would have thought him- 
self disgraced by showing a fondness for those slops. Indeed, 
many of them have, to this day, very little respect for them. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 91 

Dress of the Indians and First Settlers. 

On the frontiers, and particularly amongst those who were 
much in the habit of hunting, and going on scouts and campaigns, 
the dress of the men was partly Indian and partly that of civil- 
ized nations. 

The hunting shirt was universally worn. This was a kind 
of loose frock, reaching half way down the thighs, with large 
sleeves, open before, and so wide as to lap over a foot or more 
when belted. The cap was large, and sometimes handsomely 
fringed with a ravelled piece of cloth of a different color from 
that of the hunting shirt itself. The bosom of this dress served 
as a wallet to hold a chunk of bread, cakes, jerk, tow for wiping 
the barrel of the rifle, or any other necessary for the hunter or 
warrior. The belt, which was always tied behind, answered sev- 
eral purposes, besides that of holding the dress together. In 
cold weather the mittens, and sometimes the bullet-bag, occupied 
the front part of it. To the right side was suspended the toma- 
hawk and to the left the scalping knife in its leathern sheath. 
The hunting shirt was generally made of linsey, sometimes of 
coarse linen, and a few of dressed deer skins. These last were 
very cold and uncomfortable in wet weather. The shirt and 
jacket were of the common fashion. A pair of drawers or 
breeches and leggins were the dress of the thigh and legs ; a 
pair of moccasins answered for the feet much better than shoes. 
These were made of dressed deer skin. They were mostly made 
of a single piece with a gathering seam along the top of the foot, 
and another from the bottom of the heel, without gathers as 
high as the ankle joint or a little higher. Flaps were left on 
each side to reach some distance up the legs. These were nicely 

92 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

adapted to the ankles and lower part of the leg by thongs of 
deer skin, so that no dust, gravel or snow could get within the 

The moccasins in ordinary use cost but a few hours labor 
to make them. This was done by an instrument denominated a 
moccasin awl, which was made of the backspring of an old 
claspknife. This awl with its buckshorn handle was an ap- 
pendage of every shot pouch strap, together with a roll of buck- 
skin for mending the moccasins. This was the labor of almost 
every evening. They were sewed together and patched with 
deer skin thongs, or whangs, as they were commonly called. 

In cold weather the moccasins were well stuffed with deer's 
hair, or dry leaves, so as to keep the feet comfortably warm; 
but in wet weather it was usually said that wearing them was 
" a decent way of going barefooted ;" and such was the fact, 
owing to the spongy texture of the leather of which they were 

Owing to this defective covering of the feet, more than to 
any other circumstance, the greater number of our hunters and 
warriors were afflicted with the rheumatism in their limbs. Of 
this disease they were all apprehensive in cold or wet weather, 
and therefore always slept with their feet to the fire to prevent 
or cure it as well as they could. This practice unquestionably 
had a very salutary effect, and prevented many of them from 
becoming confirmed cripples in early life. 

In the latter years of the Indian war our young men became 
more enamored of the Indian dress throughout, with the ex- 
ception of the matchcoat. The drawers were laid aside and the 
leggins made longer, so as to reach the upper part of the thigh. 
The Indian breech clout was adopted. This was a piece of 
linen or cloth nearly a yard long, and eight or nine inches broad. 
This passed under the belt before and behind leaving the ends 
for flaps hanging before and behind over the belt. These flaps 
were sometimes ornamented with some coarse kind of em- 
broidery work. To the same belts which secured the breech 
clout, strings which supported the long leggins were attached. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 93 

When this belt, as was often the case, passed over the hunting 
shirt the upper part of the thighs and part of the hips were 

The young warrior instead of being abashed by this nudity 
was proud of his Indian like dress. In some few instances I 
have seen them go into places of public worship in this dress. 
Their appearance, however, did not add much to the devotion 
of the young ladies. 

The linsey petticoat and bed gown, which were the universal 
dress of our women in early times, would make a strange figure 
in our days. A small home-made handkerchief, in point of ele- 
gance, would illy supply the place of that profusion of ruffles 
with which the necks of our ladies are now ornamented. 

They went barefooted in warm weather, and in cold their 
feet were cohered with moccasins, coarse shoes, or shoepacks, 
which would make but a sorry figure beside the elegant morocco 
slippers often embossed with bullion which at present ornament 
the feet of their daughters and grand-daughters. 

The coats and bedgowns of the women, as well as the hunt- 
ing shirts of the men, were hung in full display on wooden pegs 
round the walls of their cabins, so that while they answered in 
some degree the place of paper hangings or tapestry they an- 
nounced to the stranger as well as neighbor the wealth or poverty 
of the family in the articles of clothing. This practice has not 
yet been wholly laid aside amongst the backwoods families. 

The historian would say to the ladies of the present time, 
our ancestors of your sex knew nothing of the ruffles, leghorns, 
curls, combs, rings and other jewels with which their fair 
daughters now decorate themselves. Such things were not then 
to be had. Many of the younger part of them were pretty well 
grown up before they ever saw the inside of a store room, or 
even knew there was such a thing in the world, unless by hearsay, 
and indeed scarcely that. Instead of the toilet, they had to handle 
the distaff or shuttle, the sickle or weeding hoe, contented if they 
could obtain their linsey clothing and cover their heads with a 
sun bonnet made of six or seven hundred linen. 

94 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The Fort and other Defenses. 

My reader will understand by this term, not only a place of 
defense, but the residence of a small number of families belong- 
ing to the same neighborhood. As the Indian mode of warfare 
was an indiscrimate slaughter of all ages and both sexes, it 
was as requisite to provide for the safety of the women and 
children as for that of the men. 

The fort consisted of cabins, blockhouses and stockades. 
A range of cabins commonly formed one side, at least, of the 
fort. Divisions or partitions of logs separated the cabins from 
each other. The walls on the outside were ten or twelve feet 
high, the slope of the roof being turned wholly inward. A very 
few of these cabins had puncheon floors, the greater part were 
earthen. The blockhouses were built at the angles of the fort. 
They projected about two feet beyond the outer walls of the 
cabins and stockades. Their upper stories were about eighteen 
inches every way larger in dimension than the under one, leaving 
an opening at the commencement of the second story to prevent 
the enemy from making a lodgment under their walls. In some 
forts, instead of blockhouses, the angles of the fort were furnished 
with bastions. A large folding gate made of thick slabs, nearest 
the spring, closed the fort. The stockades, bastions, cabins and 
blockhouse walls, were furnished with port holes at proper heights 
and distances. The whole of the outside was made completely 
bullet proof. • 

It may be truly said that necessity is the mother of invention ; 
for the whole of this work was made without the aid of a single 
nail or spike of iron, and for this reason, such things were not to 
be had. 

In some places less exposed a single blockhouse, with a 
cabin or two, constituted the whole fort. Such places of refuge 
may appear very trifling to those who have been in the habit of 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 95 

seeing the formidable military garrisons of Europe and America ; 
but they answered the purpose, as the Indians had no artillery. 
They seldom attacked, and scarcely ever took one of them. 

The families belonging to these forts were so attached to 
their own cabins on their farms that they seldom moved into 
their fort in the spring until compelled by some alarm, as they 
called it; that is, when it was announced by some murder that 
the Indians were in the settlement. 

The fort to which my father belonged was, during the first 
years of the war, three-quarters of a mile from his farm; but 
when this fort went to decay, and became unfit for defense, a 
new one was built at his own house. I well remember that, when 
a little boy, the family were sometimes waked up in the dead of 
night by an express with a report that the Indians were at hand. 
The express came softly to the door, or back window, and by a 
gentle tapping waked the family. This was easily done, as an 
habitual fear made us ever watchful and sensible to the slightest 
alarm. The whole family were instantly in motion. My father 
seized his gun and other implements of war. My stepmother 
waked up and dressed the children as well as she could, and being 
myself the oldest of the children I had to take my share of the 
burdens to be carried to the fort. There was no possibility of 
getting a horse in the night to aid us in removing to the fort. 
Besides the little children, we caught up what articles of clothing 
and provision we could get hold of in the dark, for we durst not 
light a candle or even stir the fire. All this was done with the 
utmost dispatch and the silence of death. The greatest care was 
taken not to awaken the youngest child. To the rest it was 
enough to say Indian and not a whimper was heard afterwards. 
Thus it often happened that the whole number of families belong- 
ing to a fort who were in the evening at their homes were all in 
their little fortress before the dawn of the next morning. In the 
course of the succeeding day their household furniture was 
brought in by parties of the-men under arms. 

Some families belonging to each fort were much less under 
the influence of fear than others, and who, after an alarm had 
subsided, in spite of every remonstrance, would remove home, 

96 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

while their more prudent neighbors remained in the fort. Such 
families were denominated fool hardy and gave no small amount 
of trouble by creating such frequent necessities of sending runners 
to warn them of their danger, and sometimes parties of our men 
to protect them during their removal. 

Caravans and Mode of Trade. 

The acquisition of the indispensable articles of salt, iron, 
steel and castings, presented great difficulties to the first settlers 
of the western country. They had no stores of any kind, no salt, 
iron, nor iron works; nor had they money to make purchases 
where those articles could be obtained. Peltry and furs were 
their only resources before they had time to raise cattle and 
horses for sale in the Atlantic states. 

Every family collected what peltry and fur they could obtain 
throughout the year for the purpose of sending them over the 
mountains for barter. 

In the fall of the year, after seeding time, every family 
formed an association with some of their neighbors for starting 
the little caravan. A master driver was selected from among 
them who was to be assisted by one or more young men and 
sometimes a boy or two. The horses were fitted out with pack- 
saddles, to the hinder part of which was fastened a pair of 
hobbles made of hickory withes ; a bell and collar ornamented his 
neck. The bags provided for the conveyance of the salt were 
filled with feed for the horses; on the journey a part of this 
feed was left at convenient stages on the way down, to support 
the return of the caravan; large wallets well filled with bread, 
jerk, boiled ham and cheese furnished provisions for the drivers. 
At night after feeding, the horses, whether put in pasture or 
turned out into the woods, were hobbled and the bells were 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 97 

The barter for salt and iron was made first at Baltimore; 
Frederick, Hagerstown, Oldtown and Fort Cumberland, in suc- 
cession, became the place of exchange. Each horse carried two 
bushels of alum salt weighing eighty four pounds to the bushel. 
This, to be sure, was not a heavy load for the horses but it was 
enough, considering the scanty subsistence allowed them on the 

The common price of a bushel of alum salt, at an early 
period, was a good cow and calf ; and until weights were intro- 
duced, the salt was measured into the half bushel, by hand, as 
lightly as possible. No one was permitted to walk heavily over 
the floor while the operation of measuring was going on. 

The following anecdote will serve to show how little the 
native sons of the forest knew of the etiquette of the Atlantic 

A neighbor of my father, some years after the settlement of 
the country, had collected a small drove of cattle for the Baltimore 
market. Amongst the hands employed to drive them was one 
who never had seen any condition of society but that of woods- 
men. At one of their lodging places in the mountain, the land- 
lord and his hired man, in the course of the night, stole two of 
the bells belonging to the drove and hid them in a piece of woods. 
The drove had not gone far in the morning before the bells were 
missed; and a detachment went back to recover the stolen bells. 
The men were found reaping in the field of the landlord. They 
were accused of the theft, but they denied the charge. The 
torture of sweating according to the custom of that time, that 
is of suspension by the arms pinioned behind their backs, brought 
a confession. The bells were procured and hung around the 
necks of the thieves. In this condition they were driven on foot 
before the detachment until they overtook the drove, which by this 
time had gone nine miles. A halt was called and a jury selected 
to try the culprits. They were condemned to receive a certain 
number of lashes on the bare back from the hand of each drover. 

The man above alluded to was the owner of one of the bells ; 
when it came to his turn to use the hickory, " now," says he to the 

98 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

thief, " you infernal scoundrel, I'll work your jacket nineteen to 
the dozen ; only think what a rascally figure I should make in the 
streets of Baltimore without a bell on my horse." 

The man was in earnest ; having seen no horses used without 
bells he thought they were requisite in every situation. 

Subsistence by Hunting. 

This was an important part of the employment of the early 
settlers of this country. For some years the woods supplied them 
with the greater amount of their subsistence, and with regard to 
some families at certain times, the whole of it ; for it was no un- 
common thing for families to live several months without a 
mouthful of bread. It frequently happened that there was no 
breakfast until it was obtained from the woods. Fur and peltry 
were the people's money. They had nothing else to give in ex- 
change for rifles, salt and iron, on the other side of the moun- 

The fall and early part of the winter was the season for 
hunting the deer, and the whole of the winter, including part of 
the spring, for bears and fur skinned animals. It was a custom- 
ary saying that fur is good during every month in the name of 
which the letter R occurs. 

The class of hunters with whom I was best acquainted were 
those whose hunting ranges were on the western side of the river, 
and at the distance of eight or nine miles from it. As soon as 
the leaves were pretty well down and the weather became rainy, 
accompanied by light snows, these men, after acting the part of 
husbandmen, so far as the state of warfare permitted them to do 
so, soon began to feel that they were hunters. They became un- 
easy at home. Everything about them became disagreeable. The 
house was too warm. The feather bed too soft, and even the 
good wife was not thought for the time being a proper companion. 
The mind of the hunter was wholly occupied with the camp and 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 99 

chase. I have often seen them get up early in the morning at this 
season, walk hastily out and look anxiously to the woods and 
snuff the autumnal winds with the highest rapture, then return 
into the house and cast a quick and attentive look at the rifle, 
which was always suspended to a joist by a couple of buck's 
horns, or little forks. His hunting dog, understanding the inten- 
tions of his master, would wag his tail and by every blandishment 
in his power express his readiness to accompany him to the 

A day was soon appointed for the march of the little caval- 
cade to the camp. Two or three horses furnished with pack 
saddles were loaded with flour, Indian meal, blankets and every- 
thing else requisite for the use of the hunter. 

A -hunting camp, or what was called a half-faced cabin, was 
of the following form : the back part of it was sometimes a large 
log ; at the distance of eight or ten feet from this two stakes were 
set in the ground a few inches apart, and at the distance of eight 
or ten feet from these two more, to receive the ends of the poles 
for the sides of the camp. The whole slope of the roof was from 
the front to the back. The covering was made of slabs, skins or 
blankets, or, if in the spring of the year, the bark of hickory or 
ash trees. The front was left entirely open. The fire was built 
directly before this opening. The cracks between the logs were 
filled with moss. Dry leaves served for a bed. It is thus that a 
couple of men, in a few hours, will construct for themselves a 
temporary, but tolerably comfortable, defense from the inclemen- 
cies of the weather. The beaver, otter, muskrat and squirrel are 
scarcely their equals in dispatch in fabricating for themselves a 
covert from the tempest! A little more pains would have made 
a hunting camp a defense against the Indians. A cabin ten feet 
square, bullet proof and furnished with port holes, would have 
enabled two or three hunters to hold twenty Indians at bay for 
any length of time. But this precaution I believe was never at- 
tended to ; hence the hunters were often surprised and killed in 
their camps. 

100 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The site for the camp was selected with all the sagacity of 
the woodsmen, so as to have it sheltered by the surrounding hills 
from every wind, but more especially from those of the north 
and west. 

An uncle of mine of the name of Samuel Teter occupied the 
same camp for several years in succession. It was situated on 
one of the southern branches of Cross creek. Although I lived 
many years not more than fifteen miles from the place, it was not 
till within a very few years ago that I discovered its situation. 
It was shown me by a gentleman living in the neighborhood. 
Viewing the hills round about it, I soon perceived the sagacity of 
the hunter in the site for his camp. Not a wind could touch him ; 
and unless by the report of his gun or the sound of his axe, it 
would have been by mere accident if an Indian had discovered 
his concealment. 

Hunting was not a mere ramble in pursuit of game, in which 
there was nothing of skill and calculation ; on the contrary the 
hunter, before he set out in the morning, was informed by the 
state of the weather in what situation he might reasonably expect 
to meet with his game ; whether on the bottoms, sides or tops of 
the hills. In stormy weather the deer always seek the most shel- 
tered places, and the leeward sides of the hills. In rainy weather, 
in which there is not much wind, they keep in the open woods 
on the highest ground. 

In every situation it was requisite for the hunter to ascertain 
the course of the wind, so as to get the leeward of the game. 
This he effected by putting his finger in his mouth and holding it 
there until it became warm, then holding it above his head ; the 
side which first becomes cold shows which way the wind blows. 

As it was requisite, too, for the hunter to know the cardinal 
points, he had only to observe the trees to ascertain them. The 
bark of an aged tree is thicker and much rougher on the north 
than on the south side. The same thing may be said of the moss, 
it is much thicker and stronger on the north than on the south 
sides of the trees. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania! 101 

The whole business of the hunter consists of a succession of 
intrigues. From morning till night he was on the alert to gain 
the wind of his game, and approach them without being discov- 
ered. If he succeeded in killing a deer, he skinned it and hung it 
up out of the reach of the wolves, and immediately resumed the 
chase till the close of the evening, when he bent his course 
towards his camp ; when arrived there he kindled up his fire, and 
together with his fellow hunter cooked his supper. The supper 
finished, the adventures of the day furnished the tales for the 
evening. The spike buck, the two and three pronged buck, the 
doe and barren doe, figured through their anecdotes with great 
advantage. It would seem that after hunting awhile on the same 
ground, the hunters became acquainted with nearly all the gangs 
of deer within their range, so as to know each flock of them when 
they saw them. Often some old buck, by the means of his 
superior sagacity and watchfulness, saved his little gang from the 
hunter's skill by giving timely notice of his approach. The cun- 
ning of the hunter and that of the old buck were staked against 
each other, and it frequently happened that at the conclusion of 
the hunting season the old fellow was left free, uninjured tenant 
of his forest ; but if his rival succeeded in bringing him down, the 
victory was followed by no small amount of boasting on the part 
of the conqueror. 

When the weather was not suitable for hunting, the skins 
and carcases of the game were brought in and disposed of. 

Many of the hunters rested from their labors on the Sab- 
bath day, some from a motive of piety ; others said that whenever 
they hunted on Sunday they were sure to have bad luck all the 
rest of the week. 

102! Early, Settlement and Indian Wars of 


The Wedding and Mode of Living. 

For a long time after the first settlement of this country the 
inhabitants in general married young. There was no distinction 
of rank and very little of fortune. On these accounts the first 
impression of love resulted in marriage; and a family establish- 
ment cost but a little labor and nothing else. A description of a 
wedding from the beginning to the end will serve to show the 
manners of our forefathers and - mark the grade of civilization 
which has succeeded to their rude state of society in the course of 
a few years. 

At an early period the practice of celebrating the marriage 
at the house of the bride began, and it should seem with great 
propriety. She also has the choice of the priest to perform the 

In the first years of the settlement of this country a wedding 
engaged the attention of a whole neighborhood ; and the frolic was 
anticipated by old and young with eager expectation. This is not 
to be wondered at, when it is told that a wedding was almost the 
only gathering which was not accompanied with the labor of 
reaping, log rolling, building a cabin, or planning some scout or 

In the morning of the wedding day the groom and his attend- 
ants assembled at the house of his father for the purpose of 
reaching the mansion of his bride by noon, which was the usual 
time for celebrating the nuptials, which for certain must take 
place before dinner. 

Let the reader imagine an assemblage of people without a 
store, tailor or mantuamaker within a hundred miles ; and an 
assemblage of horses without a blacksmith or saddler within an 
equal distance. The gentlemen dressed in shoepacks, moccasins, 
leather breeches, leggins, linsey hunting shirts, and all home made. 
The ladies dressed in linsey petticoats and linsey or linen bed 
gowns, coarse shoes, stockings, handkerchiefs and buckskin 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 103 

gloves, if any. If there were any buckles, rings, buttons, or 
ruffles, they were the relics of old times; family pieces from 
parents or grand parents. The horses were caparisoned with old 
saddles, old bridles or halters, and packsaddles, with a bag or 
blanket thrown over them : a rope or string as often constituted 
the girth as a piece of leather. 

The march, in double file, was often interrupted by the nar- 
rowness and obstructions of our horse paths, as they were called, 
for we had no roads ; and these difficulties were often increased, 
sometimes by the good, and sometimes by the ill will of neigh- 
bors, by felling trees and tying grape vines across the way. 
Sometimes an ambuscade was formed by the way side, and an 
unexpected discharge of several guns took place, so as to cover the 
wedding company with smoke. Let the reader imagine the scene 
which followed this discharge; the sudden spring of the horses, 
the shrieks of the girls, and the chivalric bustle of their partners 
to save them from falling. Sometimes, in spite of all that 'could 
be done to prevent it, some were thrown to the ground. If a 
wrist, elbow, or ankle happened to be sprained it was tied with 
a handkerchief, and little more was thought "or said about it. 

Another ceremony commonly took place before the party 
reached the house of the bride, after the practice of making 
whiskey began, which was at an early period. When the party 
were about a mile from the place of their destination, two young 
men would single out to run for the bottle; the worse the path, 
the more logs, brush and deep hollows the better, as these ob- 
stacles afforded an opportunity for the greater display of intre- 
pidity and horsemanship. The English fox chase, in point of 
danger to the riders and their horses, is nothing to this race for 
the bottle. The start was announced by an Indian yell; logs, 
brush, muddy hollows, hill and glen, were speedily passed by the 
rival ponies. The bottle was always filled for the occasion, so 
that there was no use for judges ; for the first who reached the 
door was presented with the prize, with which he returned in 
triumph to the company. On approaching them he announced his 
victory over his rival by a shrill whoop. At the head of the troop, 
he gave the bottle first to the groom and his attendants, and 

104 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

then to each pair in succession to the rear of the line, giving each 
a dram ; and then, putting the bottle in the bosom of his hunting 
shirt, took his station in the company. 

The ceremony of the marriage preceded the dinner, which 
was a substantial backwoods feast of beef, pork, fowls, and some- 
times venison and bear meat roasted and boiled, with plenty of 
potatoes, cabbage, and other vegetables. During the dinner the 
greatest hilarity always prevailed ; although the table might be 
a large slab of timber, hewed out with a broad axe, supported by 
four sticks set in auger holes ; and the furniture, some old pewter 
dishes and plates; the rest, wooden bowls and trenchers; a few 
pewter spoons, much battered about the edges, were to be seen at 
some tables. The rest were made of horns. If knives were 
scarce, the deficiency was made up by the scalping knives which 
were carried in sheaths suspended to the belt of the hunting shirt. 

After dinner the dancing commenced, and generally lasted 
till the next morning. The figures of the dances were three and 
iour handed reels, or square sets and jigs. The commencement 
was always a square four, which was followed by what was called 
jigging it off; that is, two of the four would single out for a jig, 
and were followed by the remaining couple. The jigs were often 
accompanied with what was called cutting out ; that is, when either 
of the parties became tired of the dance, on intimation, the place 
was supplied by some one of the company without any interrup- 
tion of the dance. In this way a dance was often continued till 
the musician was heartily tired of his situation. Toward the 
latter part of the night, if any of the company, through weariness, 
attempted to conceal themselves for the purpose of sleeping, they 
were hunted up, paraded on the floor, and the fiddler ordered to 
play " Hang on till to-morrow morning." 

About nine or ten o'clock a deputation of the young ladies 
stole off the bride and put her to bed. In doing this it frequently 
happened that they had to ascend a ladder instead of a pair of 
stairs, leading from the dining and ball room to the loft, the floor 
of which was made of clapboards lying loose and without nails. 
This ascent, one might think, would put the bride and her at- 
tendants to the blush ; but as the foot of the ladder was commonly 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 105 

behind the door, which was purposely opened for the occasion, 
and its rounds at the inner end were well hung with hunting 
shirts, petticoats, and other articles of clothing, the candles being 
on the opposite side of the house, the exit of the bride was noticed 
but by few. This done, a deputation of young men in like manner 
stole off the groom, and placed him snugly by the side of his 
bride. The dance still continued ; and if seats happened to be 
scarce, which was often the case, every young man, when not 
engaged in the dance, was obliged to offer his lap as a seat for 
one of the girls ; and the offer was sure to be accepted. In the 
midst of this hilarity the bride and groom were not forgotten. 
Pretty late in the night some one would remind the company 
that the new couple must stand in need of some refreshment; 
black Betty, which was the name of the bottle, was called for and 
sent up the ladder, but sometimes black Betty did not go alone ; I 
have many times seen as much bread, beef, pork and cabbage sent 
along with her as would afford a good meal for a half dozen 
hungry men. The young couple were compelled to eat and drink, 
more or less, of whatever was offered them. 

In the course of the festivity if any, wanted to help himself 
to a dram, and the young couple to a toast, he would call out : 

"Where is black Betty? I want to kiss her sweet lips." 
Black Betty was soon handed to him. Then holding her up in his 
right hand he would say : 

" Health to the groom, not forgetting myself ; and here's to 
the bride, thumping luck and big children." 

This, so far from being taken amiss, was considered as an 
expression of a very proper and friendly wish, for big children, 
especially sons, were of great importance ; as we were few in 
number, and engaged in perpetual hostility with the Indians, the 
end of which no one could foresee. Indeed many of them seemed 
to suppose that war was the natural state of man, and therefore 
did not anticipate any conclusion of it ; every big son was there- 
fore considered as a young soldier. 

But to return. It often happened that some neighbors or 
relations, not being asked to the wedding, took offense ; and the 
mode of revenge adopted by them on such occasions was that of 

106 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

cutting off the manes, foretops and tails of the horses of the 
wedding company. Another method of revenge which was 
adopted when the chastity of the bride was a little suspected was 
that of setting up a pair of horns on poles, or trees, on the route 
of the wedding company. This was a hint to the groom that he 
might expect to be complimented with a pair of horns himself. 

On returning to the infare, the order of procession and 
the race for black Betty was the same as before. The feasting 
and dancing often lasted for several days, at the end of which 
the whole company were so exhausted with loss of sleep that 
several days' rest were requisite to fit them to return to their 
ordinary labors. 

Should I be asked why I have presented this unpleasant por- 
trait of the rude manners of our forefathers, I in my turn would 
ask my reader, why are you pleased with the histories of the 
blood and carnage of battles? Why are you delighted with the 
fictions of poetry, the novel and romance? I have related truth, 
and only truth, strange as it may seem. I have depicted a state 
of society and manners which are fast vanishing from the memory 
of man, with a view to give the youth of our country a knowledge 
of the advantages of civilization, and to give contentment to the 
aged by preventing them from saying " that former times were 
better than the present." 

The House Warming. 

I will proceed to state the usual manner of settling a young 
couple in the world. 

A spot was selected on a piece of land of one of the parents, 
for their habitation. A day was appointed shortly after their 
marriage for commencing the work of building their cabin. The 
fatigue party consisted of choppers, whose business it was to fell 
the trees and cut them off at proper lengths. A man with a team 
for hauling them to the place, and arranging them, properly as- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 107 

sorted, at the sides and ends of the building, a carpenter, if such 
he might be called, whose business it was to search the woods 
for a proper tree for making clapboards for the roof. The tree 
for this purpose must be straight grained and from three to four 
feet in diameter. The boards were split four feet long, with a 
large frow, and as wide as the timber would allow. They were 
used without planing or shaving. Another division was employed 
in getting puncheons for the floor of the cabin; this was done 
by splitting trees, about eighteen inches in diameter, and hewing 
the faces of them with a broad axe. They were half the length 
of the floor they were intended to make. The materials for the 
cabin were mostly prepared on the first day and sometimes the 
foundation laid in the evening. The second day was allotted for 
the raising. 

In the morning of the next day the neighbors collected for 
the raising. The first thing to be done was the election of four 
corner men, whose business it was to notch and place the logs. 
The rest of the company furnished them with the timbers. In 
the meantime the boards and puncheons were collecting for the 
floor and roof, so that by the time the cabin was a few rounds high 
the sleepers and floor began to be laid. The door was made by 
sawing or cutting the logs in one side so as to make an opening 
about three feet wide. This opening was secured by upright 
pieces of timber about three inches thick through which holes 
were bored into the ends of the logs for the purpose of pinning 
them fast. A similar opening, but wider, was made at the end 
for the chimney. This was built of logs and made large to admit 
of a back and jambs of stone. At the square, two end logs pro- 
jected a foot or eighteen inches beyond the wall to receive the 
butting poles, as they were called, against which the ends of the 
first row of clapboards was supported. The roof was formed by 
making the end logs shorter until a single log formed the comb 
of the roof. On these logs the clapboards were placed, the ranges 
of them lapping some distance over those next below them and 
kept in their places by logs placed at proper distances upon them 

The roof and sometimes the floor were finished on the same 
day of the raising. A third day was commonly spent by a few 

108 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

carpenters in leveling off the floor, making a clapboard door and 
a table. This last was made of a split slab and supported by 
four round legs set in auger holes. Some three-legged stools were 
made in the same manner. Some pins stuck in the logs at the 
back of the house supported some clapboards which served for 
shelves for the table furniture. A single fork, placed with its 
lower end in a hole in the floor and the upper end fastened to a 
joist, served for a bedstead by placing a pole in the fork with 
one end through a crack between the logs of the wall. This front 
pole was crossed by a shorter one within the fork, with its outer 
end through another crack. From the front pole, through a 
crack between the logs of the end of the house, the boards were 
put on which formed the bottom of the bed. Sometimes other 
poles were pinned to the fork a little distance above these, for 
the purpose of supporting the front and foot of the bed, while 
the walls were the supports of its back and head. A few pegs 
around the walls for a display of the coats of the women, and 
hunting shirts of the men, and two small forks or buck's horns to 
a joist for the rifle and shot pouch, completed the carpenter work. 

In the mean time masons were at work. With the heart 
pieces of the timber of which the clapboards were made they 
made billets for chunking up the cracks between the logs of the 
cabin and chimney ; a large bed of mortar was made for daubing 
up those cracks; a few stones formed the back and jambs of 
the chimney. 

The cabin being finished, the ceremony of house warming 
took place before the young couple were permitted to move into 
it. The house warming was a dance of a whole night's contin- 
uance, made up of the relations of the bride and groom and their 
neighbors. On the day following the young couple took posses- 
sion of their new mansion. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 109 

Labor and its Discouragements. 

The necessary labors of the farms along the frontiers were 
performed with every danger and difficulty imaginable. The 
whole population of the frontiers huddled together in their little 
forts left the country with every appearance of a deserted region ; 
and such would have been the opinion of a traveler concerning it, 
if he had not seen, here and there, some small fields of corn or 
other grain in a growing state. 

It is easy to imagine what losses must have been sustained 
by our first settlers owing to this deserted state of their farms. 
It was not the full measure of their trouble that they risked their 
lives, and often lost them, in subduing the forest, and turning it 
into fruitful fields ; but compelled to leave them in a deserted state 
during the summer season, a great part of the fruits of their 
labors was lost by this untoward circumstance. Their sheep and 
hogs were devoured by the wolves panthers and bears. Horses 
and cattle were often let into their fields, through breaches made 
in their fences by the falling of trees, and frequently almost the 
whole of a little crop of corn was destroyed by squirrels and rac- 
coons, so that many families, and after an hazardous and laborious 
spring and summer, had but little left for the comfort of the 
dreary winter. / 

The early settlers on the frontiers of this country were like 
Arabs of the desert of Africa, in at last two respects ; every man 
was a soldier, and from early in the spring till late in the fall, 
was almost continually in arms. Their work was often carried 
on by parties, each one of whom had his rifle and everything else 
belonging to his war dress. These were deposited in some central 
place in the field. A sentinel was stationed on the outside of the 
fence, so that on the least alarm the whole company repaired to 
their arms, and were ready for the combat in a moment. Here, 
again, the rashness of some families proved a source of difficulty. 
Instead of joining the working parties, they went out and attended 

110 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

their farms by themselves, and in case of alarm an express was 
sent for them, and sometimes a party of men to guard them to 
the fort. These families, in some instances, could boast that they 
had better crops, and were every Way better provided for the 
winter than their neighbors. In other instances their temerity 
cost them their lives. 

In military affairs, when every one concerned is left to his 
own will, matters are sure to be but badly managed. The whole 
frontiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia presented a succession of 
military camps or forts. We had military officers, that is to say, 
captains and colonels, but they, in many respects, were only nomi- 
nally such. They could advise but not command. Those who 
chose to follow their advice did so to such an extent as suited 
their fancy or interest. Others were refractory and thereby gave 
much trouble. These officers would lead a scout or campaign. 
Those who thought proper to accompany them did so, those who 
did not remained at home. Public odium was the only punish- 
ment for their laziness or cowardice. There was no compulsion 
to the performance of military duties, and no pecuniary reward 
when they were performed. 

It is but doing justice to the first settlers of this country to 
say that instances of disobedience of families and individuals to 
the advice of our officers were by no means numerous. The 
greater number cheerfully submitted to their directions with a 
prompt and faithful obedience. 


The Mechanic Arts. 

In giving the history of the state of the mechanic arts, as 
they were exercised at an early period of the settlement of this 
country, I shall present a people driven by necessity to perform 
works of mechanical skill far beyond what a person enjoying all 
the advantages of civilization would expect from a population 
placed in such destitute circumstances. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. Ill 

My reader will naturally ask where were their mills for 
grinding grain ? Where their tanners for making leather ? Where 
their smith shops for making and repairing their farming utensils ? 
Who were their carpenters, tailors, cabinet workmen, shoemakers, 
and weavers? The answer is, those manufacturers did not exist, 
nor had they any tradesmen, who were professedly such. Every 
family were under the necessity of doing every thing for them- 
selves as well as they could. 

The hominy block and hand mills were in use in most of 
our houses. The first was made of a large block of wood about 
three feet long, with an excavation burned in one end, wide at the 
top and narrow at the bottom, so that the action of the pestle on 
the bottom threw the corn up to the sides toward the top of it, 
from whence it continually fell down into the centre. In Conse- 
quence of this movement the whole mass of the grain was pretty 
equally subjected to the strokes of the pestle. In the fall of the 
year, while the Indian corn was soft, the block and pestle did very 
well for making meal for johnny cake and mush, but were rather 
slow when the corn became hard. 

The sweep was sometimes used to lessen the toil of pounding 
grain into meal. This was a pole of some springy 'elastic wood, 
thirty feet long or more; the butt end was placed under the side 
of a house, or a large stump ; this pole was supported by two 
forks, placed about one-third of its length from the butt end so as 
to elevate the small end about fifteen feet from the ground ; to 
this was attached, by a large mortise, a piece of a sapling about 
five or six inches in diameter and eight or ten feet long. The 
lower end of this was shaped so as to answer for a pestle. A pin 
of wood was put through it at a proper height, so that two persons 
could work at the sweep at once. This simple machine very much 
lessened the labor, and expedited the work: I remember that 
when a boy I put up an excellent sweep at my father's. It was 
made of a sugar tree sapling. It was kept going almost constantly 
from morning till night by our neighbors for several weeks. 

In the Greenbriar country, where they had a number of 
saltpetre caves, the first settlers made plenty of excellent gun 
powder by the means of these sweeps and mortars. 

112 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

A machine, still more simple than the mortar and pestle, was 
used for making meal while the corn was too soft to be beaten. 
It was called a grater. This was a half circular piece of tin, per- 
forated with a punch from the concave side, and nailed by its 
edges to a block of wood. The ears of corn were rubbed on the 
rough edges of the holes, while the meal fell through them on the 
board or block to which the grater was nailed, which, being in 
a slanting direction, discharged the meal into a cloth or bowl 
place for its reception. This to be sure was a slow way of 
making meal; but necessity has no law. 

The hand mill was better than the mortar and grater. It 
was made of two circular stones, the lowest of which was called 
the bed stone, the upper one the runner. These were placed in a 
hoop, with a spout for discharging the meal. A staff was let into 
a hole in the upper surface of the runner, near the outer edge, 
and its upper end through a hole in a board fastened to a joist 
above, so that two persons could be employed in turning the mill 
at the same time. m The grain was put into the opening in the 
runner by hand. These mills are still in use in Palestine, the 
ancient country of the Jews. To a mill of this sort our Saviour 
alluded, when, with reference to the destruction of Jerusalem, He 
said, " Two women shall be grinding at a mill, the one shall be 
taken and the other left." This mill is much preferable to that 
used at present in upper Egypt for making the dhourra bread. 
It is a smooth stone, placed on an inclined plane upon which the 
grain is spread, which is made into meal by rubbing another stone 
up and down upon it. 

Our first water mills were of that description denominated 
tub mills. It consists of a perpendicular shaft, to the lower end 
of which an horizontal wheel of about four or five feet diameter 
is attached ; the upper end passes through the bedstone and carries 
the runner, after the manner of a trundlehead. These mills were 
built with very little expense, and many of them answered the 
purpose very well. 

Instead of bolting cloths, sifters were in general use. These 
were made of deer skins in the state of parchment, stretched over 
a hoop and perforated with a hot wire. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. / 113 

Our clothing was all of domestic manufacture. We had no 
other resource for clothing, and this, indeed, was a poor one. 
The crops of flax often failed, and the sheep were destroyed by 
the wolves. Linsey, which is made of flax and wool, the former 
the chain and the latter the filling, was the warmest and most 
substantial cloth we could make. Almost every house contained 
a loom, and almost every woman was a weaver. 

Every family tanned their own leather. The tan vat was a 
large trough sunk to the upper edge in the ground. A quantity 
of bark was easily obtained every spring, in clearing and fencing 
the land. This, after drying, was brought in and in wet days 
was shaved and pounded on a block of wood, with an axe or 
mallet. Ashes was used in place of lime for taking off the 
hair. -Bear's oil, hog's lard and tallow, answered the place of 
fish oil. The leather, to be sure, was coarse ; but it was substan- 
tially good. The operation of currying was performed by a 
drawing knife with its edge turned, after the manner of a curry- 
ing knife. The blacking for the leather was made of soot and 
hog's lard. 

Almost every family contained its own tailors and shoe- 
makers. Those who could not make shoes could make shoe- 
packs. These, like moccasins, were made of a single piece of 
leather with the exception of a tongue piece on the top of the 
foot. This was about two inches broad and circular at the lower 
end. To this the main piece of leather was sewed, with a gather- 
ing stitch. The seam behind was like that of a moccasin. To the 
shoepack a sole was sometimes added. The women did the tailor 
work. They could all cut out and make hunting shirts, leggins 
and drawers. 

The state of society which existed in our country at an early 
period of its settlement is well calculated to call into action every 
native mechanical genius. This happened in this country. There 
was, in almost every neighborhood, some one whose natural in- 
genuity enabled him to do many things for himself and his neigh- 
bors, far above what could have been reasonably expected. With 
the few tools which they brought with them into the country they 
certainly performed wonders. Their plows, harrows with their 

114 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

wooden teeth, and sleds, were in many instances well made. 
Their cooper ware, which comprehended everything for holding 
milk and water, was generally pretty well executed. The cedar 
ware, by having alternately a white and red stave, was then 
thought beautiful. Many of their puncheon floors were very neat, 
their joints close and the top even and smooth. Their looms, 
although heavy, did very well. Those who could not exercise 
these mechanic arts were under the necessity of giving labor, or 
barter, to their neighbors in exchange for the use of them, so 
far as their necessities required. 

An old man in my father's neighborhood had the art of 
turning bowls from the knots of trees, particularly those of the 
ash. In what way he did it, I do not know : or whether there 
was much mystery in his art. Be that as it may, the old man's 
skill was in great request as well turned wooden bowls were 
amongst our first rate articles of household furniture. 

My brothers and myself once undertook to procure a fine 
suit of these bowls made of the best wood, the ash. We gathered 
all we could find on our father's land and took them to the artist, 
who was to give, as the saying was, one-half for the other. He 
put the knots in a branch before his door. A freshet came and 
swept them all away. Not one of them was ever found. This 
was a dreadful misfortune. Our anticipation of an elegant dis- 
play of new bowls was utterly blasted in a moment, as the poor 
old man was not able to repair our loss, or any part of it. 

My father possessed a mechanical genius of the highest 
order, and necessity, which is the mother of invention, occasioned 
the full exercise of his talents. His farming utensils were the 
best in the neighborhood. After making his loom, he often used 
it as a weaver. All the shoes belonging to the family were 
made by himself. He always spun his own shoe thread. Saying 
that no woman could spin shoe thread as well as he could. His 
cooper ware was made by himself. I have seen him make a 
small, neat kind of wooden ware called set work, in which the 
staves were all attached to the bottom of the vessel by the means 
of a groove cut in them by a strong clasp knife, and small chisel, 
before a single hoop was put on. He was sufficiently the car- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. il5 

penter to build the best kind of houses then in use, that is to say 
first a cabin, and afterwards the hewed log house, with a shingled 
roof. In his latter years he became sickly, and not being able to 
labor he amused himself with tolerably good imitations of cabinet 

Not possessing sufficient health for service on the scouts, 
and campaigns, his duty was that of repairing the rifles of his 
neighbors when they needed it. In this business he manifested 
a high degree of ingenuity. A small depression on the surface 
of a stump or log and a wooden mallet were his instruments for 
straightening the gun barrel when crooked. Without the aid of 
a bow string he could discover the smallest bend in a barrel. 
With a bit of steel, he could make a saw for deepening the fur- 
rows, when requisite. A few shots determined whether the gun 
might be trusted. 

Although he never had been more than six weeks at school 
he was nevertheless a first rate penman, and a good arithmetician. 
His penmanship was of great service to his neighbors in writing 
letters, bonds, deeds of conveyance, etc. 

Young as I was, I was possessed of an art which was o\ 
great use. It was that of weaving shot-pouch straps, belts and 
garters. I could make my loom and weave a belt in less than one 
day. Having a piece of board about four feet long, an inch 
auger, spike gimlet, and a drawing knife, I needed no other tools 
or materials for making my loom. It frequently happened that 
my weaving proved serviceable to the family, as I often sold a 
belt for a day's work, or making an hundred rails. So that, al- 
though a boy, I could exchange my labor for that of a full grown 
person for an equal length of time. 

116 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Diseases and their Remedies. 

This, amongst a rude and illiterate people, consisted mostly 
of specifics. As far as I can recollect them, they shall be enum- 
erated, together with the diseases for which they were used. 

The diseases of children were mostly ascribed to worms, for 
the expulsion of which a solution of common salt was given. The 
dose was always large. I well remember, haying been compelled 
to take half a table spoon full, when quite small. To the best of 
my recollection it generally answered the purpose. Scrapings of 
pewter spoons was another remedy for the worms. This dose 
was also large, amounting, I should think, from twenty to forty 
grains. It was commonly given in sugar. Sulphate of iron, or 
green copperas, was a third remedy for the worms. The dose 
of this was also larger than we should venture to give at this 

For burns a poultice of Indian meal was a common remedy. 
A poultice of scraped potatoes was also a favorite remedy with 
some people. Roasted turnips, made into a poultice, was used 
by others. Slippery elm bark was often used in the same way. 
I do not recollect that any internal remedy or bleeding was ever 
used for burns. 

The croup, or what was then called the bold hives, was a 
common disease among the children, many of whom died of it. 
For the cure of this, the juice of roasted onions or garlic was 
given in large doses. Wall-ink was also a favorite remedy with 
many of the old ladies. For fevers, sweating was the general 
remedy. This was generally performed by means of a strong 
decoction of Virginia snake root. The dose was always very 
large. If a purge was used, it was about half a pint of a strong 
decoction of white walnut bark. This, when intended for a 
purge, was peeled downwards ; if for a vomit, it was peeled up- 
wards. Indian physic, or bowman root, a species of epicacuanha 
was frequently used for a vomit, and sometimes the pocoon or 
blood root. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 117 

For the bite of a rattle, or copper snake, a great variety of 
specifics was used. I remember when a small boy to have seen 
a man bitten by a rattlesnake brought into the fort on a man's 
back. One of the company dragged the snake after him by a 
forked stick fastened in its head. The body of the snake was 
cut into pieces of about two inches in length, split open in suc- 
cession, and laid on the wound to draw out the poison, as they 
expressed it. When this was over, a fire was kindled up in the 
fort yard and the whole of the serpent burned to ashes, by way 
of revenge for the injury he had done. After this process was 
over, a large quantity of chestnut leaves was collected and boiled 
in a pot. The whole of the wounded man's leg and part of his 
thigh were placed in a piece of chestnut bark, fresh from the tree, 
and the decoction poured on the leg so as to run down into the 
pot again : after continuing this process for some time, a quantity 
of the boiled leaves were bound to the leg. This was repeated 
several times a day. The man got well; but whether owing to 
the treatment bestowed on his wound is not so certain. 

A number of native plants were used for the cure of snake 
bites. Among them the white plantain held a high rank. This 
was boiled in milk and the decoction given the patient in large 
quantities. A kind of fern, which, from its resemblance to the 
leaves of walnut, was called walnut fern, was another remedy. 
A plant with fibrous roots, resembling the seneka-snake root, of a 
black color and a strong, but not disagreeable smell, was con- 
sidered and relied on as the Indian specific for the cure of the 
sting of a snake. A decoction of this root was also used for the 
cure of colds. Another plant which very much resembles the one 
above mentioned, but violently poisonous, was sometimes mis- 
taken for it and used in its place. I knew two young women who, 
in consequence of being bitten by rattlesnakes, used the poisonous 
plant instead of the other, and nearly lost their lives by the 
mistake. The roots were applied to their legs in the form of a 
poultice; the violent burning and swelling, occasioned by the in- 
flammation, discovered the mistake in time to prevent them from 
taking any of the decoction, which, had they done, it would have 

118 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

been instantly fatal. It was with difficulty that the part to which 
the poultice was applied was saved from mortification, so that the 
remedy was far worse than the disease. 

Cupping, sucking the wound, and making deep incisions which 
were filled with salt and gun powder, were amongst the remedies 
for snake bits. It does not appear to me that any of the internal 
remedies used by the Indians and the first settlers of this country, 
were well adapted for the cure of the disease occasioned by the 
bite of a snake. The poison of a snake, like that of a bee or 
wasp, must consist of an highly concentrated and very poisonous 
acid, which instantly inflames the part to which it is applied. 
That any substance whatever can act as a specific for the decom- 
position of this poison seems altogether doubtful. The cure of 
the fever occasioned by this animal poison must be effected with 
reference to those general indications which are regarded in the 
cure of other fevers of equal force. The internal remedies 
alluded to, so far as I am acquainted with them, are possessed of 
little or no medical efficacy. They are not emetics, cathartics, or 
sudorifics. What then? They are harmless substances which 
do wonders in all those cases in which there is nothing to be 

The truth is, the bite of a rattle or copper snake in a fleshy 
or tenderous part, where the blood vessels are neither numerous 
nor large, soon healed under any kind of treatment. But when 
the fangs of the serpent, which are hollow and eject the poison 
through an orifice near the points, penetrate a blood vessel of 
any considerable size, a malignant and incurable fever was gen- 
erally the immediate consequence, and the patient often expired 
in the first paroxysm. The same observations apply to the effects 
of the bite of serpents when inflicted on beasts. Horses were 
frequently killed by them, as they were commonly bitten some- 
where about the nose, in which the blood vessels are numerous 
and large. I once saw a horse die of the bite of a rattlesnake. 
The blood, for some time before he expired, exuded in great 
quantity through the pores of the skin. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 119 

Cattle were less frequently killed, because their noses are of 
a grisly texture, and less furnished with blood vessels than those 
of a horse. Dogs were sometimes bitten, and being naturally 
physicians they commonly scratched a hole in some damp place 
and held the wounded part in the ground till the inflammation 
abated. Hogs, when in tolerable order, were never hurt by them, 
owing to their thick subtratum of fat between the skin, muscular 
flesh and blood vessels. The hog generally took immediate- re- 
venge for the injury done him by instantly tearing to pieces and 
devouring the serpent which inflicted it. 

The itch, which was a very common disease in early times, 
was commonly cured by an ointment made of brimstone and 
hog's lard. 

Gun shot, and other wounds, were treated with slippery elm 
bark, flax seed and other such like poultices. Many lost their 
lives from wounds which would now be considered trifling and 
easily cured. The use of the lancet and other means of depletion, 
in the treatment of wounds, constituted no part of their cure in 
this country in early times. 

My mother died in early life of a wound from the tread of 
a horse, which any person in the habit of letting blood might have 
cured by two or three bleedings, without any other remedy. The 
wound was poulticed with spikenard roots and soon terminated in 
an extensive mortification. 1 

Most of the men of the early settlers of this country were 
affected with the rheumatism. For relief from this disease the 
hunters generally slept with their feet to the fire. From this 
practice they certainly derived much advantage. The oil of rattle- 
snakes, geese, wolves, bears, raccoons, ground-hogs and pole- 
cats, was applied to swelled joints and bathed in before the fire. 

The pleurisy was the only disease which was supposed to 
require blood letting; but in many cases a bleeder was not to be 

i Mrs. Doddridge was killed about 1777 by horses running away with 
a sled. Her body was buried on the Doddridge farm, but in 1824 was re- 
moved, with the remains of her husband, to Wellsburg. Mr. Doddridge was 
absent from home when his wife was killed. He had gone east for their 
salt. — (Simpson.) 

120 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Coughs, and pulmonary consumptions, were treated with a 
great variety of syrups, the principal ingredients of which were 
commonly spikenard and elecampane. These syrups certainly 
gave but little relief. 

Charms and incantations were in use for the cure of many 
diseases. I learned, when young, the incantation in German for 
the cure of burns, stopping blood, for the toothache, and the 
charm against bullets in battle ; but for the want of faith in their 
efficacy I never used any of them. 

The erysipelas, or St. Anthony's fire, was circumscribed by 
the blood of a black cat. Hence there was scarcely a black cat 
to be seen whose ears and tail had not been frequently cropped, 
for a contribution of blood. 

Whether the medical profession is productive of most good 
or harm may still be a matter of dispute with some philosophers 
who never saw any condition of society in which there were no 
physicians, and therefore could not be furnished a proper test for 
deciding the question. Had an unbeliever in the healing art been 
amongst the early inhabitants of this country, he would have 
been in a proper situation to witness the consequences of the want 
of the exercise of this art. For many years in succession there 
was no person who bore even the name of a doctor within a con- 
siderable distance of the residence of my father. For the honor 
of the medical profession, I must give it as my opinion, that many 
of our people perished for want of medical skill and attention. 

The pleurisy was the only disease which was, in any consid- 
erable degree, understood by our people. A pain in the side 
called for the use of the lancet, if there was any to be had ; but 
owing to its sparing use, the patient was apt to be left with a 
spitting of blood, which sometimes ended in consumption. A 
great number of children died of the croup. Remittent and inter- 
mittent fevers were treated with warm drinks, for the purpose of 
sweating. The patients were denied the use of cold water and 
fresh air. Many of them died. Of those who escaped, not a few 
died afterwards of the dropsy, or consumption ; or were left with 
paralytic limbs. Deaths in child bed were not un frequent. Many, 
no doubt, died of the bite of serpents, in consequence of an im- 
proper reliance oh specifics possessed of no medical virtue. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 121 

My father died of an hepatitis, at the age of about forty-six. 
He had labored under this disease for thirteen years. The fever 
which accompanied it was called " the dumb ague," and the swell- 
ing in the region of the liver, " the ague cake." The abscess 
bursted and discharged a large quantity of matter which put a 
period to his life in about thirty hours after the commencement, 
of the discharge. 

Thus I, for one, may say, that in all human probability, I lost 
both my parents for want of medical aid. 

Games and Diversions. 

These were such as might be expected among a people who, 
owing to their circumstances as well as education, set a higher 
value on physical than on mental endowments, and on skill in 
hunting and bravery in war than on any polite accomplishments, 
or fine arts. 

Amusements are, in many instances, either imitations of the 
business of life, or, at least, of some of its particular objects of 
pursuit; on the part of young men belonging to nations in a 
state of warfare, many amusements are regarded as preparations 
for the military character which they are expected to sustain in 
future life. Thus, the war dance of savages is a pantomime of 
their stratagems and horrid deeds of cruelty in war, and the 
exhibition prepares the minds of their young men for a participa- 
tion in the bloody tragedies which they represent. Dancing, 
among civilized people, is regarded not only as an amusement 
suited to the youthful period of human life, but as a means of 
inducing urbanity of manners and a good personal deportment in 
public. Horse racing is regarded by the statesman as a prepara- 
tion, in various ways, for the equestrian department of warfare ; 
it is said that the English government never possessed a good 
cavalry until, by the encouragement given to public races, their 

122 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

breed of horses was improved. Games, in which there is a mix- 
ture of chance and skill, are said to improve the understanding 
in mathematical and other calculations. 

Many of the sports of the early settlers of this country were 
imitative of the exercises and stratagems of hunting and war. 
Boys were taught the use of the bow and arrow at an early age ; 
but although they acquired considerable adroitness in the use of 
them, so as to kill a bird or squirrel sometimes, yet it appears to 
me that in the hands of the white people the bow and arrow could 
never be depended upon for warfare or hunting, unless made 
and managed in a different manner from any specimens of them 
which I ever saw. In ancient times the bow and arrow must 
have been deadly instruments in the hands of the barbarians of 
our country; but I'much doubt whether any of the present tribes 
of Indians could make much use of the flint arrow heads which 
must have been so generally used by their forefathers. 

Fire arms, wherever they can be obtained, soon put an end 
to the use of the bow and arrow ; but independently of this 
circumstance, military, as well as other arts, sometimes grow out 
of date and vanish from the world. Many centuries have elapsed 
since the world has witnessed the destructive accuracy of the 
Benjamites in their use of the sling and stone ; nor does it appear 
to me that a diminution in the size and strength of the aborigines 
of this country has occasioned a decrease of accuracy and effect 
in their use of the bow and arrow. From all the ancient skeletons 
which have come under my notice, it does not appear that this 
section of the globe was ever inhabited by a larger race of human 
beings than that which possessed it at the time of its discovery 
by the Europeans. 

One important pastime of our boys was that of imitating the 
noise of every bird and beast in the woods. This faculty was 
not merely a pastime, but a very necessary part of education, on 
account of its utility in certain circumstances. The imitations of 
the gobbling and other sounds of wild turkeys often brought 
those keen eyed and ever watchful tenants of the forest within 
the reach of the rifle. The bleating of the fawn brought her 
dam to her death in the same way. The hunter often collected 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 123 

a company of mopish owls to the trees about his camp, and 
amused himself with their hoarse screaming; his howl would 
raise and obtain responses from a pack of wolves, so as to inform 
him of their neighborhood, as well as guard him against their 

This imitative faculty was sometimes requisite as a measure 
of precaution in war. The Indians, when scattered about in a 
neighborhood, often collected together by imitating turkeys by 
day and wolves or owls by night. In similar situations our 
people did the same. I have often witnessed the consternation of 
a whole neighborhood in consequence of a few screeches of owls. 
An early and correct use of this imitative faculty was considered 
as an indication that its possessor would become in due time a 
good hunter and a valiant warrior. 

Throwing the tomahawk was another boyish sport, in which 
many acquired considerable skill. The tomahawk with its handle 
of a certain length will make a given number of turns in a given 
distance. Say in five steps it will strike with the edge, the handle 
downwards ; at the distance of seven and a half, it will strike 
with the edge, the handle upwards, and so on. A little experience 
enabled the boy to measure the distance with his eye, when walk- 
ing through the woods, and strike a tree with his tomahawk in 
any way he chose. 

The athletic sports of running, jumping and wrestling, were 
the pastimes of boys, in common with the men. A well grown 
boy, at the age of twelve or thirteen years, was furnished with 
a small rifle and shot pouch. He then became a fort soldier, and 
had his port hole assigned him. Hunting squirrels, turkeys and 
raccoons soon made him expert in the use of his gun. 

Dancing was the principal amusement of our young people 
of both sexes. Their dances, to be sure, were of the simplest 
forms. Three and four handed reels and jigs. Contra dances, 
cotillions and minuets, were unknown. I remember to have seen, 
once or twice, a dance which was called the Irish trot, but I have 
long since forgotten its figure. 

124 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Shooting at marks was a common diversion among the men, 
when their stock of ammunition would allow it; this, however, 
was far from being always the case. The present mode of shoot- 
ing off hand was not then in practice. This mode was not con- 
sidered as any trial of the value of a gun; nor, indeed, as much 
of a test of the skill of a marksman. Their shooting was from 
a rest, and at as great distance as the length and weight of the 
barrel of the gun would throw a ball on a horizontal level. Such 
was their regard to accuracy, in these sportive trials of their rifles, 
and of their own skill in the use of them, that they often put moss, 
or some other soft substance, on the log or stump from which 
they shot, for fear of having the bullet thrown from the mark, 
by the spring of the barrel. When the rifle was held to the side 
of a tree for a rest, it was pressed against it as lightly as possible, 
for the same reason. 

Rifles of former times were different from those of modern 
date; few of them carried more than forty-five bullets to the 
pound. Bullets of less size were not thought sufficiently heavy 
for hunting or war. 

Dramatic narrations, chiefly concerning Jack and the giant, 
furnished our young people with another source of amusement 
during their leisure hours. Many of these tales were lengthy, 
and embraced a considerable range of incident. Jack, always the 
hero of the story, after encountering many difficulties, and per- 
forming many great achievements, came off conqueror of the 
giant. Many of these stories were tales of knight errantry, in 
which some captive virgin was released from captivity and re- 
stored to her lover. These dramatic narrations concerning Jack 
and the giant bore a strong resemblance to the poems of Ossian, 
the story of the Cyclops and Ulysses, in the Odyssey of Homer, 
and the tale of the giant and Great-heart, in the Pilgrim's 
Progress. They were so arranged, as to the different incidents 
of the narration, that they were easily committed to memory. 
They certainly have been handed down from generation to gen- 
eration, from time immemorial. Civilization has, indeed, banished 
the use of those ancient tales of romantic heroism ; but what 
then ? it has substituted in their place the novel and romance. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 125 

It is thus that in every state of society the imagination of 
man is eternally at war with reason and truth. That fiction should 
be acceptable to an unenlightened people is not to be wondered at, 
as the treasures of truth have never been unfolded to their 
mind; but that a civilized people themselves should in so many 
instances, like barbarians, prefer the fairy regions of fiction to 
the august treasures of truth developed in the sciences of theol- 
ogy, history, natural and moral philosophy, is truly a sarcasm on 
human nature. It is as much as to say that it is essential to our 
amusement; that, for the time being, we must suspend the 
exercise of reason, and submit to a voluntary deception. 

Singing was another, but no very common, amusement 
among our first settlers. Their tunes were rude enough, to be 
sure. Robin Hood furnished a number of our songs, the balance 
were mostly tragical. These last were denominated " love songs 
about murder ;" as to cards, dice, back-gammon and other games 
of chance, we knew nothing about them. These are amongst the 
blessed gifts of civilization. 


The Witchcraft Delusion. 

I shall not be lengthy on this subject. The belief in witch- 
craft was prevalent among the early settlers of the western 
country. To the witch was ascribed the tremendous power of in- 
flicting strange and incurable diseases, particularly on children, 
of destroying cattle by shooting them with hair balls, and a great 
variety of other means of destruction, of inflicting spells and 
curses on guns and other things, and lastly of changing men 
into horses, and after bridling and saddling them, riding them in 
full speed over hill and dale to their frolics and other places of 
rendezvous. More ample powers of mischief than these cannot 
well be imagined. 

12G Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Wizards were men supposed to possess the same mischievous 
powers as the witches ; but these were seldom exercised for bad 
purposes. The powers of the wizards were exercised almost ex- 
clusively for the purpose of counteracting the malevolent in- 
fluences of the witches of the other sex. I have known several 
of those witch masters, as they were called, who made a public 
profession of curing the diseases inflicted by the influence of 
witches, and I have known respectable physicians who had no 
greater portion of business in the line of their profession than 
many of those witch masters had in theirs. 

The means by which the witch was supposed to inflict dis- 
eases, curses and spells, I never could learn. They were occult 
sciences, which no one was supposed to understand, excepting 
the witch herself, and no wonder, as no such arts ever existed in 
any country. 

The diseases of children supposed to be inflicted by witch- 
craft were those of the internal organs, dropsy of the brain, and 
the rickets. The symptoms and cure of these destructive diseases 
were utterly unknown in former times in this country. Diseases 
which could neither be accounted for nor cured were usually 
ascribed to some supernatural agency of a malignant kind. 

For the cure of the diseases inflicted by witchcraft, the pic- 
ture of the supposed witch was drawn on a stump or piece of 
board and shot at with a bullet containing a little bit of silver. 
This silver bullet transferred a painful and sometimes a mortal 
spell on that part of the witch corresponding with the part of the 
portrait struck by the bullet. Another method of cure was that 
of getting some of the child's water, which was closely corked up 
in a vial and hung up in a chimney. This complemented the witch 
with a strangury which lasted as long as the vial remained in the 
chimney. The witch had but one way of relieving herself from 
any spell inflicted on her in any way, which was that of borrowing 
something, no matter what, of the family to which the subject of 
the exercise of her witchcraft belonged. I have known several 
poor old women much surprised at being refused requests which 
had usually been granted without hesitation, and almost heart 
broken when informed of the cause of the refusal. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 127 

When cattle or dogs were supposed to be under the influence 
of witchcraft they were burnt in the forehead by a branding iron, 
or when dead burned wholly to ashes. This inflicted a spell upon 
the witch which could only be removed by borrowing, as above 

Witches were often said to milk the cows of their neighbors. 
This they did by fixing a new pin in a new towel for each cow 
intended to be milked. This towel was hung over her own door, 
and by the means of certain incantations the milk was extracted 
from the fringes of the towel after the manner of milking a cow. 
This happened when the cows were too poor to give much milk. 

The first German glass blowers in this country drove the 
witches out of their furnaces by throwing living puppies into 

The greater or less amount of belief in witchcraft, necro- 
mancy and astrology, serves to show the relative amount of 
philosophical science in any country. Ignorance is always asso- 
ciated with superstition, which, presenting an endless variety of 
sources of hope and fear, with regard to the good or bad fortunes 
of life, keep the benighted mind continually harassed with ground- 
less, and delusive, but strong and often deeply distressing impres- 
sions of a false faith. For this disease of the mind there is no 
cure but that of philosophy. This science shows to the enlight- 
ened reason of man that no effect whatever can be produced in 
the physical world without a corresponding cause. This science 
announces that the death bell is but a momentary morbid motion 
of the ear, and the death watch the noise of a bug in the wall, 
and that the howling of the dog, and the croaking of the raven 
are but the natural languages of the beast and fowl, and no way 
prophetic of the death of the sick. The comet, which used to 
shake pestilence and war from its fiery train, is now viewed with 
as little emotion as the movements of Jupiter and Saturn in their 
respective orbits. 

An eclipse of the sun, and an unusual freshet of the Tiber, 
shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar by Cassius and 
Brutus, threw the whole of the Roman empire into consternation. 
It was supposed that all the gods of heaven and earth were en- 

128 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

raged and about to take revenge for the murder of the emperor ; 
but since the science of astronomy foretells in the calendar the 
time and extent of the eclipse, the phenomenon is not viewed 
as a miraculous and portentous, but as a common and natural 

That the pythoness and wizard of the Hebrews, the monthly 
soothsayers, astrologers and prognosticators of the Chaldeans, and 
the sybils of the Greeks and Romans, were merely mercenary im- 
postors, there can be no doubt. To say that the pythoness and 
all others of her class were aided in their operations by the 
intervention of familiar spirits does not mend the matter, for 
spirits, whether good or bad, possess not the power of life and 
death, health and disease, with regard to man or beast. Pre- 
science is an incommunicable attribute of God, and therefore 
spirits cannot foretell future events. 

The afflictions of Job, through the intervention of Satan, 
were miraculous. The possessions mentioned in the New Testa- 
ment, in all human probability, were maniacal diseases, and if, at 
their cures the supposed evil spirits spoke with an audible voice, 
these events were also miraculous, and effected for a special 
purpose. But from miracles no general conclusions can be drawn 
with regard to the divine government of the world. The conclu- 
sion is that the powers professed to be exercised by the occult 
science of necromancy and other arts of divination were neither 
more or less than impostures. 

Among the Hebrews the profession of arts of divination was 
thought deserving capital punishment, because the profession was 
of pagan origin, and of course incompatible with the profession 
of theism, and a theocratic form of government. These jugglers 
perpetrated a debasing superstition among the people. They were 
also swindlers, who divested their neighbors of large sums of 
money, and valuable presents, without an equivalent. On the 
ground then, of fraud alone, according to the genius of the crim- 
inal codes of ancient governments, this offense deserved capital 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 129 

But is the present time better than the past with regard to 
a superstitious belief in occult influences? Do no traces of the 
polytheism of our fore-fathers remain among their Christian de- 
scendants? This inquiry must be answered in the affirmative. 
Should an almanac maker venture to give out the Christian calen- 
dar without a column containing the signs of the zodiac, the 
calendar would be condemned as being totally deficient and the 
whole impression would remain on his hands. 

But what are these signs? They are constellations of the 
zodiac, that is clusters of stars, twelve in number, within and 
including the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. These constella- 
tions resemble the animals after which they are named. But 
what influence do these clusters of stars exert on the animal and 
the plant. Certainly none at all ; and yet we are taught that the 
northern constellations govern the divisions of living bodies alter- 
nately from the head to the reins, and in like manner the southern 
from the reins to the feet. The sign then makes a skip from the 
feet to Aries, who again assumes the government of the head, 
and so on. About half of these constellations are friendly divini- 
ties and exert a salutary influence on the animal and the plant. 
The others are malignant in their temper, and govern only for 
evil purposes. They blast, during their reign, the seed sown in 
the earth and render medicine and operations of surgery un- 

We have read of the Hebrews worshipping the host of 
heaven, whenever they relapsed into idolatry, and these same 
constellations were the hosts of heaven which they worshipped. 
We, it is true, make no offering to these hosts of heaven, but we 
give them our faith and confidence. We hope for physical bene- 
fits from those of them whose dominion is friendly to our in- 
terests, while the reign of the malignant ones is an object of dread 
and painful apprehension. Let us not boast very much of our 
science, civilization, or even Christianity while this column of 
the relics of paganism still disgraces the Christian calendar. 

I have made these observations with a view to discredit the 
remnants of superstition still existing among us. While dreams, 
the howling of the dog, croaking of a raven are prophetic of future 

130 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

events we are not good Christians. While we are dismayed at the 
signs of heaven we are for the time being pagans. Life has real 
evils enough to contend with, without imaginary ones. 

Law, Morality and Religion. 

In the section of the country where my father lived there 
was, for many years after the settlement of the country, " neither 
law nor gospel." Our want of legal government was owing to 
the uncertainty whether we belonged to the state of Virginia or 
Pennsylvania. The line, which at present divides the two states, 
was not run until some time after the conclusion of the revolu- 
tionary war. Thus it happened that during a long period of time 
we knew nothing of courts, lawyers, magistrates, sheriffs, or con- 
stables. Every one was therefore at liberty " to do whatever was 
right in his own eyes." 

As this is a state of society which few of my readers have 
ever witnessed, I shall describe it minutely as I can, and give in 
detail those moral maxims which, in a great degree, answered the 
important purposes of municipal jurisprudence. 

In the first place, let it be observed that in a sparse popula- 
tion, where all the members of the community are well known to 
each other, and especially in a time of war, where every man cap- 
able of bearing arms is considered highly valuable as a defender 
of his country, public opinion has its full effect and answers the 
purposes of legal government better than it would in a dense 
population, and in time of peace. 

Such was the situation of our people along the frontiers of 
our settlements. They had no civil, military or ecclesiastical laws, 
at least none that were enforced, and yet " they were a law unto 
themselves " as to the leading obligations of our nature in all the 
relations in which they stood to each other. The turpitude of 
vice and the majesty of moral virtue were then as apparent as 
they are now, and they were then regarded with the same senti- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. k 131 

ments of aversion or respect which they inspire at the present 
time. Industry in working and hunting, bravery in war, candor, 
honesty, hospitality, and steadiness of deportment, received their 
full reward of public confidence among our rude forefathers, as 
well as among their better instructed and more polished descend- 
ants. The punishments which they inflicted upon offenders, by 
the imperial court of public opinion, were well adapted for the 
reformation of the culprit, or his expulsion from the community. 

The punishment for idleness, lying, dishonesty, and ill fame 
generally, was that of " hating the offender out," as they ex- 
pressed it. This mode of chastisement was like the atimea of 
the Greeks. It was a public expression, in various ways, of a 
general sentiment of indignation against such as transgressed the 
moral maxims of the community to which they belonged. This 
commonly resulted either in the reformation or banishment of the 
person against whom it was directed. 

At house raisings, log rollings and harvest parties, every one 
was expected to do his duty faithfully. A person who did not 
perform his share of labor on these occasions was designated by 
the epithet of Lawrence, or some other title still more opprobrious ; 
and when it came to his turn to require the like aid from his 
neighbors, the idler soon felt his punishment in their refusal to 
attend to his calls. 

Although there was no legal compulsion to the performance 
of military duty, yet every man of full age and size was expected 
to do his full share of public service. If he did not do so he was 
" hated out as a coward." Even the want of any article of war 
equipments, such as ammunition, a sharp flint, a priming wire, 
a scalping knife or tomahawk, was thought highly disgraceful. 
A man who, without a reasonable cause, failed to go on a scout 
or campaign, when it came to his turn, met with an expression 
of indignation in the countenances of all his neighbors, and 
epithets of dishonor were fastened upon him without mercy. 

Debts, which make such an uproar in civilized life, were but 
little known among our forefathers at the early settlement of this 
country. After the depreciation of the continental paper they had 
no money of any kind; everything purchased was paid for in 

132 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

produce or labor. A good cow and calf was often the price of 
a bushel of alum salt. If a contract was not punctually fulfilled, 
the credit of the delinquent was at an end. 

Any petty theft was punished with all the infamy that could 
be heaped on the offender. A man on a campaign stole from his 
comrade a cake out of the ashes in which it was baking. He 
was immediately named the bread rounds. This epithet of re- 
proach was bandied about in this way; when he came in sight 
of a group of men, one of them would call " Who comes there? " 
Another would answer, " The bread rounds." If any one meant 
to be more serious about the matter, he could call out, " Who 
stole a cake out of the ashes ? " Another replied by giving the 
name of the man in full ; to this a third would give confirmation 
exclaiming, " That is true and no lie." This kind of tongue- 
lashing he was doomed to bear for the rest of the campaign, as 
well as for years after his return home. 

If a theft was detected in any of the frontier settlements, a 
summary mode of punishment was always resorted to. The first 
settlers, as far as I knew of them, had a kind of innate or heredi- 
tary detestation of the crime of theft, in any shape or degree, 
and their maxim was that " a thief must be whipped." If the 
theft was of something of some value, a kind of jury of the 
neighborhood, after hearing the testimony, would condemn the cul- 
prit to Moses's law, that is, to forty stripes save one. If the 
theft was of some small article, the offender was doomed to carry 
on his back the flag of the United States, which then consisted of 
thirteen stripes. In either case, some able hands were selected to 
execute the sentence, so that the stripes were sure to be well laid 
on. This punishment was followed by a sentence of exile. He 
then was informed that he must decamp in so many days and be 
seen there no more on penalty of having the number of stripes 

For many years after the law was put in operation in the 
western part of Virginia the magistrates themselves were in the 
habit of giving those who were brought before them on charges 
of small thefts the liberty of being sent to jail or taking a whip- 
ping. The latter was commonly chosen and was immediately in- 
flicted, after which the thief was ordered to clear out. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 133 

In some instances stripes were inflicted, not for the punish- 
ment of an offense, but for the purpose of extorting a confession 
from suspected persons. This was the torture of our early times, 
and no doubt sometimes very unjustly inflicted. 

If a woman was given to tattling and slandering her neigh- 
bors, she was furnished, bv common consent, with a kind of 
patent right to say whatever she pleased without being believed. 
Her tongue was then said to be harmless, or to be no scandal. 

With all their rudeness, these people were given to hospi- 
tality, and freely divided their rough fare with a neighbor or 
stranger, and would have been offended at the offer of pay. In 
their settlements and forts they lived, they worked, they fought 
and feasted, or suffered together, in cordial harmony. They 
were warm and constant in their friendships. On the other hand 
they were revengeful in their resentments. And the point of 
honor sometimes led to personal combats. If one man called 
another a liar, he was considered as having given a challenge 
which the person who received it must accept, or be deemed a 
coward, and the charge was generally answered on the spot with 
a blow. If the injured person was decidedly unable to fight the 
aggressor he might get a friend to do it for him. The same thing 
took place on a charge of cowardice, or any other dishonorable 
action ; a battle must follow and the person who made the charge 
must fight either the person against whom he made the charge 
of any champion who chose to espouse his cause. Thus circum- 
stanced, our people in early times were much more cautious of 
speaking evil of their neighbors than they are at present. 

Sometimes pitched battles occurred in which time, place and 
seconds were appointed beforehand. I remember having seen 
one of those pitched battles in my father's fort, when a boy. 
One of the young men knew very well beforehand that he should 
get the worst of the battle, and no doubt repented the engagement 
to fight ; but there was no getting over it. The point of honor de- 
manded the risk of battle. He got his whipping ; they then shook 
hands and were good friends afterwards. 

134 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The mode of single combats in those days was dangerous in 
the extreme ; although no weapons were used, fists, teeth and feet 
were employed at will, but above all the detestable practice of 
gouging, by which eyes were sometimes put out, rendered this 
mode of fighting frightful indeed ; it was not, however, so de- 
structive as the stiletto of an Italian, the knife of a Spaniard, the 
small sword of the Frenchman, or the pistol of the American or 
English duelist. 

Instances of seduction and bastardy did not frequently 
happen in our early times. I remember one instance of the 
former, in which the life of the man was put in jeopardy by the 
resentment of the family to which the girl belonged. Indeed, 
considering the chivalrous temper of our people, this crime could 
not then take place without great personal danger from the 
brothers or other relations of the victims of seductions, family 
honor being then estimated at a high rate. 

I do not recollect that profane language was much more 
prevalent in our early times than at present. 

Among the people with whom I was most conversant, there 
was no other vestige of the Christian religion than a faint obser- 
vation of Sunday, and that merely as a day of. rest for the aged, 
and a play day for the young. The first Christian service I ever 
heard was in the garrison church in Baltimore county in Mary- 
land, where my father had sent me to school. I was then about 
ten years old. The appearance of the church, the windows of 
which were Gothic, the white surplice of the minister, and the 
responses in the service, overwhelmed me with surprise. Among 
my schoolfellows in that place, it was a matter of reproach to me 
that I was not baptized, and why? Because, as they said, I had 
no name. Such was their notion of the efficacy of baptism. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 135 

Cruelty to Slaves and Servants. 

If some of my readers should complain of the introduction 
of too great a portion of my own history, and that of my fam- 
ily, into this work, I trust I shall not be considered blamable 
for having given the narrative of the horrid cruelties exercised 
upon slaves and servants, which I was doomed to witness in 
my early years, together with the lasting impressions which 
the view of these tortures made upon my infant mind. 

On the death of my mother, which happened when I was 
about eight years old, my father sent me, under the care of a 
relation, to Maryland for the purpose of being sent to school. 

When I arrived there I was in a new world. I had left 
the backwoods behind me. I had exchanged its rough man- 
ners and poor living for the buildings, plenty and polish of 
civilized life. Everything I saw and heard confounded me. 
I learnt, after some time, that there were rich and poor mas- 
ters, slaves and convicts, and I discovered that the poor ser- 
vants and convicts were under entire subordination to their 
masters. I saw that the slaves and convicts lived in filthy 
hovels called kitchens, and that they were poor, ragged and 
dirty, and kept at hard labor; while their masters and fam- 
ilies lived in large houses, were well clothed and fed and 
did as they pleased. The reason of this difference in the con- 
dition of men and women of the same race of beings I 
could not comprehend. Having no idea of crime, I thought 
it could not be otherwise than unjust, that some should have 
so little and others so much, and that one should work so hard 
and others perform no labor. 

My residence was in a neighborhood where slaves and 
convicts were numerous, and where tortures inflicted upon 
them had become the occurrences of almost every day, so that 

136 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

they were viewed with indifference by the whole population 
of the neighborhood, as matters of course. Thus it is that 
custom reconciles human nature, with all its native sym- 
pathies, to the grossest barbarities, and hardens the heart 
against the intrusion of feeling at the sight of the most ex- 
quisite suffering of a fellow creature. 

Not so with me, who never had witnessed such tor- 
tures ; I had not been long in my new habitation, before I 
witnessed a scene which I shall never forget. A convict ser- 
vant, accused of some trivial offense, was doomed to the whip. 
Tied with his arms extended upwards to the limb of a tree, and 
a bundle of hickories thrown down before him, he was 
ordered to look at them and told that they should all be worn 
out on him, and a great many more, if he did not make a con- 
fession of the crime alleged against him. The operation 
began by tucking up the shirt over his head, so as to leave his 
back and shoulders naked. The master then took two of the 
hickories in his hand, and by forward and backhanded strokes, 
each of which sounded like a wagon whip, and applied with the 
utmost rapidity and with his whole muscular strength, in a few 
seconds lacerated the shoulders of the poor miserable sufferer, 
with not less than fifty scourges, so that in a little time the 
whole of his shoulders had the appearance of a mass of blood, 
streams of which soon began to flow down his back and sides ; 
he then made a confession of his fault. A fault not worth nam- 
ing; but this did not save him from further torture. He had 
put his master " to the trouble of whipping him and he must 
have a little more." His trousers were then unbuttoned and 
suffered to fall down about his feet, two new hickories were 
selected from the bundle, and so applied that in a short time 
his posteriors, like his shoulders, exhibited nothing but lacera- 
tion and blood. A consultation was then held between the 
master and the bystanders, who had been coolly looking on, 
in which it was humanely concluded " that he got enough." A 
basin of brine and a cloth were ordered to be brought; with 
this his stripes were washed or salted as they called it. Dur- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 13? 

ing this operation the suffering wretch writhed and groaned 
as if in the agonies of death. He was then untied and told to 
go home and mistress would tell him what to do. 

From this scene of torture I went home with a heavy 
heart, and wished myself in the backwoods again ; nor did the 
frequency of witnessing such scenes lessen, in any degree, the 
horror which they first occasioned in my mind. 

It frequently happened that torture was inflicted upon 
slaves and convicts in a more protracted manner than in that 
above described. When the victim of cruelty was doomed by 
his master to receive the lash, several of his neighbors were 
called on, for their assistance. They attended at the time 
and place appointed. A jug of rum and water were pro- 
vided for the occasion. After the trembling wretch was 
brought forth and tied up, the number of lashes which he 
was to receive was determined on, and by lot, or otherwise, 
it was decided who should begin the operation ; this done, 
the torture commenced ; at the conclusion of the first course, 
the operator, pretending great weariness, called for a drink 
of rum and water, in which he was joined by the company. 
A certain time was allowed for the subject of their cruelty 
to cool, as they called it. When the allotted time had expired, 
the next hand took his turn, and in like manner ended with a 
drink, and so on until the appointed number of lashes were 
all imposed. This operation lasted several hours, sometimes 
half a day, at the conclusion of which the sufferer, with his 
hands swollen with the cords, was unbound and suffered to 
put on his shirt. His executioners, to whom the operation 
was rather a frolic than otherwise, returned home from the 
scene of their labor half drunk. Another method of punish- 
ment, still more protracted than this, was that of dooming a 
slave to receive so many lashes, during several days in suc- 
cession ; each of those whippings, excepting the first, was 
called " tickling up the old scabs." 

A couple of wagoners in the neighborhood, having caught 
a man, as they said, in the act of stealing something from the 
wagon, stripped him and fastened him to the hinder part of 

138 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the wagon, got out their jug of rum and amused themselves 
by making scores on his back for wagers. He that could 
make the deepest score was to have the first dram. Some- 
times the cuts appearing to be equal, no decision could be 
had until the second or third trial was made. This sport was 
continued for several hours, until the poor fellow was almost 
killed, and the wagoners both drunk. 

Female servants, both white and black, were subjected 
to the whip in common with the males. Having to pass 
through the yard of a neighbor, on my way to school, it hap- 
pened that on going my usual route in a cold snowy morn- 
ing, when I came within view of the house I was much sur- 
prised at seeing a naked woman standing at the whipping 
post and her master with a hickory in his hand. When I 
got to the place I stopped to see what was going on ; after 
the woman had received a certain number of lashes, a fe- 
male black slave was ordered from the kitchen, stripped and 
fastened by the irons of the whipping post; her scars exhib- 
ited the stripes and corrugations of former years. Both these 
women had handkerchiefs tied around their eyes, to prevent 
them from seeing when the blow was coming. The hickory 
used by this man was a forked one, twisted together and tied. 
A hickory of this kind, owing to the inequality of its surface, 
gives the greater pain. With this he scored the backs of 
these two women alternately ; but for what length of time I 
do not know ; being shocked at the sight, I hurried on to 
school and left the master at his work. 

I might here relate many other methods of torture, of 
which I have been eye witness among these people, such as 
the thumb screw, sweating, the birch, etc., but it is enough, 
the heart sickens at the recollection of such cruelties. 

Some time ago I made inquiry of a gentleman who had 
recently removed from the neighborhood in which I had 
lived in Maryland, to this country, concerning the present 
state of the families of my former acquaintance in Maryland ; 
he informed me that of the whole number of those families, 
only three or four of their descendants remain possessors of 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 139 

the estates of their forefathers ; of the others, their sons had 
become dissipated, sold their lands, and had either perished 
in consequence of intemperance, or left the country, so that 
the places which once knew those families as princes of the 
land now know them no more. Thus it is that in moral and 
physical respects at least " the sins of the fathers are visited 
upon the children to the third and fourth generation." 

If the very sanctuaries built by the former hierarchy of 
the slave states, in which the oppressors used the ritual of the 
Christian service, with hands reeking with the blood of 
slaves, have long since ceased to be vocal with the songs 
of Zion, and have passed to other hands, or even fallen to 
decay, it is only saying that God is just. 

The recollection of the tortures which I witnessed so 
early in life is still a source of affliction to my mind. Twenty- 
four hours never pass during which my imagination does not 
present me with the afflicting view of the slave or servant 
writhing beneath the lashes of his master, and cringing from 
the brine with w T hich he salted his stripes. 

During my stay of three years, in the region of slavery, 
my only consolation was, that the time would come in which 
the master and slave would exchange situations ; that the 
former would receive the punishment due to his cruelty, while 
the latter should find rest from his toils and sufferings in 
the kingdom of Heaven. The master I regarded as Dives 
who, after " being clothed in purple and fine linen and faring 
sumptuously every day," must soon " lift up his eyes in hell, 
being in torment." The slave was Lazarus, who, after clos- 
ing his sufferings in death, was to be " carried by the angels 
into Abraham's bosom." 

From this afflicting state of society I returned to the 
back-woods a republican, without knowing the meaning of 
the term, that is, with an utter detestation of an arbitrary 
power of one man over another. 

On reading this recital the historian will naturally re- 
flect that personal, real, or political slavery, has, at all times, 
been the condition of almost the whole human race; that 

140 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the history of man is the history of oppressors and the victims 
of oppression. Wars, bastiles, prisons, crosses, gibbets, tor- 
tures, scourges and fire, in the hands of despots, have been 
the instruments of spreading desolation and misery over the 
earth. The philosopher regards those means of destruction, 
and their extensive use, in all ages, as indices of the depravity 
and ferocity of man. From the blood-stained pages of his- 
tory he turns with disgust and horror, and pronounces an 
involuntary anathema on the whole of his race. But is the 
condition of the world still to remain the same? Are the 
moral impressions of our nature to be forever sacrificed at 
the shrine of lawless ambition? Is man, as heretofore, to be 
born only to destroy, or be destroyed? Does the good Samar- 
itan see no rational ground of hope of better things for future 
ages? We trust he does, and that ages yet to come will wit- 
ness the fulfillment of his benevolent wishes and predictions. 

The American revolution was the commencement of a 
new era in the history of the world. The issue of that event- 
ful contest snatched the sceptre from the hands of the mon- 
arch, and placed it where it ought to be, in the hands of the 

On the sacred altar of liberty it consecrated the rights 
of man, surrendered him the right and the power of govern- 
ing himself, and placed in his hands the resources of his 
country as munitions of war for his defense. The experi- 
ment was indeed bold and hazardous ; but the success has 
hitherto more than justified the most sanguine anticipations 
of those who made it. The world has witnessed, with aston- 
ishment, the rapid growth and confirmation of our noble 
fabric of freedom. From our distant horizon we have re- 
flected a strong and steady blaze of light on ill-fated Europe, 
from time immemorial involved in the fetters and gloom of 
slavery. Our history has excited a general and ardent spirit 
of inquiry into the nature of our civil institutions, and a 
strong wish, on the part of the people in distant countries, 
to participate in our blessings. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 141 

But will an example, so portentous of evil to the chiefs 
of despotic institutions, be viewed with indifference by those 
who now sway the sceptre with unlimited power over the 
many millions of their vassals? Will they adopt new mea- 
sures of defense against the influence of that thirst for free- 
dom, so widely diffused and so rapidly gaining strength 
throughout their empires? Will they make no effort to re- 
move from the world those free governments whose example 
gives them so much annoyance? The measures of defense will 
be adopted, the effort will be made ; for power is never sur- 
rendered without a struggle. 

Already nations which from the earliest period of their 
history have constantly crimsoned the earth with each 
other's blood have become a band of brothers for the de- 
struction of every germ of human liberty. Every year wit- 
nesses an association of the monarchs of those nations, in 
unhallowed conclave, for the purpose of concerting measures 
for effecting their dark designs. Hitherto the execution of 
those measures has been, alas ! too fatally successful. 

It would be impolitic and unwise in us to calculate on 
escaping the hostile notice of the despots of continental 
Europe ; already we hear, like distant thunder, their expres- 
sions of indignation and threats of vengeance. We ought 
to anticipate the gathering storm without dismay; but not 
w r ith indifference. In viewing the dark side of the prospect 
before us, one source of consolation of much magnitude, 
presents itself. It is confidently expected that the brave and 
potent nation with whom we have a common origin will not 
risk the loss of that portion of liberty, which at the expense 
of so much blood and treasure, they have secured for them- 
selves, by an unnatural association with despots for the un- 
holy purpose of making war on the freedom of the few nations 
of the earth which possess any considerable portion of that in- 
valuable blessing; on the contrary it is hoped by us that they 
will, if necessity should require, employ the bravery of their 
people, their immense resources and the trident of the ocean, 
in defense of their own liberties and by consequence those of 

142 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Legislators, fathers of our country ! lose no time, spare no 
expense in hastening on the requisite means of defense, for 
meeting with safety, and with victory, the impending storm 
which, sooner or later, must fall upon us. 

Western Civilization. 

The causes which led to the present state of civilization of 
the western country are subjects which deserve some consid- 

The state of society and manners of the early settlers, as 
presented in these Notes, shows very clearly that their grade of 
civilization was, indeed, low enough. The descendants of the 
English cavaliers from Maryland and Virginia, who settled 
mostly along the rivers, and the descendants of the Irish, who 
settled the interior parts of the country, were neither of 
them remarkable for science or urbanity of manners. The 
former were mostly illiterate, rough in their manners, and 
addicted to the rude diversions of horse racing, wrestling, 
jumping, shooting, dancing, etc. These diversions were often 
accompanied with personal combats, which consisted of 
blows, kicks, biting and gouging. This mode of fighting 
was what they called rough and tumble. Sometimes a previous 
stipulation was made to use the fists only. Yet these people 
were industrious, enterprising, generous in their hospitality, 
and brave in the defense of their country. 

These people, for the most part, formed the cordon along 
the Ohio river on the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
Kentucky, which defended the country against the attacks 
of the Indians during the revolutionary war. They were 
the janizaries of the country, that is, they were soldiers, when 
they chose to be so, and when they chose laid down their 
arms. Their military service was voluntary and of course 
received no pay. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 143 

With the descendants of the Irish I had but little ac- 
quaintance, although I lived near them. At an early period 
they were comprehended in the Presbyterian church, and 
were, therefore, more reserved in their deportment than 
their frontier neighbors, and from their situation, being less 
exposed to the Indian warfare, took less part in that war. 

The patriot of the western region finds his love of the 
country and national pride augmented to the highest grade 
when he compares the political, moral and religious char- 
acter of his people with that of the inhabitants of many large 
divisions of the old world. In Asia and Africa generation 
after generation passes without any change in the moral and 
religious character, or physical condition of the people. 

On the Barbary coast the traveler, if a river lies in his 
way, and happens to be high, must either swim it or wait 
until it subsides. If the traveler is a Christian he must have 
a firman and a guard. Yet this was once the country of the 
famous Carthagenians. 

In upper Egypt the people grind meal for their dhoura 
bread by rubbing it between two flat stones. This is done 
by women. 

In Palestine the grinding of grain is still performed by 
an ill constructed hand mill, as in the days of our Saviour. 
The roads to the famous city of Jerusalem are still almost 
in the rude state of nature. 

In Asiatic Turkey merchandise is still carried on by car- 
avans, which are attended with a military guard, and the 
naked walls of the caravansera is their fortress and place of 
repose at night instead of a place of entertainment. The 
streets of Constantinople, instead of being paved, are, in 
many places, almost impassable from mud, filth, and the car- 
casses of dead beasts. Yet this is the metropolis of a great 

Throughout the whole of the extensive regions of Asia 
and Africa man, from his cradle to his grave, sees no change 
in the aspect of anything around him; unless from the deso- 
lations of war. His dress, his ordinary salutations of his 

144 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

neighbors, his die* and his mode of eating it, are prescribed 
by his religious institutions, and his rank in society, as well 
as his occupation, are determined by his birth. Steady and 
unvarying as the lapse of time in every department of life, 
generation after generation beats the dull monotonous round. 
The Hindoo would sooner die a martyr at the stake than sit 
on a chair or eat with a knife and fork. 

The descendant of Ishmael is still " a wild man," hungry, 
thirsty and half naked ; beneath a burning sun he traverses 
the immense and inhospitable desert of Sahara, apparently 
without any object, because his fore-fathers did so before 
him. Throughout life he subsists on camel's milk and flesh, 
while his only covering from the inclemency of weather is a 
flimsy tent of camel's hair; his single, solitary virtue is that 
of hospitality to strangers ; in every other respect he is a thief 
and a robber. 

The Chinese still retain their alphabet of thirty-six 
thousand hieroglyphics. They must never exchange it for one 
of twenty letters, which would answer an infinitely better 

Had we pursued the course of the greater number of the 
nations of the earth we should have been at this day tread- 
ing in the footsteps of our forefathers, from whose example 
in any respect we should have thought it criminal to depart, 
in the slightest degree. 

Instead of a blind or superstitious imitation of the man- 
ners and customs of our forefathers, we have thought and 
acted for ourselves, and we have changed ourselves and 
everything around us. The linsey and coarse linen of the 
first settlers of the country have been exchanged for the sub- 
stantial and fine fabrics of Europe and Asia ; the hunting shirt 
for the fashionable coat of broadcloth, and the moccasin for 
boots and shoes of tanned leather. The dresses of our ladies 
are equal in beauty, fineness and fashion > to those of the cities 
and countries of Europe and Atlantic America. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 145 

It is not enough that persevering industry has enabled us 
to purchase the " purple and fine linen " from foreigners and 
to use their porcelain and glassware whether plain, engraved 
or gilt. We have nobly dared to fabricate those elegant, 
comfortable and valuable productions of art for ourselves. 
A well founded prospect of large gains from useful arts and 
honest labor has drawn to our country a large number of the 
best artizans of other countries. Their mechanic arts, im- 
mensely improved by American genius, v have hitherto real- 
ized the hopeful prospect which induced their emigration to 
our infant country. 

The horse paths, along which our forefathers made their 
laborious journeys over the mountains, for salt and iron, were 
soon succeeded by wagon roads, and those again by substan- 
tial turnpikes, which, as if by magic enchantment, have 
brought the distant region not many years ago denominated 
the backwoods, into a close and lucrative connection with our 
great Atlantic cities. The journey over the mountains, form- 
erly considered so long, so expensive and even perilous, is 
now made in a very .few days, and with accommodations not 
displeasing to the epicure himself. Those giants of North 
America, the different mountains composing the great chain 
of- the Alleghany, formerly so frightful in their aspect, and 
presenting so many difficulties in their passage, are now 
scarcely noticed by the traveler in his journey along the 
graduated highways by which they are crossed. 

The rude sports of former times have been discontinued. 
Athletic trials of muscular strength and activity, in which 
there certainly is not much of merit, have given way to the 
more noble, ambition for mental endowments and skill in 
useful arts. To the rude and often indecent songs, but 
roughly and unskillfully sung, have succeeded the psalm, 
the hymn, and swelling anthem. To the clamorous boast, the 
provoking banter, the biting sarcasm, the horrid oath and im- 
precation, have succeeded urbanity of manners and a course 
of conversation enlightened by science, and chastened by 
mental attention and respect. 


146 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Above all the direful spirit of revenge, the exercise of 
which so much approximated the character of many of the 
first settlers of our country to that of the worst of savages, is 
now unknown. The Indian might pass in safety among those 
whose remembrance still bleeds at the recollection of the 
loss of their relatives, who have perished under the tomahawk 
and scalping-knife of the savages. 

The Moravian brethren may dwell in safety on the sites 
of the villages desolated, and over the bones of their brethren 
and forefathers murdered by the more than savage ferocity 
of the whites. Nor let it be supposed that the return of peace 
produced this salutary change of feeling towards the tawny 
sons of the forest. The thirst of revenge was not wholly al- 
layed by the balm of peace. Several Indians fell victims to 
the private vengeance of those who had recently lost their 
relations in the war, for some years after it had ceased. 

If the state of society and manners, from the commence- 
ment of the settlements in this country during the lapse of 
many years, owing to the sanguinary character of the Indian 
mode of warfare, and other circumstances, was in a state of 
retrogression, as was evidently the case ; if ignorance is more 
easily induced than science ; if society more speedily deter- 
iorates than improves ; if it be much easier for the civilized 
man to become wild than for the wild man to become civilized ; 
what means have arrested the progress of the early inhabitants 
of the western region towards barbarism? What agents have 
directed their influence in favor of science, morals and piety? 

The early introduction of commerce was among the first 
means of changing, in some degree, the exterior aspect of the 
population of the country, and giving a new current to pub- 
lic feeling and individual pursuit. The huntsman and warrior, 
when he had exchanged his hunter's dress for that of the civ- 
ilized man, soon lost sight of his former occupations and as- 
sumed a new character and a new line of life ; like the soldier, 
who, when he receives his discharge, and lays aside his regi- 
mentals, soon loses the feeling of a soldier, and even forgets, 
in some degree, his manual exercise. Had not commerce 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 147 

furnished the means of changing the dresses of our people and 
the furniture of their houses, had the hunting shirt, moccasin 
and leggins continued to be the dress of our men, had the three 
legged stool, the noggin, the trencher and wooden bowl, con- 
tinued to be the furniture of our houses, our progress towards 
science and civilization would have been much slower. 

It may seem strange that so much importance is attached 
to the influence of dress in giving the moral and intellectual 
character of society. 

In all the institutions of despotic governments we dis- 
cover evident traces of the highest grade of human sagacity 
and foresight. It must have been the object of the founders 
of those governments to repress the genius of man, divest the 
mind of every sentiment of ambition, and prevent the cogni- 
zance of any rule of life excepting that of a blind obedience 
to the despot and his established institutions of religion and 
government; hence the canon laws of religion, in all govern- 
ments despotic in principle, have prescribed the costume of 
each class of society, their diet, and their manner of eating it; 
even their household furniture is in like manner prescribed by 
law. In all these departments no deviation from the law or 
custom is permitted, or even thought of. The whole science 
of'human nature, under such governments, is that of a knowl- 
edge of the duties of the station of life prescribed by parent- 
age and the whole duty of man that of a rigid performance of 
them ; while reason, having nothing to do with either the one 
or the other, is never cultivated. 

Even among Christians those founders of religious so- 
cieties have succeeded best who have prescribed a professional 
costume for their followers, because every time the disciple 
looks at his dress he is put in mind of his obligations to' the 
society to which he belongs, and he is, therefore, the less 
liable to wander into strange pastures. 

The English government could never subdue the esprit 
dc corps of the north of Scotland until after the rebellion of '45. 
The prohibition of wearing the tartan plaid, the kilt and the 
bonnet, amongst Highlanders, broke down the spirit of the 

148 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

I have seen several of the Moravian Indians^ and won- 
dered that they were permitted to wear the Indian dress ; their 
conduct, when among the white people, soon convinced me 
that the conversion of those whom I saw was far from being 

There can be little doubt but that if permission should 
be given by the supreme power of the Mussulman faith for a 
change, at the will of each individual, in dress, household fur- 
niture, and in eating and drinking, the whole Mohammedan 
system would be overthrown in a few years. With a similar 
permission the Hindoo superstition would share the same fate. 
We have yet some small districts of country where the cos- 
tume, cabins, and in some measure the household furniture of 
their ancestors, are still in use. The people of these districts 
are far behind their neighbors in every valuable endowment 
of human nature. Among them the virtues of chastity, tem- 
perance and industry bear no great value, and schools and 
places of worship are but little regarded. In general every 
one " does what is right in his own eyes." 

In short, wh) r have we so soon forgotten our forefathers, 
and everything belonging to our former state? The reason is, 
everything belonging to our former state has vanished from 
our view ; we meet with nothing to put us in remembrance of 
them. The recent date of the settlement of our country is no 
longer a subject of reflection. Its immense improvements pre- 
sent to the imagination the results of the labors of several cen- 
turies, instead of the work of a few years ; and we do not often 
take the trouble to correct the false impression. 

The introduction of the mechanic arts has certainly con- 
tributed, not a little, to the morals and scientific improvement 
of the country. The carpenter, the joiner and mason have dis- 
placed the rude, unsightly and uncomfortable cabin of our fore- 
fathers by comfortable and in many instances elegant man- 
sions of stone, brick, hewn or sawed timbers. 

The ultimate objects of civilization are the moral and 
physical happiness of man. To the latter, the commodious 
mansion house, with its furniture, contributes essentially. The 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 149 

family mansions of the nations of the earth furnish the criteria 
of the different grades of their moral and mental condition. The 
savages universally live in tents, wigwams or lodges covered 
with earth. Barbarians, next to these, may indeed have habi- 
tations something better, but of no value and indifferently fur- 
nished. Such are the habitations of the Russian, Tartar and 
Turkish peasantry. 

Such is the effect of a large, elegant and well furnished 
house on the feelings and deportment of a family, that if you 
were to build one for a family of savages, by the occupancy 
of it they would lose their savage character; or if they did 
not choose to make the exchange of that character for that 
of civilization, they would forsake it for the wigwam and the 

This was done by many of the early stock of backwoods- 
men, even after they built comfortable houses for themselves. 
They no longer had the chance of "a fall hunt," the woods 
pasture was eaten up. They wanted " clbozv room." They 
therefore sold out and fled to the forest of the frontier set- 
tlements, choosing rather to encounter the toil of turning the 
wilderness into fruitful fields a second time, and even risk an 
Indian war, rather than endure the inconveniences of a 
crowded settlement. Kentucky first offered a resting place 
for those pioneers, then Indiana and now the Missouri, and it 
cannot be long before the Pacific ocean will put a final stop 
to the westward march of those lovers of the wilderness. 

Substantial buildings have the effect of giving value to the 
soil and creating an attachment to the family residence. Those 
who have accustomed themselves to poetry, ancient or modern, 
need not be told how finely and how impressively the house- 
hold gods, the blazing hearth, the plentiful board and the social 
fireside, figure in poetical imagery. And this is not " Tying 
up nonsense for a song;" they are realities of life in its most 
polished states ; they are among its best and most rational en- 
joyment; they associate the little family community in pa- 
rental and filial affection and duty, in which even the well 
clothed child feels its importance, claims and duties.. The 

150 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

amount of attachment to the family mansion furnishes the 
criterion of the relative amount of virtue in tiie members of a 
family. If the head of a family should wander from the path 
of parental duty and become addicted to vicious habits, in pro- 
portion as his virtue suffers a declension, his love of his home 
and family abates until at last, any place, however base and 
corrupting it may be, is more agreeable to him than the once 
duke domiim. If a similar declension in virtue happens on the 
part of the maternal chief of the family mansion, the first effect 
of her deviation from the path of maternal virtue is that 
" Her feet abideth not in her own house." The same observa- 
tions apply to children. When the young man or woman, in- 
stead of manifesting a strong attachment for the family man- 
sion, is " given to outgoing " to places of licentious resort, 
their moral ruin may be said to be at no great distance. 

Architecture is of use even in the important province of 
religion. Those who build no houses for themselves build no 
temples for the service of God, and of course derive the less 
benefit from the institutions of religion. L.While our people 
lived in cabins their places ot worship were tents, as they 
were called, their seats logs, their communion tables rough 
slabs of hewn timber, and the covering of the worshipers the 
leaves of the forest trees. Churches have succeeded to tents, 
with their rude accommodations for public worship. The very 
aspect of those sacred edifices fills the mind of the beholder 
with a religious awe, and as to the most believing and sincere, 
it serves to increase the fervor of devotion. Patriotism is 
augmented by the sight of the majestic forum of justice, the 
substantial public highway and bridge, with its long succes- 
sion of ponderous arches. 

Rome and Greece would, no doubt, have fallen much sooner 
had it not been for the patriotism inspired by their magnificent 
public edifices ; had it not been for these, their histories would 
have been less complete and lasting than they have been. 

Emigration has brought to the western regions the wealth, 
science and arts of our eastern brethren and even of Europe. 
These we hope have suffered no deterioration in the western 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 151 

country. They have contributed much to the change which 
has been effected in the moral and scientific character of our 

The ministry of the gospel has contributed, no doubt 
immensely, to the happy change which has been effected in 
the state of our western society. At an early period of our 
settlements three Presbyterian clergymen commenced their 
clerical labors in our infant settlements. The Rev. Joseph 
Smith, the Rev. John M'Millan, and the Rev. Mr. Bowers, the 
two latter of whom are still living. They were pious, patient, 
laborious men, who collected their people into regular con- 
gregations, and did all for them that their circumstances 
would allow. It was no disparagement to them that their first 
churches were the shady groves, and their first pulpits a kind 
of tent, constructed of a few rough slabs and covered with 
clapboards. " He who dwelleth not exclusively in temples 
made with hands," was propitious to their devotions. From 
the outset the}' prudently resolved to create a ministry in the 
country, and accordingly established little grammar schools at 
their own houses or in their immediate neighborhoods. The 
course of education which they gave their pupils was, indeed, 
not extensive ; but the piety of those who entered into the 
ministry more than made up the deficiency. They formed 
societies most of which are now large and respectable, and in 
point of education their ministry has much improved. 

About the year 1792 an academy was established at Can- 
nonsburg, in Washington county, in the western part of Penn- 
sylvania, which was afterwards incorporated under the name 
Jefferson college. The means possessed by the society for the 
undertaking were indeed but small ; but they not only erected 
a tolerable edifice for the academy, but created a fund for the 
education of such pious young men as were desirous of enter- 
ing into the ministry, but unable to defray the expenses of 
their education. This institution has been remarkably suc- 
cessful in its operations. It has produced a large number of 
good scholars in all the literary professions and added im- 
mensely to the science of the country. 

152 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Next to this, Washington college, situated in the county 
town of the county of that name, has been the means of dif- 
fusing much of the light of science through the western 

Too much praise cannot be bestowed on those good men 
who opened these fruitful sources of instruction for our infant 
country at so early a period of its settlement. They have 
immensely improved the departments of theology, law, medi- 
cine and legislation in the western regions. 

At a later period the Methodist society began their labors 
in the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania; their pro- 
gress at first was slow, but their zeal and perseverance at 
length overcame every obstacle, so that they are now one of 
the most numerous and respectable societies in this country. 
The itinerant plan of their ministry is well calculated to convey 
the gospel throughout a thinly scattered population. Accord- 
ingly, their ministry has kept pace with the extension of our 
settlements. The little cabin was scarcely built, and the little 
field fenced in, before these evangelical teachers made their 
appearance amongst them, collected them into societies and 
taught them the worship of God. Had it not been for the labors 
of these indefatigable men, our country, as to a great extent 
of its settlements, would have been at this day a semi-barbaric 
region. How many thousands and tens of thousands of the 
most ignorant and licentious of our population have they in- 
structed, and reclaimed from the error of their ways? They 
have restored to society even the most worthless, and made 
them valuable and respectable as citizens, and useful in all the 
relations of life. Their numerous and zealous ministry bids 
fair to carry on the good work to any extent which our set- 
tlements and population may require. 

With the Catholics I have but little acquaintance, but have 
every reason to believe that in proportion to the extent of 
their flocks they have done well. In this country they have 
received the Episcopal visitations of their bishops. In Ken- 
tucky they have a cathedral, a college and a bishop. In In- 
diana they have a monastery of the order of St. Trap, which 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 153 

is also a college, and a bishop. Their clergy, with apostolic 
zeal, but in an unostentatious manner, have sought out and 
ministered to their scattered flocks throughout the country; 
and as far as I know, with good success. 

The societies of Friends, in the western country, are 
numerous and their establishments in good order. Although 
they are not much in favor of a classical education they are, 
nevertheless, in the habit of giving their people a substantial 
English education. Their habits of industry and attention to 
useful arts and improvements are highly honorable to them- 
selves, and worthy of imitation. 

The Baptists in the state of Kentucky took the lead in the 
ministry, and with great success. Their establishments are, 
as I have been informed, at present numerous and respectable 
in that state. A great and salutary revolution has taken place 
in this community of people. Their ministry was formerly 
quite illiterate ; but they have turned their attention to 
science and have already erected some very respectable literary 
establishments in different parts of America. 

The German Lutheran and Reformed churches in our 
country, as far as I know of them, are doing well. The num- 
ber of the Lutheran congregations is said to be at least one 
hundred, that of the Reformed, it is presumed, is about the 
same amount. It is remarkable that throughout the whole 
extent of the United States the Germans, in proportion to their 
wealth, have the best churches, organs and grave yards. 

It is a fortunate circumstance that those of our citizens 
who labor under the disadvantage of speaking a foreign 
language are blessed with a ministry so evangelical as that 
of these very numerous and respectable communities. 

The Episcopalian church, which ought to have been 
foremost in gathering their scattered flocks, have been 
the last, and done the least of any Christian community in 
the evangelical work. Taking the western country in its 
whole extent, at least one-half of its population was orig- 
inally of Episcopalian parentage ; but, for want of a ministry 
of their own, have associated with other communities. They 

154 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

had no alternative but that of changing their profession or liv- 
ing and dying without the ordinances of religion. It can be 
no subject of regret that those ordinances were placed within 
their reach by other hands, whilst they were withheld by, 
those by whom, as a matter of right and duty, they ought to 
have been given. One single chorea episcopus, or suffragan, 
bishop, of a faithful spirit, who twenty years ago should have 
" ordained them elders in every place " where they were 
needed, would have been the instrument of forming episcopal 
congregations over a great extent of country, and which by 
this time would have become large, numerous and respectable ; 
but. the opportunity was neglected, and the consequent loss 
to this church is irreparable. So total a neglect of the spiritual 
interests of so many valuable people, for so great a length of 
time, by a ministry so near at hand, is a singular and unprec- 
edented fact in ecclesiastical history, the like of which never 
occurred before. 

It seems to me that if the twentieth part of the Christian 
people of any other community had been placed in Siberia, 
and dependent on any other ecclesiastical authority, in this 
country, that that authority would have reached them many 
years ago with the ministration of the gospel. With the ear- 
liest and most numerous episcopacy in America, not one of the 
eastern bishops has ever yet crossed the Alleghany mountains, 
although the dioceses of two of them comprehended large 
tracts of country on the western side of the mountains. It is 
hoped that the future diligence of this community will make 
up, in some degree, for the negligence of the past. There is still 
an immense void in this country which it is their duty to fill 
up. From their respectability on the ground of antiquity 
among the reformed churches, the science of their patriarchs, 
who have been the lights of the world, from their number and 
great resources, even in America, she ought to hasten to fulfill 
the just expectations of her own people, as well as those of 
other communities, in contributing her full share to the science, 
piety, and civilization of our country. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 155 

From the whole of our ecclesiastical history, it appears 
that, with the exception of the Episcopal church, all our relig- 
ious communities have done well for their country. 

The author begs that it may be understood that with the 
distinguishing tenets of our religious societies he has nothing 
to do, nor yet with the excellencies or defects of their eccles- 
iastical institutions. They are noticed on no other ground 
than that of their respective contributions to the science and 
civilization of the country. 

The last, but not the least, of the means of our present 
civilization are our excellent forms of government and the 
administration of the laws. In vain, as means of general refor- 
mation, are schools, colleges, and a ministry of the gospel 
only; without the best of order a land of liberty is a land of 
crime as well as of virtue. 

It is often mentioned as a matter of reproach to England 
that, in proportion to her population, they have more con- 
victions, executions and transportations than any other coun- 
try in Europe. Should it be asked what is the reason of the 
prevalence of crime in England? Is it that human nature is 
worse there than elsewhere? No. There is more liberty there 
than elsewhere in Europe, and that is the true and only solu- 
tion of the matter in question. Where a people are at liberty 
to learn what they choose, to think and act as they please, and 
adopt any profession for a living or a fortune, they are much 
more liable to fall into the commission of crime than a people 
who, from their infancy, have been accustomed to the dull, 
monotonous march of despotism, which chains each individual 
to the rank and profession of his forefathers ; and does not 
permit him to wander into the strange and devious paths of 
hazardous experiments. — — 

In America, should a stranger read awhile our numerous 
publications of a religious nature, the reports of missionary 
and Bible societies, at first blush he would look upon the 
Americans as a nation of saints; let him lay these aside and 
read the daily newspapers, he will change his opinion and 
for the time being consider them as a nation abounding in 
crimes of the most atrocious dye. Both portraits are true. 

156 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The greater the amount of freedom the greater the 
necessity of a steady and faithful administration of justice; 
but more especially of criminal justice, because a general 
diffusion of science, while it produces the most salutary 
effects on a general scale, produces also the worst of crimes, 
by creating the greater capacity for their commission. 
There is scarcely any art or science which is not in some 
hands, and certain circumstances, made an instrument of 
the most atrocious vices. The arts of navigation and gun- 
nery, so necessary for the wealth and defense of a nation, 
have often degenerated into the crime of piracy. The beauti- 
ful art of engraving, and the more useful art of writing, have 
been used by the fraudulent for counterfeiting all kinds of 
public and private documents of credit. Were it not for 
science and freedom, the important professions of theology 
and physic would not be so frequently assumed by the pseudo 
priest and the quack, without previous acquirements, without 
right, and for purposes wholly base and unwarrantable. 

The truth is, the western country is the region of adven- 
ture. If we have derived some advantage from the importa- 
tion of science, arts and wealth, we have on the other hand 
been much annoyed and endangered, as to our moral and po- 
litical state, by an immense importation of vice, associated 
with a high grade of science and the most consummate art, 
in the pursuit of wealth by every description of unlawful 
means. The steady administration of justice has been our 
only safety from destruction by the pestilential influence of so 
great an amount of moral depravity in our infant country. 

Still it may be asked whether facts warrant the belief that 
the scale is fairly turned in favor of science, piety and civili- 
zation ; whether in regard to these important endowments 
of our nature, the present time is better than the past, and the 
future likely to be better than the present. Whether we may 
safely consider our political institutions so matured and set- 
tled that our personal liberty, property and sacred honor are 
not only secured to us for the present, but likely to remain the 
inheritance of our children for generations yet to come. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 157 

Society in its best state resembles a sleeping volcano, as to the 
amount of latent moral evil which it always contains. It is 
enough for public safety, and all that can reasonably be ex- 
pected, that the good preponderate over the evil. The moral 
and political means which have been so successfully employed 
for preventing a revolutionary explosion have, as we trust, 
procrastinated the danger of such an event for a long time to 
come. If we have criminals they are splendidly pursued and 
brought to justice. 

The places of our country which still remain in their 
native state of wilderness do not, as in many other countries, 
afford notorious lodgements for thieves. Our hills are not, 
as in the wilderness of Judea, hills of robbers. The ministry 
of the holy gospel is enlightening the minds of our people with 
the best of all sciences, that of God himself, His divine gov- 
ernment and man's future state. 

fLet it not be thought hard that our forums of justice are 
so numerous, the style of their architecture so imposing, and 
the business which occupies them so multifarious ; they are 
the price which freedom must pay for its protection. Com- 
merce, circulating through its million channels, will create an 
endless variety of litigated claims. Crimes of the deepest dye, 
springing from science and liberty themselves, require con- 
stantly the vigilance and coercions of criminal justice. Even 
the poorest of our people are solicitous for the education of 
their children. Thus the great supports of our moral and 
political state, resting on their firmest basis', public opinion 
and attachment to our government and laws, promise stability 
for generations yet to come. 

158 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Indian Mode of Warfare. 

Preliminary observations on the character of the Indian 
mode of warfare and its adoption by the white people. 

This is a subject which presents human nature in its most 
revolting features as subject to a vindictive spirit of revenge 
and a thirst for human blood leading to an indiscriminate 
slaughter of all ranks, ages and sexes, by the weapons of 
war or by torture. 

The history of man is, for the most part, one continued 
detail of bloodshed, battles and devastations. War has been 
from the earliest periods of history the almost constant em- 
ployment of individuals, clans, tribes and nations. Fame, one 
of the most potent objects of human ambition, has at all times 
been the delusive but costly reward of military achievements. 
The triumph of conquest, the epithet of greatness, the throne 
and the sceptre, have uniformly been purchased by the con- 
flict of battle, and garments rolled in blood. 

If the modern European laws of warfare have softened 
in some degree the horrid features of national conflicts by re- 
specting the rights of private property and extending hu- 
manity to the sick, wounded and prisoners, we ought to re- 
flect that this amelioration is the effect of civilization only. 
The natural state of war knows no such mixture of mercy with 
cruelty. In his primitive state man knows no object in his 
wars but that of the extermination of his enemies, either by 
death or captivity. 

The wars of the Jews were exterminatory in their object. 
The destruction of a whole nation was often the result of a 
single campaign. Even the beasts themselves were sometimes 
included in the general massacre. The present war between 
the Greeks and Turks is a war upon the ancient model ; a war 
of utter extermination. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 159 

It is, to be sure, much to be regretted that our people so 
often followed the cruel examples of the Indians in the 
slaughter of prisoners, and sometimes women and children; 
yet let them receive a candid hearing at the bar of reason and 
justice before they are condemned, as barbarians, equally with 
the Indians themselves. History scarcely presents an ex- 
ample of a civilized nation carrying on a war with barbarians 
without adopting the method of warfare of the barbarous na- 
tion. The ferocious Suwarrow, when at war with the Turks, 
was as much of a savage as the Turks themselves. His 
slaughters were as indiscriminate as theirs; but during his 
wars against the French, in Italy, he faithfully observed the 
laws of civilized warfare. 

Were the Greeks now at war with a civilized nation 
we should' hear nothing of the barbarities which they have 
committed on the Turks ; but, being at war with barbarians, 
the principle of self-defense compels them to retaliate on 
the Turks the barbarities which they commit on them. 

In the last, rebellion in Ireland, that of united Irishmen, 
the government party were not much behind the rebels 
in acts of lawless cruelty. It was not by the hands of the 
executioner, alone, they perished. Summary justice, as it 
was called, was sometimes inflicted. How many perished 
under the torturing scourge of the drummer for the pur- 
pose of extorting confessions ! These extra judicial exe- 
cutions were attempted to be justified on the ground of the 
necessity of the case. 

Our revolutionary war has a double aspect ; on the one 
hand we carried on a war with the English, in which we ob- 
served the maxims of civilized warfare with the utmost 
strictness; but the brave, the potent, the magnanimous na- 
tion of our forefathers had associated with themselves, as 
auxiliaries, the murderous tomahawk and scalping knife of 
the Indian nations around our defenseless frontiers, leav- 
ing those barbarous sons of the forest to their own savage 
mode of warfare, to the full indulgence of all their native 
thirst for human blood. On them, then, be the blame of all 

160 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the horrid features of this war between civilized and 
savage men, in which the former were compelled, by every 
principle of self defense, to adopt the Indian mode of war- 
fare in all its revolting and destructive features. 

Were those who were engaged in the war against the 
Indians less humane than those who carried on the war 
against their English allies? No. They were not. Both 
parties carried on the war on the same principle of reci- 
procity of advantages and disadvantages. For example, the 
English and Americans take each one thousand prisoners. 
They are exchanged. Neither army is weakened by the 
arrangement. A sacrifice is indeed made to humanity, in 
the expense of taking care of the sick, wounded and pris- 
oners ; but this expense is mutual. No disadvantages result 
from all the clemency of modern warfare excepting an aug- 
mentation of the expenses of war. In this mode of warfare 
those of the nation, not in arms, are safe from death by the 
hands of soldiers. No civilized warrior dishonors his sword 
with the blood of helpless infancy, old age, or that of the 
fair sex. He aims his blows only at those whom he finds in 
arms against him. The Indian kills indiscriminately. His 
object is the total extermination of his enemies. Children are 
victims of his vengeance because, if males, they may here- 
after become warriors, or if females, they may become moth- 
ers. Even the foetal state is criminal in his view. It is not 
enough that the foetus should perish with the murdered 
mother, it is torn from her pregnant womb and elevated on a 
stick or pole, as a trophy of victory and an object of horror, 
to the survivors of the slain. 

If the Indian takes prisoners, mercy has but little con- 
cern in the transaction ; he spares the lives of those who fall 
into his hands for the purpose of feasting the feelings of fe- 
rocious vengeance of himself and his comrades by the torture 
of his captive, or to increase the strength of his nation by his 
adoption into an Indian family, or for the purpose of gain, by 
selling him for a higher price than his scalp would fetch, to 
his Christian allies of Canada ; for be it known that those allies 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 161 

were in the constant practice of making presents for scalps, 
and prisoners, as well as furnishing the means for carrying on 
the Indian war, which for so many years desolated our de- 
fenseless frontiers. No lustration can ever wash out this 
national stain. The foul blot must remain as long as the page 
of history shall convey the record of the foul transaction to 
future generations. 

The author would not open wounds which have, alas ! 
already bled so long, but for the purpose of doing justice to 
the memory of his forefathers and relatives, many of whom 
perished in the defense of their country by the hands of the 
merciless Indians. 

How is a war of extermination, and accompanied with 
such acts of atrocious cruelty, to be met by those on whom it is 
inflicted? Must it be met by the lenient maxims of civilized 
warfare? Must the Indian captive be spared his life? What 
advantage would be gained by this course? The young white 
prisoners, adopted into Indian families, often became complete 
Indians, but in how few instances did ever an Indian become 
civilized. Send a cartel for an exchange of prisoners, the In- 
dians knew nothing of this measure of clemency in war; the 
bearer of the white flag for the purpose of effecting the ex- 
change would have exerted his humanity at the forfeit of his 
life. Should my countrymen be still charged with barbarism 
in the prosecution of the Indian war, let him who harbors this 
unfavorable impression concerning them portray in imagina- 
tion the horrid scenes of slaughter which frequently met their 
view in the course of the Indian war. Let him, if he can bear 
the reflection, look at helpless infancy, virgin beauty and 
hoary age, dishonored by the ghastly wounds of the tomahawk 
and scalping knife of the savage. Let him hear the shrieks of 
the victims of the Indian torture by fire, and smell the sur- 
rounding air, rendered sickening by the effluvia of their burn- 
ing flesh and blood. Let him hear the yells, and view the 
hellish features of the surrounding circle of savage warriors, 
rioting in all the luxuriance of vengeance, while applying the 
flaming torches to the parched limbs of the sufferers, and then 

162 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

suppose those murdered infants, matrons, virgins and victims 
of torture, were his friends and relations, the wife, sister, or 
brother; what would be his feelings? After a short season of 
grief he would say, " I will now think only of revenge." 

Philosophy shudders at the destructive aspect of war in 
any shape ; Christianity, by teaching the religion of the good 
Samaritan, altogether forbids it ; but the original settlers of the 
western regions, like the greater part of the world, were 
neither philosophers nor saints. They were " men of like pas- 
sions with others," and therefore adopted the Indian mode of 
warfare from necessity, and a motive of revenge, with the 
exception of burning their captives alive, which they never 
did; if the bodies of savage enemies were sometimes burned, 
it was not until after they were dead. 

Let the voice of nature, and the law of nations plead in 
favor of the veteran pioneers of the desert regions of the west. 
War has hitherto been a prominent trait in the moral system 
of human nature, and will continue such until a radical change 
shall be effected in favor of science, morals and piety, on a 
general scale. 

In the conflicts of nations, as well as those of individuals, 
no advantages are to be conceded. If mercy may be associated 
with the carnage and devastations of war, that mercy must be 
reciprocal ; but a war of utter extermination must be met by 
a war of the same character; or by an overwhelming force 
which may put an end to it, without a sacrifice of the helpless 
and unoffending part of hostile nations ; such a force was not 
at the command of the first inhabitants of this country. The 
sequel of the Indian war goes to show that in a war with 
savages, the choice lies between extermination and subjuga- 
tion. Our government has wisely and humanely pursued the 
latter course. 

The author begs to be understood that the foregoing ob- 
servations are not intended as a justification of the whole of 
the transactions of our people with regard to the Indians dur- 
ing the course of the war. Some instances of acts of wanton 
barbarity occurred on our side, which have received, and must 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 163 

continue to receive, the unequivocal reprobation of all the 
civilized world. In the course of this history it will appear 
that more deeds of wanton barbarity took place on our side 
than the world is now acquainted with. 


THE WAR OF 1763. 

The treaty of peace between his British majesty and the 
kings of France, Spain and Portugal, concluded at Paris on 
the 10th of February, 1763, did not put an end to the Indian 
war against the frontier parts and back settlements of the 
colonies of Great Britain. The spring and summer of 1763, as 
well as those of 1764, deserve to be memorable in history for 
the great extent and destructive results of a war of extermina- 
tion carried on by the united force of all the Indian nations 
of the western country, along the shore of the northern lakes 
and throughout the whole extent of the frontier settlements 
of Pennsylvania, Virginia and North Carolina. 

The events of this war as they relate to the frontier of 
Pennsylvania and the shores of the lakes are matters of his- 
tory already, and therefore shall be no farther related here 
than is necessary to give a connected view of the military 
events of those disastrous seasons. The massacre by the In- 
dians in the south-western part of Virginia, so far as they 
have come to the knowledge of the author, shall be related 
more in detail. 

The English historians attribute this terrible war to the 
influence of the French Jesuits over the Indians, 1 but whether 
with much truth and candor, is, to say the least of it, ex- 
tremely doubtful. 

The peace of 1763, by which the provinces of Canada were 
ceded to Britain, was offensive to the Indians ; especially, as 
they very well knew that the English government, on the 

i History of England, vol. x, p. 399. 

164 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

ground of this treaty, claimed the jurisdiction of the western 
country generally ; and as an Indian sees no difference between 
the right of jurisdiction and that of possession, they considered 
themselves as about to be dispossessed of the whole of their 
country as rapidly as the English might find it convenient to 
take possession of it. In this opinion they were confirmed by 
the building of forts on the Susquehanna, on lands to which 
the Indians laid claim. The forts and posts of Pittsburg, 
Bedford, Ligonier, Niagara, Detroit, Presque Isle, St. Joseph, 
and Michilimackinac, were either built, or improved and 
strengthened, with additions to their garrisons. Thus the In- 
dians saw themselves surrounded on the north and east by a 
strong line of forts, while those of Bedford, Ligonier and 
Pittsburg, threatened an extension of them into the heart of 
their country. Thus circumstanced the aborigines of the 
country had to choose between the prospects of being driven 
to the inhospitable regions of the north and west; of negotia- 
ting with the British government for continuance of the pos- 
session of their own land, or of taking up arms for its defense. 
They chose the latter course, in which a view of the smallness 
of their numbers and scantiness of their resources ought to 
have taught them that, although they might do much mischief, 
they could not ultimately succeed ; but the Indians, as well 
as their brethren of the white skin, are often driven by their 
impetuous passions to rash and destructive enterprises, which 
reason, were it permitted to give its counsel, would disap- 
prove. The plan resolved on by the Indians for the prosecu- 
tion of the war was that of a general massacre of all the in- 
habitants of the English settlements in the western country, 
as well as of those on the lands on the Susquehanna, to which 
they laid claim. 

Never did military commanders of any nation display more 
skill, or their troops more steady and determined bravery, 
than did those red men of the wilderness in the prosecution 
of their gigantic plan for the recovery of their country from 
the possession of the English. It was, indeed, a war of utter 
extermination on an extensive scale, a conflict which ex- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 165 

hibited human nature in its native state, in which the cunning 
of the fox is associated with the cruelty of the tiger. We read 
the history of this war with feelings of the deepest horror; 
but why? On the part of the savages, theirs was the ancient 
mode of warfare, in which there was nothing of mercy. If 
science, associated with the benign influence of the Christian 
system, has limited the carnage of war to those in arms, so as 
to give the right of life and hospitality to women, infancy, 
old age, the sick, wounded and prisoners, may not a farther 
extension of the influence of those powerful but salutary agents 
put an end to war altogether? May not future generations 
read the history of our civilized warfare with equal horror 
and wonder, that, with our science and piety, we had wars 
at all ! 

The English traders among the Indians were the first 
victims in this contest. Out of one hundred and twenty of 
them, among the different nations, only two or three escaped 
being murdered. The forts of Presque Isle, St. Joseph and 
Michilimackinac were taken, with a general slaughter of their 
garrisons. The fortresses of Bedford, Ligonier, Niagara, De- 
troit and Pitt were with difficulty preserved from being taken. 
It was a principal object with the Indians to get possession of 
Detroit and Fort Pitt either by assault or famine. The former 
was attempted with regard to Detroit. Fort Pitt, being at a 
considerable distance from the settlements, where alone sup- 
plies could be obtained, determined the savages to attempt its 
reduction by famine. 

In their first attempt on Fort Detroit the Indians calcu- 
lated on taking possession of it by stratagem. A large number 
of Indians appeared before the place under pretense of holding 
a congress with Major Gladwin, the commandant. He was 
on his guard and refused them admittance. On the next day, 
about five hundred of the Indians arrived in arms and de- 
manded leave to go into the fort to hold a treaty. The com- 
mandant refused to admit a greater number than forty. The 
Indians understood his design of detaining them as hostages 
for the good conduct of their comrades on the outside of the 

166 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

fort, and therefore did not send them into the place. The 
whole number of men in the fort and on board two vessels of 
war in the river did not exceed one hundred and ten or 
twelve ; but by the means of cannons they possessed they 
made shift to keep the Indians at a distance and convince 
them that they could not take the place. When the Indians 
were about to retire Captain Dalyell arrived at the fort with 
a considerable reinforcement for the relief of the place. He 
made a sortie against the breast works which the Indians had 
thrown up with two hundred and forty-five men. This de- 
tachment was driven back with the loss of seventy men 
killed and forty- two wounded. Captain Dalyell was among- 
the slain. Of one hundred men who were escorting a large 
quantity of provisions to Detroit, sixty-seven were massa- 

Fort Pitt had been invested for some time before Captain 
Ecayer had the least prospect of relief. In this situation he 
and his garrison had resolved to stand it out to the last ex- 
tremity and even perish of famine rather than fall into the 
hands of the savages ; notwithstanding the fort was a bad one, 
the garrison weak , and the country between the fort and 
Ligonier was in possession of the savages, and his messengers 
killed or compelled to return back. In this situation Col. 
Bouquet was sent by General Amherst to the relief of the 
place, with a large quantity of provisions under a strong escort. 
This escort was attacked by a large body of Indians in a 
narrow defile on Turtle creek, and would have been entirely 
defeated had it not been for a successful stratagem employed 
by the commander for extricating themselves from the savage 
army. After sustaining a furious contest, from one o'clock till 
night, and for several hours the next morning, a retreat was 
pretended, with a view to draw the Indians into a close en- 
gagement. Previously to this movement four companies of 
infantry and grenadiers were placed in ambuscade. The plan 
succeeded. When the retreat commenced the Indians thought 
themselves secure of victory, and pressing forward with great 
vigor fell into the ambuscade and were dispersed with great 
slaughter. The loss on the side of the English was above 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. . 167 

one hundred killed and wounded; that of the Indians could 
not have been less. This loss was severely felt by the Indians, 
as in addition to the number of warriors who fell in the en- 
gagement, several of the most distinguished chiefs were 
amongst the slain. Fort Pitt, the reduction of which they had 
much at heart, was now placed out of jtheir reach by being 
effectually relieved and supplied with the munitions of war. 

The historian of the western region of our country cannot 
help regarding Pittsburg, the present flourishing emporium of 
the northern part of that region, and its immediate neighbor- 
hood, as classic ground, on account of the memorable battles 
which have taken place for its possession in the infancy of our 
settlements. P>raddock's defeat, Major Grant's defeat, its con- 
quest by Gen. Forbes, the victory over the Indians above re- 
lated by Major Bouquet, serve to show the importance in 
which this post was held in early times, and that it was ob- 
tained and supported by the English government at the price 
of no small amount of blood and treasure. In the neighbor- 
hood of this place, as well as in the war-worn regions of the 
old world, the plough share of the farmer turns up, from be- 
neath the surface of the earth, the broken and rusty imple- 
ments of war, and the bones of the slain in battle. 

* It was in the course of this war that the dreadful massacre 
at Wyoming took place, and desolated the fine settlements of 
the New England people along the Susquehanna. The ex- 
tensive ajid indiscriminate slaughter of both sexes and all ages 
by the Indians, at Wyoming and other places, so exasperated a 
large number of men, denominated the Paxton boys, that they 
rivalled the most ferocious of the Indians themselves in deeds 
of cruelty which have dishonored the history of our country 
by the record of the shedding of innocent blood without the 
slightest provocation ; deeds of the most atrocious barbarity. 

The Canestoga Indians had lived in peace for more than a 
century in the neighborhood of Lancaster. Their number did 
not exceed forty. Against these unoffending descendants of 
the first friends of the famous William Penn the Paxton boys 
first directed their more than savage vengeance. Fifty-seven 

168 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

of them, in military array, poured into their little village and 
instantly murdered all whom they found at home, to the num- 
ber of fourteen men, women and children. Those of them who 
did not happen to be at home at the massacre were lodged in 
the jail of Lancaster for safety. But alas! This precaution 
was unavailing. The Paxton boys broke open,the jail door and 
murdered the whole of them, in number from fifteen to twenty. 
It was in vain that these poor defenseless people protested 
their innocence and begged for mercy on their knees. Blood 
was the order of the day with those ferocious Paxton boys. 
The death of the victims of their cruelties did not satisfy their 
rage for slaughter; they mangled the dead bodies of the In- 
dians with their scalping knives and tomahawks in the most 
shocking manner, scalping even the children and chopping off 
the hands and feet of most of them. The next object of those 
Paxton boys was the murder of the Christian Indians of the 
villages of Wequetank and Nain. From the execution of this 
infernal design they were prevented by the humane interfer- 
ence of the government of Pennsylvania, which removed the 
inhabitants of both places under a strong guard to Philadel- 
phia for protection. They remained under guard from No- 
vember, 1763, until the close of the war in December, 1764; 
the greater part of this time they occupied the barracks of 
the city. The Paxton boys twice assembled in great force, 
at no great distance from the city, with a view to assault the 
barracks and murder the Indians ; but owing to the military 
preparations made for their reception they at last reluctantly 
desisted from the enterprise. 

While we read, with feelings of the deepest horror, the 
record of the murders which have, at different periods, been 
inflicted on the unoffending Christian Indians, of the Moravian 
profession, it is some consolation to reflect that our govern- 
ment has had no participation in those murders ; but on the 
contrary has at all times afforded them all the protection 
which circumstances allowed. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 169 

The principal settlements in Greenbriar were those of 
Muddy creek and the Big Levels, distant about fifteen or 
twenty miles from each other. Before these settlers were 
aware of the existence of the war, and supposing that the peace 
made with the French comprehended their Indian allies also, 
about sixty Indians visited the settlement on Muddy creek. 
They made the visit under the mask of friendship. They were 
cordially received and treated with all the hospitality which it 
was in the power of these new settlers to bestow upon them ; 
but on a sudden, and without any previous intimation of any- 
thing like an hostile intention, the Indians murdered, in cold 
blood, all the men belonging to the settlement and made pris- 
oners of the women and children. Leaving a guard with their 
prisoners, they then marched to the settlement in the Levels, 
before the fate of the Muddy creek settlement was known. 
Here, as at Muddy creek, they were treated with the most kind 
and attentive hospitality, at the house of Mr. Archibald Glen- 
dennin, who gave the Indians a sumptuous feast of three fat elks, 
which he had recently killed. Here a scene of slaughter, similar 
to that which had recently taken place at Muddy creek, occurred 
at the conclusion of the feast. It commenced with an old woman, 
who having a very sore leg showed it to an Indian, desiring his 
advice how she might cure it. This request he answered with a 
blow of the tomahawk, which instantly killed her. In a few 
minutes all the men belonging to the place shared the same fate. 
The women and children were made prisoners. In the time of 
the slaughter a negro woman while at the spring near the house 
where it happened killed her own child for fear it would fall into 
the hands of the Indians, or hinder her from making her escape. 

Mrs. Glendennin, whose husband was among the slain, and 
herself, with her children, prisoners, boldly charged the Indians 
with perfidy and cowardice in taking advantage of the mask of 
friendship to commit murder. One of the Indians, exasperated 
at her boldness, and stung, no doubt, at the justice of her charge 
against them, brandished his tomahawk over her head and dashed 
her husband's scalp in her face. In defiance of all his threats, 
the heroine still reiterated the charges of perfidy and cowardice 
against the Indians. 

170 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

On the next day, after marching about ten miles, while pass- 
ing through a thicket, the Indians forming a front and rear guard, 
Mrs. Glendennin gave her infant to a neighbor woman, stepped 
into the bushes without being perceived by the Indians, and made 
her escape. The cries of the child made the Indians enquire for 
the mother. She was not to be found. 

" Well," says one of them, " I will soon bring the cow to 
her calf," and taking the child by the feet beat its brains out 
against a tree. 

Mrs. Glendennin returned home, in the course of the suc- 
ceeding night, and covered the corpse of her husband with fence 
rails. Having performed this pious work for her murdered 
husband she chose, as a place of safety, a cornfield where, as 
she related, her heroic resolution was succeeded by a paroxysm 
of grief and despondency, during which she imagined she saw a 
man with the aspect of a murderer standing within a few steps 
of her. The reader of this narrative, instead of regarding this fit 
of despondency as a feminine weakness on the part of this 
daughter of affliction, will commiserate her situation of unparal- 
leled destitution and distress. Alone, in the dead of night, the 
survivor of all the infant settlements of that district, while all 
her relatives and neighbors of both settlements were either pris- 
oners or lying dead, dishonored by ghastly wounds of the toma- 
hawk and scalping knife of the savages, her husband and her 
children amongst the slain. 

It was some days before a force could -be collected in the 
eastern part of Bottetourt and the adjoining country for the 
purpose of burying the dead. 

Of the events of this war, in the south-western frontier of 
Virginia, and in the country of Holstein, the then western part 
of North Carolina, the author has not been informed further 
than that, on the part of the Indians, it was carried on with the 
greatest activity, and its course marked with many deeds of the 
most atrocious cruelty, until late in the year 176-t, when a period 
was put to this sanguinary contest by a treaty made with the 
Indian nations by Sir William Johnson at the German Flats. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 171 

The perfidy and cruelties practiced by the Indians, during 
the war of 1763 and 1764, occasioned the revolting and sanguin- 
ary character of the Indian wars which took place afterwards. 
The Indians had resolved on the total extermination of all the 
settlers of our north and south-western frontiers, and being no 
longer under the control of their former allies, the French, they 
were at full liberty to exercise all their native ferocity and riot 
in the indulgence of their innate thirst for blood. 


Gov. Dunmore's War. 

After the conclusion of the Indian war by the treaty made 
with the chiefs by Sir William Johnson at the German Flats, in 
the latter part of 1761, the western settlements enjoyed peace 
until the spring of 1774. During this period of time the settle- 
ments increased with great rapidity along the whole extent of the 
western frontier. Even the shores of the Ohio, on the Virginia 
side, had a considerable population as early as the year 1774. 

. Devoutly might humanity wish that the record of the causes 
which led to the destructive war of 1774 might be blotted from 
the annals of our country ; but as it is now too late to efface it the 
black-lettered list must remain, a dishonorable blot in our national 
history; good however may spring out of evil. The injuries in- 
flicted upon the Indians in early times by our forefathers may 
induce their descendants to show justice and mercy to the dimin- 
ished posterity of those children of the wilderness whose ances- 
tors perished in cold blood under the tomahawk and scalping 
knife of the white savages. 

In the month of April, 1774, a rumor was circulated that the 
Indians had stolen several horses from some land jobbers on the 
Ohio and Kanawha rivers. No evidences of the fact having been 
adduced leads to the conclusion that the report was false. This 
report, however, induced a pretty general belief that the Indians 
were about to make war upon the frontier settlements ; but for 

172 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

this apprehension there does not appear to have been the slightest 
foundation. In consequence of this apprehension of being at- 
tacked by the Indians, the land jobbers ascended the river and 
collected at Wheeling. On the 27th of April it was reported in 
Wheeling that a canoe containing two Indians and some traders 
was coming down the river and then not far from the place. 
On hearing this the commandant of the station, Capt. Cresap, 
proposed taking a party to go up the river and kill the Indians. 
This project was vehemently opposed by Col. Zane, the proprietor 
of the place. He stated to the captain that the killing of those 
Indians would inevitably bring on a war, in which much innocent 
blood would be shed, and that the act in itself would be an atro- 
cious murder, and a disgrace to his name forever. His good 
counsel was lost. The party went up the river. On being asked, 
at their return, what had become of the Indians, they coolly 
answered that ■ ■ They had fallen overboard into the river ! " 
Their canoe, on being examined, was found bloody and pierced 
with bullets. This was the first blood which was shed in this 
war, and terrible was the vengeance which followed. 

In the evening of the same day, the party hearing that there 
was an encampment of Indians at the mouth of the Captina, 
went down the river to the place, attacked the Indians and killed 
several of them. In this affair one of Cresap's party was severely 

The massacre at Captina, and that which took place at 
Baker's, about forty miles above Wheeling, a few days after that 
at Captina, were unquestionably the sole causes of the war of 
1774. The last was perpetrated by thirty-two men, under the 
command of Daniel Greathouse. The whole number killed at 
this place and on the river opposite to it was twelve, besides 
several wounded. This horrid massacre was effected by a 
hypocritical stratagem which reflects the deepest dishonor on the 
memory of those who were agents in it. 

The report of the murders committed on the Indians near 
Wheeling induced a belief that they would immediately commence 
hostilities, and this apprehension furnished the pretext for the 
murder above related. The ostensible object for raising the party 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 173 

under Greathouse was that of defending the family of Baker, 
whose house was opposite to a large encampment of Indians at 
the mouth of Big Yellow creek. The party were concealed in 
ambuscade, while their commander went over the river, under 
the mask of friendship, to the Indian camp, to ascertain their 
number; while there an Indian woman advised him to return 
home speedily, saying that the Indians were drinking and angry 
on account of the murder of their people down the river, and 
might do him some mischief. On his return to his party he 
reported that the Indians were too strong for an open attack. 
He returned to Baker's and requested him to give any Indians 
who might come over, in the course of the day, as much rum as 
they might call for, and get as many of them drunk as he possibly 
could. The plan succeeded. Several Indian men, with two 
women, came over the river to Baker's, who had previously been 
in the habit of selling rum to the Indians. The men drank freely 
and became intoxicated. In this state they were all killed by 
Greathouse and a few of his party. I say a few of his party ; 
for it is but justice to state that not more than five or six of the 
whole number had any participation in the slaughter at the house. 
The rest protested against it as an atrocious murder. From their 
number being by far the majority, they might have prevented the 
deed ; but alas ! they did not. A little Indian girl alone was saved 
from the slaughter, by the humanity of some one of the party, 
whose name is not now known. 

The Indians in the camps, hearing the firing at the house, 
sent a canoe with two men in it to inquire what had happened. 
These two Indians were both shot down as soon as they landed 
on the beach. A second and larger canoe was then manned with 
a number of Indians in arms ; but in attempting to reach the 
shore, some distance below the house, were received by a well 
directed fire from the party, which killed the greater number of 
them and compelled the survivors to return. A great number of 
shots were exchanged across the river, but without damage to 
the white party, not one of whom was even wounded. The 
Indian men who were murdered were all scalped. The woman 
who gave the friendly advice to the commander of the party, 
when in the Indian camp, was amongst the slain at Baker's house. 

174 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The massacres of the Indians at Captina and Yellow creek 
comprehended the whole of the family of the famous but unfor- 
tunate Logan, who before these events had been a lover of the 
whites and a strenuous advocate for peace; but in the conflict 
which followed them, by way of revenge for the death of his 
people, he became a brave and sanguinary chief among the war- 

The settlers along the frontiers, knowing that the Indians 
would make war upon them for the murder of their people, either 
moved off to the interior, or took up their residence in forts. 
The apprehension of war was soon realized. In a short time the 
Indians commenced hostilities along the whole extent of our 

Express was speedily sent to Williamsburg, the then seat of 
government of the colony of Virginia, communicating intelligence 
of the certainty of the commencement of an Indian war. The 
assembly was then in session. A plan for a campaign for the 
purpose of putting a speedy conclusion to the Indian hostilities 
was adopted between the Earl of Dunmore, the governor of the 
colony, and Gen. Lewis of Bottetourt county. Gen. Lewis was 
appointed to the command of the southern division of the forces 
to be employed on this occasion, with orders to raise a large body 
of volunteers and drafts, from the south-eastern counties of the 
colony, with all dispatch. These forces were to rendezvous at 
Camp Union in the Greenbriar country. The Earl of Dunmore 
was to raise another army in the northern countries of the colony, 
and in the settlements west of the mountains, and assemble them 
at Fort Pitt, and from thence descend the river to Point Pleasant, 
at the mouth of the Great Kanawha, the place appointed for the 
junction of the two armies, for the purpose of invading the 
Indian country and destroying as many of their villages as they 
could reach in the course of the season. 

On the eleventh of September the forces under Gen. Lewis, 
amounting to eleven hundred men, commenced their march from 
Camp Union to Point Pleasant, a distance of one hundred and 
sixty miles. The tract of country between these two points was 
at that time a trackless desert. Capt. Matthew Arbuckle, the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 175 

pilot, conducted the army by the nearest and best route to their 
place of destination. The flour and ammunition were wholly 
transported on pack horses, as the route was impassable for wheel 
carriages. After a painful march of nineteen' days the army 
arrived, on the first of October, at Point Pleasant, where an en- 
campment was made. Gen. Lewis was exceedingly disappointed 
at hearing no tidings of the Earl of Dunmore, who, according to 
previous arrangements, was to form a junction with him at this 
place. He immediately dispatched some scouts to go by land in 
the direction of Fort Pitt to obtain intelligence of the route which 
the earl had taken, and then return with the utmost dispatch. 
On the ninth three men, who had formerly been Indian traders, 
arrived in the camp, on express from the earl, to inform Lewis 
that he had changed his plan of operations, and intended to march 
to the Indian towns by the way of Hockhocking, and directing 
Gen. Lewis to commence his march immediately for the old 
Chillicothe town. 

Very early in the morning of the tenth two young men set 
out from the camp to hunt, up the river. Having gone about 
three miles they fell upon a camp of the Indians, who were then 
in the act of preparing to march to attack the camp of Gen. 
Lewis. The Indians fired upon them and killed one of them. 
The other ran back to the camp with intelligence that the Indians, 
in great force, would immediately give battle. 

Gen. Lewis instantly ordered out a detachment of the Botte- 
tourt troops under Col. Fleming and another of the Augusta 
troops under Col. Charles Lewis, remaining himself with the 
reserve for the defense of the camp. The detachment marched 
out in two lines and met the Indians in the same order about 
four hundred yards from the camp. The battle commenced a 
little after sunrise by a heavy firing from the Indians. At the 
onset our troops gave back some distance, until met by a rein- 
forcement, on the arrival of which the Indians retreated a little 
way and formed a line behind logs and trees, reaching from the 
bank of the Ohio to that of the Kanawha. By this manoeuvre 
our army and camp were completely invested, being inclosed 
between the two rivers, with the Indian line of battle in front, 

176 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

so that no chance of retreat was left. An incessant fire was kept 
up on both sides, with but little change of position until sundown, 
when the Indians retreated, and in the night recrossed the Ohio, 
and the next day commenced their march to their town on the 

Our loss in this destructive battle was seventy-five killed, 
and one hundred and forty wounded. Among the killed were 
Col. Charles Lewis, Col. Fields, Captains Buford, Murrey, Ward, 
Wilson and M'Clenachan; Lieutenants Allen, Goldsby and Dillon 
and several subaltern officers. Col. Lewis, a distinguished and 
meritorious officer, was mortally wounded by the first fire of the 
Indians, but walked into the camp and expired in his own tent. 

The number of Indians engaged in the battle of the Point 
was never ascertained, nor yet the amount of their loss. On 
the morning after the engagement twenty-one were found on the 
battle ground; twelve more were afterwards found in different 
places where they had been concealed. A great number of their 
dead were said to have been thrown into the river during the 
engagement. Considering that the whole number of our men 
engaged in this conflict were riflemen, and from habit sharp 
shooters of the first order, it is presumable that the loss on the 
side of the Indians was at least equal to ours. 

The Indians, during the battle, were commanded by the 
Cornstalk warrior, the king of the Shawanees. This son of the 
forest, in his plans of attack and retreat, and in all his manoeuvres 
throughout the engagement, displayed the skill and bravery of 
the most consummate general. During the whole of the day he 
was heard from our lines, vociferating with the voice pf Stentor, 
*' Be strong, be strong." It is even said that he killed one of his 
men with his own hand for cowardice. The day after the battle, 
after burying the dead, entrenchments were thrown up round the 
camp, and a competent guard was appointed for the care and 
protection of the sick and wounded. On the day following Gen. 
Lewis commenced his march for the Shawanee's towns on the 
Scioto. This march was made through a trackless desert and 
attended with almost insuperable difficulties and privations. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 177 

In the meantime the Earl of Dunmore, having collected a 
force and provided boats at Fort Pitt, descended the river to 
Wheeling, where the army halted for a few days, and then pro- 
ceeded down the river in about one hundred canoes, a few keel 
boats and pirogues, to the mouth of Hockhocking, and from 
thence overland until the army had got within eight miles of 
the Shawanee town Chillicothe, on the Scioto. Here the army 
halted and made a breast-work of fallen trees and entrenchments 
of such extent as to include about twelve acres of ground, with 
an inclosure in the centre containing about one acre, surrounded 
by entrenchments. This was the citadel which contained the 
marquees of the earl and his superior officers. Before the army 
had reached that place the Indian chiefs had sent several mes- 
sengers to the earl asking peace. With this request he soon 
determined to comply, and therefore sent an express to Gen. 
Lewis with an order for his immediate retreat. This order Gen. 
Lewis disregarded and continued his march until his lordship in 
person visited his camp, was formally introduced to his officers 
and gave the order in person. The army of Gen. Lewis then 
commenced their retreat. 

It was with the greatest reluctance and chagrin that the 
.troops of Gen. Lewis returned from the enterprise in which they 
were engaged. The massacres of their relatives and friends at 
the Big Levels and Muddy creek, and above all their recent 
loss at the battle of the Point, had inspired these big knives, as 
the Indians called the Virginians, with an inveterate thirst for 
revenge, the gratification of which they supposed was shortly to 
take place in the total destruction of the Indians and their towns, 
along the Scioto and Sandusky rivers. The order of Dunmore 
was obeyed ; but with every expression of regret and disappoint- 

The earl and his officers having returned to his camp, a 
treaty with the Indians was opened the following day. In this 
treaty every precaution was used on the part of our people to 
prevent the Indians from ending it in the tragedy of a 
massacre. Only eighteen Indians, with their chiefs, were per- 
mitted to pass the outer gate of their fortified encampment, after 
having deposited their arms with the guard at the gate. 

178 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The treaty was opened by Cornstalk, the war chief of the 
Shawanees, in a lengthy speech in which he boldly charged the 
white people with having been the authors of the commencement 
of the war, in the massacres of the Indians at Captina and Yellow 
creek. This speech he delivered in so loud a tone of voice that 
he was heard all over the camp. The terms of the treaty were 
soon settled and the prisoners delivered up. 

Logan, the Cayuga chief, assented to the treaty; but still 
indignant at the murder of his family, refused to attend with 
the other chiefs at the camp of Dunmore. According to the In- 
dian mode in such cases, he sent his speech in a belt of wampum 
by an interpreter, to be read at the treaty. 

Supposing that this work may fall into the hands of some 
readers who have not seen the speech of Logan, the author thinks 
it not amiss to insert this celebrated morsel of Indian eloquence 
in this place, with the observation that the authenticity of the 
speech is no longer a subject of doubt. The speech is as follows: 

" I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin 
hungry, and he gave him not meat ; if ever he came cold and naked, and he 
clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan 
remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for 
the whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, ' Logan 
is the friend of the white men.' I had even thought to have lived with you, 
but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood, 
and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan, not even sparing my 
women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any 
living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it ; I have 
killed many ; I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country I rejoice 
at the beams of peace ; but do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy 
of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his 
life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one! " 

Thus ended, at the treaty of Camp Charlotte in the month 
of November, 1774, the disastrous war of Dunmore. It began 
in the wanton and unprovoked murders of the Indians at Captina 
and Yellow creek, and ended with an awful sacrifice of life and 
property to the demon of revenge. On our part we obtained at 
the treaty a cessation of hostilities and a surrender of prisoners, 
and nothing more. 

See appendix, " Logan, Michael Cresap and Simon Girty." 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 179 

The plan of operations adopted by the Indians in the war 
of Dunmore shows very clearly that their chiefs were by no 
means deficient in the foresight and skill necessary for making 
the most prudent military arrangements for obtaining success and 
victory in their mode of warfare. At an early period they ob- 
tained intelligence of the plan of the campaign against them, 
concerted between the Earl of Dunmore and Gen. Lewis. With 
a view, therefore, to attack the forces of these commanders 
separately, they speedily collected • their warriors, and by forced 
marches reached the Point before the expected arrival of the 
troops under Dunmore. Such was the privacy with which they 
conducted their march to Point Pleasant that Gen. Lewis knew 
nothing of the approach of the Indian army until a few minutes 
before the commencement of the battle, and it is every way 
probable that if Cornstalk, the Indian commander, had had a 
little larger force at the battle of the Point, the whole army of 
Gen. Lewis would have been cut off, as the wary savages had left 
them no chance of retreat. Had the army of Lewis been defeated, 
the army of Dunmore, consisting of but little more than one 
thousand men, would have shared the fate of those armies which, 
at different periods, have suffered defeats, in • consequence of 
venturing too far into the Indian country, in numbers too small, 
and with munitions of war inadequate to sustain a contest with 
the united forces of a number of Indian nations. 

It was the general belief among the officers of our army, at 
the time, that the Earl of Dunmore, while at Wheeling, received, 
advice from his government of the probability of the approaching 
war between England and the colonies, and that afterwards all 
his measures with regard to the Indians had for their ultimate 
object an alliance with those ferocious warriors for aid of the 
mother country in their contest with us. This supposition ac- 
counts for his not forming a junction with the army of Lewis at 
Point Pleasant. This deviation from the original plan of the 
campaign jeopardized the army of Lewis and well nigh occa- 
sioned its total destruction. The conduct of the earl at the treaty 
shows a good understanding between him and the Indian chiefs. 
He did not suffer the army of Lewis to form a junction with his 

180 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

own, but sent them back before the treaty was concluded, thus 
risking the safely of his own forces, for at the time of the 
treaty the Indian warriors were about his camp, in force suffi- 
cient to have intercepted his retreat and destroyed his whole 

The Death of Cornstalk. 

This was one of the most atrocious murders committed by 
the whites during the whole course of the war. 

In the summer of 1777, when the confederacy of the Indian 
nations, under the influence of the British government, was 
formed and began to commit hostilities along our frontier settle- 
ments, Cornstalk and a young chief of the name of Redhawk 
and another Indian made a visit to the garrison at the Point, 
commanded at that time by Captain Arbuckle. Cornstalk stated 
to the captain that, with the exception of himself and the tribe 
to which he 'belonged, all the nations had joined the English, and 
that, unless protected by the whites, " They would have to run 
with the stream." Capt. Arbuckle thought proper to detain the 
Cornstalk chief and his two companions as hostages for the 
good conduct of the tribe to which they belonged. They had not 
been long in this situation before a son of Cornstalk's, concerned 
for the safety of his father, came to the opposite side of the 
river and hallooed ; his father, knowing his voice, answered him. 
He was brought over the river. The father and son mutually 
embraced each other with the greatest tenderness. On the day 
following, two Indians who had concealed themselves in the 
weeds on the bank of the Kanawha, opposite the fort, killed a 
man of the name of Gilmore, as he was returning from hunting. 
As soon as the dead body was brought over the river there was a 
general cry among the men who were present : 

" Let us kill the Indians in the fort." 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 181 

They immediately ascended the bank of the river, with Capt. 
Hall at their head, to execute their hasty resolution. On their 
way they were met by Capt. Stuart and Capt. Arbuckle, who 
endeavored to dissuade them from killing the Indian hostages, 
saying that they certainly had no concern in the murder of Gil- 
more; but remonstrance was in vain. Pale as death with rage, 
they cocked their guns and threatened the captains with instant 
death if they should attempt to hinder them from executing their 

When the murderers arrived at the house where the hostages 
were confined, Cornstalk rose up to meet them at the door, but 
instantly received seven bullets through his body; his son and 
his other two fellow hostages were instantly dispatched with 
bullets and tomahawks. Thus fell the Shawanee war chief, Corn- 
stalk, who like Logan, his companion in arms, was conspicuous 
for intellectual talent, bravery and misfortune. 

The biography of Cornstalk, as far as it is now known, goes 
to show that he was no way deficient in those mental endowments 
which constitute human greatness. On the evening preceding 
the battle of Point Pleasant he proposed going over the river to 
the camp of Gen. Lewis for the purpose of making peace. The 
majority in the council of warriors voted against the measure. 

• " Well/' said Cornstalk, " since you have resolved on fighting, 
you shall fight, although it is likely we shall have hard work to- 
morrow; but if any man shall attempt to run away from the 
battle, I will kill him with my own hand," and accordingly ful- 
filled his threat, with regard to one cowardly fellow. 

After the Indians had returned from the battle Cornstalk 
called a council at the Chillicothe town to consult what was to 
be done next. In this council he reminded the war chiefs of their 
folly in preventing him from making peace before the fatal battle 
of Point Pleasant, and asked : 

" What shall we do now ? The long-knives are coming upon 
us by two routes. Shall we turn out and fight them ? " 

All were silent. He then asked : 

" Shall we kill our squaws and children, and then fight until 
we shall be all killed ourselves ? " 

182 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

To this no reply was made. He then rose up and struck his 
tomahawk in the war post in the middle of the council house, 

" Since you are not inclined to fight, I will go and make 

And accordingly did so. On the morning of the day of 
his death a council was held in the fort at the Point in which he 
was present. During the sitting of the council it is said that he 
seemed to have a presentiment of his approaching fate. In one 
of his speeches he remarked to the council : 

" When I was young, every time I went to war I thought 
it likely that I might return no more; but I still lived. I am 
now in your hands, and you may kill me if you choose. I can 
die but once, and it is alike to me whether I die now or at 
another time." 

When the men presented themselves before the door for 
the purpose of killing the Indians, Cornstalk's son manifested 
signs of fear, on observing which his father said : 

" Don't be afraid, my son. The Great Spirit sent you here to 
die with me, and we must submit to his will. It is all for the 


Wappatomica Campaign. 

Under the command of Col. Angus M'Donald four hundred 
men were collected from the western part of Virginia by the order 
of the Earl of Dunmore, the then governor of Virginia. The 
place of rendezvous was Wheeling, some time in the month of 
June, 1774. They went down the river in boats and canoes to 
the mouth of Captina, from thence by the shortest route to the 
Wappatomica town, about sixteen miles below the present Co- 
shocton. The pilots were Jonathan Zane, Thomas Nicholson and 
Tady Kelly- About six miles from the town the army were met 
by a party of Indians, to the number of forty or fifty, who gave 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 183 

a skirmish by the way of ambuscade in which two of our men 
were killed and eight or nine wounded. One Indian was killed 
and several wounded. It was supposed that several more of 
them were killed, but they were carried off. When the army 
came to the town it was found evacuated ; the Indians had re- 
treated to the opposite shore of the river, where they had formed 
an ambuscade, supposing the party would cross the river from 
the town. This was immediately discovered. The commanding 
officer then sent sentinels up and down the river, to give notice, 
in case the Indians should attempt to cross above or below the 
town. A private in company of Capt. Cresap, of the name of 
John Hargus, one of the sentinels below the town, displayed the 
skill of a backwoods sharpshcoter ; seeing an Indian behind a 
blind across the river, raising up his head, at times, to look over 
the river, Hargus charged his rifle with a second ball and taking 
deliberate aim passed both balls through the neck of the Indian. 
The Indians dragged off the body and buried it with the honors 
of war. It was found the next morning and scalped by Hargus. 
Soon after the town was taken the Indians from the oppo- 
site shore sued for peace. The commander offered them peace 
on condition of their sending over their chiefs as hostages. Five 
of them came over the river and were put under guard as host- 
ages. In the morning they were marched in front of the army 
over the river. When the party had reached the western bank 
of the Muskingum the Indians represented that they could not 
make peace without the presence of the chiefs of the other towns. 
On which one of the chiefs was released to bring in the others. 
He did not return in the appointed time. Another chief was 
permitted to go on the same errand, who in like manner did not 
return. The party then moved up the river to the next town, 
which was about a mile above the first and on the opposite shore. 
Here we had a slight skirmish with the Indians, in which one of 
them was killed and one of our men wounded. It was then dis- 
covered that, during all the time spent in the negotiation, the 
Indians were employed in removing their women and children, 
old people and effects, from the upper towns. The towns were 
burned and the corn cut up. The party then returned to the 

184 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

place from which they set out, bringing with them the three 
remaining chiefs who were sent to Williamsburg. They were 
released at the peace the succeeding fall. 

The army were out of provisions before they left the towns 
and had to subsist on weeds, one ear of corn each day, with a 
very scanty supply of game. The corn was obtained at one of 
the Indian towns. 

Gen. Mcintosh's Campaign. 

In the spring of the year 1778, government having sent a 
small force of regular troops under the command of Gen. Mc- 
intosh, for the defense of the western frontier, the general, with 
the regulars and militia from Fort Pitt, descended the Ohio about 
thirty miles and built Fort Mcintosh on the site of the present 
Beavertown. The fort was made of strong stockades, furnished 
bastions and mounted with one six pounder. This station was 
well selected as a point for a small military force, always in 
readiness to pursue, or intercept, the war parties of Indians who 
frequently made incursions into the settlements on the opposite 
side of the river, in its immediate neighborhood. The fort was 
well garrisoned and supplied with provisions during the summer. 

Some time in the fall of the same' year General Mcintosh 
received an order from government to make a campaign against 
the Sandusky towns. This order he attempted to obey with one 
thousand men ; but owing to the delay in making necessary out- 
fits for the expedition the officers, on reaching Tuscarawa, 
thought it best to halt at that place, build and garrison a fort, 
and delay the farther prosecution of the campaign until the next 
spring. Accordingly they erected Fort Laurens x on the bank 
of the Tuscarawa. Some time after the completion of the fort, 

* Fort Laurens was near where the present village of Bolivar is now, 
in Tuscarawas county, Ohio. (See "History of Tuscarawas Valley," by C 
H. Mitchener ; page 142.) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 185 

the general returned with the army to Fort Pitt, leaving Col. 
John Gibson, with a command of one hundred and fifty men, to 
protect the fort until spring. The Indians were soon acquainted 
with the existence of the fort, and soon convinced our people, by 
sad experience, of the bad policy of building and attempting to 
hold a fort so far in advance of our settlements and other forts. 

The first annoyance the garrison received from the Indians 
was some time in the month of January. In the night time they 
caught most of the horses belonging to the fort, and taking them 
off some distance into the woods, they took off their bells and 
formed an ambuscade by the side of a path leading through the 
high grass of a prairie at a little distance from the fort. In the 
morning the Indians rattled the horse bells at the farther end 
of the line of the ambuscade. The plan succeeded ; a fatigue of 
sixteen men went out for the horses and fell into the snare. 
Fourteen were killed on the spot, two were taken prisoners, one 
of whom was given up at the close of the war, the other was 
never afterwards heard of. 

Gen. Benjamin Biggs, then a captain in the fort, being officer 
of the day, requested leave of the colonel to go out with the 
fatigue party which fell into the ambuscade. 

" No," said the colonel, " this fatigue party does not belong 
to a captain's command. When I shall have occasion to employ 
one of that number I shall be thankful for your service ; at 
present you must attend to your duty in the fort." 

On what trivial circumstances do life and death sometimes 
depend ! 

In the evening of the day of the ambuscade the whole In- 
dian army, in full war dress and painted, marched in single file 
through a prairie in view of the fort. Their number, as counted 
from one of the bastions, was 847. They then took up their en- 
campment on an elevated piece of ground at a small distance from 
the fort, on the opposite side of the river. From this camp they 
frequently held conversations with the people of our garrison. 
In these conversations they seemed to deplore the long contin- 
uance of the war and hoped for peace ; but were much exasper- 
ated at the Americans for attempting to penetrate so far into 

186 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

their country. This great body of Indians continued the invest- 
ment of the fort as long as they could obtain subsistence, which 
was about six weeks. 

An old Indian of the name of John Thompson, who was 
with the American army in the fort, frequently went out among 
the Indians during their stay at their encampment, with the 
mutual consent of both parties. A short time before the Indians 
left the place they sent word to Col. Gibson by the old Indian, 
that they were desirous of peace, and that if he would send them 
a barrel of flour they would send in their proposals the next day ; 
but although the colonel complied with their request they 
marched off without fulfilling their engagement. The com- 
mander, supposing the whole number of the Indians had gone 
off, gave permission to Col. Clark, of the Pennsylvania line, to 
escort the invalids, to the number of eleven or twelve, to Fort 
MTntosh. The whole number of this detachment was fifteen. 
The wary Indians had left a party behind for the purpose of 
doing mischief. These attacked this party of invalids and their 
escort about two miles from the fort and killed the whole of 
them with the exception of four, among whom was the captain, 
who ran back to the fort. On the same day a detachment went 
out from the fort, brought in the dead and buried them with the 
honors of war in front of the fort gate. In three or four days 
after this disaster a relief of seven hundred men, under Gen. 
MTntosh, arrived at the fort with a supply of provisions, a great 
part of which was lost by an untoward accident. When the 
relief had reached within about one hundred yards of the fort, 
the garrison gave them a salute of a general discharge of 
musketry, at the report of which the pack horses took fright, 
broke loose, and scattered the provisions in every direction 
through the woods, so that the greater part of it could never be 
recovered again. 

Among other transactions which took place about this time, 
was that of gathering up the remains of the fourteen men, who 
had fallen in the ambuscade during the winter, for interment, 
and which could not be done during the investment of the place 
by the Indians. They were found mostly devoured by the wolves. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 187 

The fatigue party dug a pit large enough to contain the remains 
of all of them, and after depositing them in the pit, merely cov- 
ering them with a little earth, with a view to have revenge on the 
wolves for devouring their companions, they covered -the pit with 
slender sticks, rotten wood and bits of bark, not of sufficient 
strength to bear the weight of a wolf. On the top of this cover- 
ing they placed a piece of meat as bait for the wolves. The next 
morning seven of them were found in the pit. They were shot 
and the pit filled up. 

For about two weeks before the relief arrived the garrison 
had been put on the short allowance of half a pound of sour 
flour and an equal weight of stinking meat for every two days. 
The greater part of the last week they had nothing to subsist on 
but such roots as they could find in the woods and prairies and 
raw hides. Two men lost their lives by eating wild parsnip roots 
by mistake. Four more nearly shared the same fate, but were 
saved by medical aid. 

On the evening of the arrival of the relief two days' rations 
were issued to each man in the fort. These rations were intended 
as their allowance during their march to Fort Mcintosh ; but 
many of the men, supposing them to have been back rations, ate 
up the whole of their allowance before the next morning. In 
consequence of this imprudence, in eating immoderately after 
such extreme starvation from the want of provisions, about forty 
of the men became faint and sick during the first day's march. 
On the second day, however, the sufferers were met by a great 
number of their friends from the settlements to which they 
belonged, by whohi they were amply supplied with provisions. 

Maj. Vernon, who succeeded Col. Gibson in the command 
of Fort Laurens, continued its possession until the next fall, when 
the garrison, after being like their predecessors reduced almost 
to starvation, evacuated the place. 

Thus ended the disastrous business of Fort Laurens, in 
which much fatigue and suffering were endured and many lives 
lost ; but without any beneficial result to the country. 

188 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The Moravian Campaign. 

This ever memorable campaign took place in the month of 
March 1782. The weather, during the greater part of the month 
of February, had been uncommonly fine, so that the war parties 
from Sandusky visited the settlements and committed depreda- 
tions earlier than usual. The family of a William Wallace, 1 con- 
sisting of his wife and five or six children, were killed, and John 
Carpenter taken prisoner. These events took place in the latter 
part of February. The early period at which those fatal visita- 
tions of the Indians took place led to the conclusion that the 
murderers were either Moravians or that the warriors had had 
their winter quarters at their towns on the Muskingum. In 
either case, the Moravians being in fault, the safety of the 
frontier settlements required the destruction of their establish- 
ments at that place. 

Accordingly, between eighty and ninety men were hastily 
collected together for the fatal enterprise. They rendezvoused 
and encamped the first night on the Mingo bottom, on the west 
side of the Ohio river. Each man furnished himself with his 
own arms, ammunition and provision. Many of them had horses. 
The second day's march brought them within one mile of the 
middle Moravian town, where they encamped for the night. In 
the morning the men were divided into two equal parties, on,e 
of which was to cross the river about a mile above the town, 
their videttes having reported that there were Indians on both 
sides of the river. The other party was divided into three divis- 
ions, one of which was to take a circuit in the woods, and reach 

iThis was Robert Wallace, not William. He resided where Samuel 
McConnell now lives, one mile east of Florence. Robert Wallace died in 
1808. and was buried in the Florence grave yard ; but no stone marks the 
spot. — ( Simpson. ) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 189 

the river, a little distance below the town, on the east side. An- 
other division was to fall into the middle of the town, and the 
third at its upper end. 

When the party designed to make the attack on the west 
side had reached the river, they found no craft to take them 
over ; but something like a canoe was seen on the opposite bank. 
The river was high with some floating ice. A young man of the 
name of Sloughter swam the river and brought over, not a canoe, 
but a trough designed for holding sugar water. This trough 
could carry but two men at a time. In order to expedite their 
passage a number of men stripped off their clothes, put them 
into the trough, together with their guns, and swam by its 
sides, holding its edges with their hands. When about sixteen 
had crossed the river their two sentinels, who had been posted 
in advance, discovered an Indian whose name was Shabosh. 
One of them broke one of his arms by a shot. A shot from the 
other sentinel killed him. These heroes then scalped and toma- 
hawked him. By this time about sixteen men had got over the 
river, and supposing that the firing of the guns which killed Sha- 
bosh 1 would lead to an instant discovery, they sent word to the 
party designed to attack the town on the east side of the river to 
move on instantly, which they did. 

' In the meantime, the small party which had crossed the 
river marched with all speed to the main town on the west side 
of the river. Here they found a large company of Indians gath- 
ering corn, which they had left in their fields the preceding fall, 
when they removed to Sandusky. On the arrival of the men 
at the town they professed peace and good will to the Morav- 

i This Indian, John Shabosh, was killed and scalped by Charles Bilder- 
back, who lived near the mouth of Short Creek, W. Va. Bilderback went 
with Col. Crawford on his campaign of defeat in May and June (1782) fol- 
lowing, and returned home safely. But the Indians, knowing he had killed 
Shabosh, had a mortal hatred of him, and in 1789 they captured him and 
his wife and made their escape across the Ohio river with them. On reaching 
the Tuscarawas they intended to burn Bilderback on the spot where he had 
killed and scalped Shabosh, but a party of whites from the border, having 
followed on the trail, came close after them and prevented the burning. But 
the Indians killed him and cut him to pieces on the spot where he had 
killed Shabosh seven years before. Nine months later his wife was ransomed 
on the Miami, and got home in 1791. She married John Green, and after- 
wards removed to Fairfield county, Ohio, where she died in 1842, near Lan- 
caster. It is said she was the mother of the first white child born in Fair- 
field county. — ( Simpson. ) 

190 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

ians, and informed them that they had come to take them to 
Fort Pitt for their safety. The Indians surrendered, delivered 
up their arms and appeared highly delighted with the prospect 
of their removal, and began, with all speed, to prepare victuals 
for the white men, and for themselves, on their journey. A 
party of white men and Indians were immediately dispatched 
to Salem, a short distance from Gnadenhutten, where the In- 
dians were gathering in their corn, to bring them into Gnaden- 
hutten. The party soon arrived with the whole number of the 
Indians from Salem. 

In the meantime the Indians at Gnadenhutten were con- 
fined in two houses some distance apart, and placed under 
guards, and when those from Salem arrived they were divided, 
and placed in the same houses with their brethren of Gnaden- 

The prisoners being thus secured, a council of war was 
held to decide on their fate. The officers, unwilling to take on 
themselves the whole responsibility of the awful decision, agreed 
to refer the question to the whole number of the men. The men 
were accordingly drawn up in a line. The commandant of the 
party, Col. David Williamson, 1 then put the question to them 
in form: 

i Col. David Williamson located in Buffalo township, Washington 
county, at an early day, on what is now known as the McPherson farm, on 
Buffalo Creek, taking up several large tracts of land, and in 1787, five years 
after the Gnadenhutten massacre, he was elected sheriff of the county, despite 
his leadership of the bloody expedition against the Moravians. He married 
Polly Urie, of Hopewell township. They had four sons and four daughters. 
At the spring election of 1785, in Donegal township, Washington county, for 
two or more persons whose names were to be submitted to the Supreme 
Executive Council of the state, for appointment as justice of the peace of 
the township, and also to sit as a judge of the courts of record for seven 
years, the people cast 44 votes for David Williamson and 26 for William 
Johnston. It was the duty of the county prothonotary, Thomas Scott, 
to transmit the result of this election to the Supreme Council, and in 
doing so he wrote as follows about Williamson : " I wish through you to 
inform the Council that the Williamson elected is the same Col. Williamson 
who (killed) slaughtered the Moravian Indians. If this deed may be thought 
a defect in his character (which many of us think) it is not the only one; 
nor can I easily paint him better than (in the following familiar and homely 
phrases, to wit) by just telling Council that he is a foolish (gawky) imperti- 
nent and insolent boy, totally void of all the necessary qualifications for so 
important a trust." This letter seems to have influenced the Council against 
Williamson, for he was not appointed. Johnston was commissioned. But 
two years later, as stated, Williamson was elected sheriff, and re-elected in 
1789. — (Crumrine's " Courts of Justice, Bench and Bar, of Washington 

Thomas Scott was the first prothonotarv of Washington county. Col. 
Williamson was born near Carlisle, Pa., in 1752, son of John Williamson. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 191 

" Whether the Moravian Indians should be taken prisoners 
to Pittsburg or put to death, and requested that all those who 
were in favor of saving their lives should step out of the line, 
and form a second rank." 

On this sixteen, some say eighteen, stepped out of the rank, 
and formed themselves into a second line ; but alas ! This line 
of mercy was far too short for that of vengeance. 

The fate of the Moravians was then decided on, and they 
were told to prepare for death. 

The prisoners, from the time they were placed in the guard 
house, foresaw their fate, and began their devotions of singing 
hymns, praying and exhorting each other to place a firm reli- 
ance on the mercy of the Saviour of men. When their fate was 
announced to them these devoted people embraced, kissed, and 
bedewing each others faces and bosoms with their mutual tears, 
asked pardon of the brothers and sisters for any offense they 
might have given them through life. Thus, at peace with God, 
and each other, on being asked by those who were impatient for 
the slaughter: 

" Whether they were ready to die ? " 

They answered, " That they had commended their souls to 
God, and were ready to die." 

The particulars of this dreadful catastrophe are too horrid 
to relate. Suffice it to say that in a few minutes these two 
slaughter-houses, as they were then called, exhibited in their 
ghastly interior the mangled, bleeding remains of these poor 
unfortunate people, of all ages and sexes, from the aged grey 
headed parents down to the helpless infant at its mother's breast, 
dishonored by the fatal wounds of the tomahawk, mallet, war 
club, spear and scalping knife. 

Thus, O! Brainard and Zeisberger! Faithful missionaries 
who devoted your whole lives to incessant toil and sufferings in 
your endeavors to make the wilderness of paganism " rejoice 
and blossom as the rose " in faith and piety to God ! thus perished 

He came west of the mountains when a boy, and then induced his father to 
come also. In 1777, when 25 years old, he was a captain of militia. He 
was 30 years of age when he led the expedition against the Moravians. In 
1785 he was a colonel. He died in 1814 in poverty. His body was interred 
in the old burial ground on North Main street, Washington, Pa., but no stone 
marks the spot 

192 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

your faithful followers by the murderous hands of the more 
than savage white men. Faithful pastors ! your spirits are again 
associated with those of your flock, where the wicked cease from 
troubling and the weary are at rest! 

The number of the slain, as reported by the men on their 
return from the campaign, was eighty-seven or eighty-nine; but 
the Moravian account, which no doubt is correct, makes the 
number ninety-six. Of these, sixty-two were grown persons, 
one-third of whom were women, the remaining thirty-four were 
children. All these, with a few exceptions, were killed in the 
house. Shabosh was killed about a mile above the town, on the 
west side of the river. His wife was killed while endeavoring 
to conceal herself in a bunch of bushes at the water's edge, 
on the arrival of the men at the town, on the east side of the 
river. A man at the same time was shot in a canoe, while 
attempting to make his escape from the east to the west side of 
the river. Two others were shot while attempting to escape 
by swimming the river. 

A few men, who were supposed to be warriors, were tied 
and taken some distance from the slaughter houses to be toma- 
hawked. One of these had like to have made his escape at the 
expense of the life of one of the murderers. The rope by 
which he was led was of some length. The two men who were 
conducting him to death fell into a dispute who should have 
the scalp. The Indian, while marching with a kind of dancing 
motion and singing his death song, drew a knife from a scabbard 
suspended round his neck, cut the rope and aimed at stabbing 
one of the men; but the jerk of the rope occasioned the men to 
look around. The Indian then fled towards the woods, and 
while running dextrously untied the rope from his wrists. He 
was instantly pursued by several men who fired at him, one of 
whom wounded him in the arm. After a few shots the firing 
was forbidden, for fear the men might kill each other as they 
were running in a straggling manner. A young man then 
mounted on a horse and pursued the Indian, who, when over- 
taken, struck the horse on the head with a club. The rider 
sprang from the horse, on which the Indian seized, threw him 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 193 

down and drew his tomahawk to kill him. At that instant one 
of the party got near enough to shoot the Indian, which he 
did merely in time to save the life of his companion. 

Of the whole number of the Indians at Gnadenhutten and 
Salem, only two made their escape. These were two lads of 
fourteen or fifteen years of age. One of them, after being 
knocked down and scalped, but not killed, had the presence of 
mind to lie still among the dead until the dusk of the evening, 
when he silently crept out of the door and made his escape. 
The other lad slipped through a trap door into the cellar of 
one of the slaughter-houses, from which he made his escape 
through a small cellar window. These two lads were fortunate 
in getting together in the woods the same night. Another lad, 
somewhat larger, in attempting to pass through the same window, 
it is supposed stuck fast and was burnt alive. 

The Indians of the upper town were apprised of their 
danger in due time to make their escape, two of them having 
found the mangled body of Shabosh. Providentially they all 
made their escape, although they might have been easily over- 
taken by the party if they had undertaken their pursuit. A 
division of the men were ordered to go to Shonbrun ; but finding 
the place deserted, they took what plunder they could find, and 
returned to their companions without looking farther after the 
Indians. After the work of death was finished and the plunder 
secured, all the buildings in the town were set on fire and the 
slaughter houses among the rest. The dead bodies were thus 
consumed to ashes. A rapid retreat to the settlements finished 
the campaign. 

Such were the principal events of this horrid affair. A 
massacre of innocent, unoffending people, dishonorable not only 
to our country, but human nature itself. 

Before making any remarks on the causes which led to 
these disgraceful events under consideration, it may be proper 
to notice the manner in which the enterprise was conducted as 
furnishing evidence that the murder of the Moravians was in- 
tended, and that no resistance from them was anticipated. In 
a military point of view the Moravian campaign was conducted 

194 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

in the very worst manner imaginable. It was undertaken at 
so early a period that a deep fall of snow, a thing very 
common in the early part of March in former times, would 
have defeated the enterprise. When the army came to the 
river, instead of constructing a sufficient number of rafts to 
transport the requisite number over the river at once, they com- 
menced crossing in a sugar trough, which could carry only 
two men at a time, thus jeopardizing the safety of those who 
first went over. The two sentinels who shot Shabosh, according 
to military law ought to have been executed on the spot for 
having fired without orders, thereby giving premature notice 
of the approach of our men. The truth is, nearly the whole 
number of the army ought to have been transported over the 
river, for after all their forces employed, and precautions used 
in getting possession of the town on the east side of the river, 
there were but one man and one squaw found in it, all the others 
being on the other side. This circumstance they ought to have 
known beforehand, and acted accordingly. The Indians on 
the west side of the river amounted to about eighty, and among 
them above thirty men, besides a number of young lads, all pos- 
sessed of guns and well accustomed to the use of them ; yet 
this large number was attacked by about sixteen men. If they 
had really anticipated resistance they deserved to lose their lives 
for their rashness. It is presumable, however, that having full 
confidence in the pacific principles of the Moravians, they did 
not expect resistance; but calculated on blood and plunder with- 
out having a shot fired at them. If this was really the case, 
the author leaves it to justice to find, if it can, a name for the 

One can hardly help reflectingwith regret that these Morav- 
ians did not for the moment lay aside their pacific principles 
and do themselves justice. With a mere show of defense, or 
at most a few shots, they might have captured and disarmed 
these few men, and held them as hostages for the safety of 
their people and property until they could have removed them 
out of their way. This they might have done on the easiest 
terms, as the remainder of the army could not have crossed the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 195 

river without their permission, as there was but one canoe at the 
place, and the river too high to be forded. But, alas, these 
truly Christian people suffered themselves to be betrayed by 
hypocritical professions of friendship until " they were led as 
sheep to the slaughter ! " Over this horrid deed humanity must 
shed tears of commiseration as long as the record of it shall 

Let not the reader suppose that I have presented him with 
a mere imaginary possibility of defense on the part of the 
Moravians. This defense would have been an easy task. Our 
people did not go on that campaign with a view of fighting. 
There may have been some brave men among them ; but they 
were far from being all such. For my part I cannot suppose 
for a moment that any white man who can harbor a thought of 
using his arms for the killing of women and children, in any 
case, can be a brave man. No ! he is a murderer. 

The history of the Moravian settlements on the Muskin- 
gum and the peculiar circumstances of their inhabitants during 
the revolutionary contest between Great Britain and America 
deserve a place here. 

In the year 1772 the Moravian villages were commenced 
by emigrations from Friedenhutten on the Big Beaver and from 
Wyalusing- and Sheshequon on the Susquehanna. In a short 
time they rose to considerable extent and prosperity, containing 
upwards of four hundred people. During the summer of Dun- 
more's war they were much annoyed by war parties of the 
Indians, and disturbed by perpetual rumors of the ill intentions 
of the white people of the frontier settlements towards them ; 
yet their labors, schools and religious exercise, went on with- 
out interruption. 

In the revolutionary war, which began in 1775, the situ- 
ation of the Moravian settlements was truly deplorable. The 
English had associated with their own means of warfare against 
the Americans the " scalping knife and tomahawk " of the merci- 
less Indians. These allies of England committed the most horrid 
depredations along the whole extent of our defenseless frontier. 
From early in the spring until late in the fall the early settlers 

196 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

of the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania had to submit 
to the severest hardships and privations. Cooped up in little 
stockade forts, they worked their little fields in parties under 
arms, guarded by sentinels, and were doomed from day to day 
to witness, or hear reports, of the murders or captivity of their 
people, the burning of their houses and the plunder of their 

The war with the English fleets and armies, on the other 
side of the mountains, was of such a character as to engage 
the whole attention and resources of our government, so that, 
poor as the first settlers of this county were, they had to bear 
almost the whole burden of the war during the revolutionary 
contest. They chose their own officers, furnished their own 
means and conducted the war in their own way. Thus circum- 
stanced, " they became a law unto themselves," and on certain 
occasions perpetrated acts which the government was compelled to 
disapprove. This lawless temper of our people was never fully 
dissipated until the conclusion of the whiskey rebellion in 1794. 

The Moravian villages were situated between the settle- 
ments of the whites and the town of the warriors, about sixty 
miles from the former, and not much farther from the latter. 
On this account they were denominated " the half way houses 
of the warriors." Thus placed between two rival powers en- 
gaged in furious warfare, the preservation of their neutrality 
was no easy task, perhaps impossible. If it requires the same 
physical force to preserve a neutral station among belligerent 
nations, that it does to prosecute a war, as is unquestionably 
the case, this pacific people had no chance for the preservation 
of theirs. The very goodness of their hearts, their aversion to 
the shedding of human blood, brought them into difficulties with 
both parties. When they sent their runners to Fort Pitt to 
inform us of the approach of the war parties, or received, fed, 
secreted and sent home prisoners who had made their escape 
from the savages, they made breaches of their neutrality as to 
the belligerent Indians. Their furnishing the warriors with a 
resting place and provisions was contrary to their neutral en- 
gagements to us ; but their local situation rendered those accom- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 197 

modatiom to the warriors unavoidable on their part; as the 
warriors possessed both the will and the means to compel them 
to give them whatever they wanted from them. 

The peaceable Indians first fell under suspicion with the 
Indian warriors and the English commandant at Detroit, to 
whom it was reported that their teachers were in close confed- 
eracy with the American congress, for preventing not only 
their own people, but also the Delawares and some other nations, 
from associating their arms with those of the British for carry- 
ing on the war against the American colonies. The frequent 
failures of the war expeditions of the Indians was attributed to 
the Moravians, who often sent runners to Fort Pitt to give 
notice of their approach. This charge against them was cer- 
tainly not without foundation. In the spring of the year 1781 
the war chief of the Delawares fully apprised the missionaries 
and their followers of their danger both from the whites and 
Indians, and requested them to remove to a place of safety from 
both. This request was not complied with. The almost prophetic 
predictions of this chief were literally fulfilled. 

In the fall of the year 1781 the settlements of the Morav- 
ians were broken up by upwards of three hundred warriors, the 
missionaries taken prisoners, after being robbed of almost every- 
thing. The Indians were left to shift for themselves in the 
barren plains of Sandusky, where most of their horses and 
cattle perished from famine, during the winter. The mission- 
aries were taken prisoners to Detroit; but after an examination 
by the governor permitted to return to their beloved people again. 
In the latter part of February a party of about one hundred 
and fifty of the Moravian Indians returned to their deserted 
villages on the Muskingum to procure corn to keep their fam- 
ilies and cattle, from starving. These, to the amount of ninety- 
six, fell into the hands of Williamson and his party and were 

The causes which led to the murder of the Moravians are 
now to be detailed. 

198 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The pressure of the Indian war along the whole of the 
western frontier, for several years preceding the event under 
consideration, had been dreadfully severe. From early in the 
spring until the commencement of winter, from day to day, 
murders were committed in every direction by the Indians. The 
people lived in forts which were in the highest degree uncom- 
fortable. The men were harrassed continually with the duties 
of going on scouts and campaigns. There was scarcely a family 
of the first settlers who did not, at some time or other, lose 
more or less of' their number by the merciless Indians. Their 
cattle were killed, their cabins burned and their horses carried 
off. These losses were severely felt by a people so poor as we 
were at that time. Thus circumstanced our people were ex- 
asperated to madness by the extent and severity of the war. 
The unavailing endeavors of the American congress to prevent 
the Indians from taking up the hatchet against either side in 
the revolutionary contest contributed much to increase the gen- 
eral indignation against them, at the same time these pacific 
endeavors of our government divided the Indians amongst them- 
selves, on the question of war or peace with the whites. The 
Moravians, part of the Delawares, and some others, faithfully 
endeavored to preserve peace; but in vain. The Indian maxim 
was " He that is not for us is against us." Hence the Moravian 
missionaries and their followers were several times on the point 
of being murdered by the warriors. This would have been done 
had it not been for the prudent conduct of some of the war 

On the other hand, the local situation of the Moravian 
villages excited the jealousy of the white people. If they took 
no direct agency in the war yet they were, as they were then 
called, " half way houses " between us and the warriors, at 
which the latter could stop, rest, refresh themselves and traffic 
off their plunder. Whether these aids thus given to our enemies 
were contrary to the laws of neutrality between belligerents is 
a question which I willingly leave to the decision of civilians. 
On the part of the Moravians they were unavoidable. If they 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 199 

did not give or sell provisions to the warriors they would take 
them by force. The fault was in their situation not in them- 

The longer the war continued the more our people com- 
plained of the situation of these Moravian villages. It was said 
that it was owing to their being so near us that the warriors 
commenced their depredations so early in the spring, and con- 
tinued them until so late in the fall. 

In the latter end of the year 1781 the militia of the frontier 
came to a determination to break up the Moravian villages on 
the Muskingum. For this purpose a detachment of our men 
went out under the command of Col. David Williamson, 1 for 
the purpose of inducing the Indians with their teachers to move 
farther off, or bring them prisoners to Fort Pitt, When they 
arrived at the villages they found but few Indians, the greater 
number of them having removed to Sandusky. These few were 
well treated, taken to Fort Pitt and delivered to the commandant 
of that station, who after a short detention sent them home 
again. This procedure gave great offense to the people of the 
country, who thought that the Indians ought to have been killed. 
Col. Williamson who, before this little campaign, had been a very 
popular man, on account of his activity and bravery in war, now 
became the subject of severe animadversions on account of his 
lenity to the Moravian Indians. In justice to the memory of 
Col. Williamson I have to say that, although at that time very 
young, I was personally acquainted with him, and from my recol- 
lection of his conversation I saw with confidence that he was 
a brave man but not cruel. He would meet an enemy in battle, 
and fight like a soldier; but not murder a prisoner. Had he 
possessed the authority of a superior officer in a regular army, 
I do not believe that a single Moravian Indian would have lost 
his life; but he possessed no such authority. He was only a 
militia officer, who could advise but not command. His only 
fault was that of too easy a compliance with popular opinion and 

i The Rev. John Heckewelder, the historian of the Moravians, states 
that this campaign in the fall of 1781 was commanded by Capt. Biggs. This 
was not the case. It was commanded by Col. David Williamson, the same who 
commanded the fatal campaign the succeeding spring. (D.) 

200 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

popular prejudice. On this account his memory has been loaded 
with unmerited reproach. 

Several reports unfavorable to the Moravians had been in 
circulation for some time before the campaign against them. 
One was that the night after they were liberated at Fort Pitt, 
they crossed the river and killed or made prisoners of a family 
of the name of Monteur. A family on Buffalo creek had been 
mostly killed in the summer or fall of 1781, and it was said 
by one of them who, after being made prisoner, made his escape, 
that the leader of the party of Indians who did the mischief was 
a Moravian. These, with other reports of similar import, served 
as a pretext for their destruction, although no doubt they were 
utterly false. 

Should it be asked what sort of people composed the band 
of murderers of these unfortunate people, I answer. They were 
not miscreants or vagabonds ; many of them were men of the 
first standing in the country. Many of them were men who 
had recently lost relations by the hand of the savages ; several 
of the latter class found articles which had been plundered from 
their own houses, or those of their relations, in the houses of 
the Moravians. One man, 1 it is said, found the clothes of his 

i Robert Wallace was the man here spoken of who found his wife's 
clothes. Her name was Mary Wallace. She was taken near Florence, Pa., 
in the fall of 1781, and was killed near Hookstown, Beaver county. Her 
bones were found in 1783 by some hunters, and were interred by her husband 
at Cross Creek in 1785. — (Simpson.) 

Hassler's " Old Westmoreland " gives the following version of the 
Wallace tragedy : 

" The outrage against Robert Wallace was one of the events which 
inspired the frontiersmen's massacre of the Moravians at Gnadenhutten. On 
Sunday, Feb. 10, 1782, a band of 40 Indians visited the home of Wallace, on 
Raccoon creek, in Washington county, while Wallace was away, burned his 
cabin, killed his cattle and hogs, and carried away his wife and three chil- 
dren, a boy of 10, one of three, Robert, and a baby. When Robert Wallace 
started with Col. David Williamson's force on their mission of reprisal at 
Gnadenhutten he found, near the Ohio river, impaled upon the sharpened 
trunk of a sapling, the torn and naked body of his wife. Nearby was the 
mutilated corpse of his infant. His two other sons had been carried off into 
captivity. The dead were buried on the border of the forest, and Williamson 
swept on with his 150 angry followers to their frightful revenge on the banks 
of the Muskingum." 

Wm. M. Farrar's monograph on this episode wholly discredits the story 
of the finding of the bodies, of Mrs. Wallace and her baby having any influence 
in shaping or expediting the Moravian raid. He says the trail of the savages 
who committed this deed was 25 or 30 miles further north than the one 
followed by the raiders ; that the bodies of mother and child had been care- 
fully hidden, so as not to aid pursuit, and remained concealed until found 
vears afterward ; that at the date of the massacre Robert Wallace did not 
know his wife was dead, but supposed her to be a prisoner of the Indians ; 
and he did not learn otherwise until three years afterward. Ascertaining 
about where the mother and child had been killed, he searched and found 
the remains and buried them at Cross Creek graveyard, as stated by Simpson. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 201 

wife and children who had been murdered by the Indians but a 
few days before. They were still bloody; yet there was no un- 
equivocal evidence that these people had any direct agency in 
the war. Whatever of our property was found with them had 
been left by the warriors in exchange for the provisions which 
they took from them. When attacked by our people, although 
they might have defended themselves, they did not. They never 
fired a single shot. They were prisoners and had t>een promised 
protection. Every dictate of justice and humanity required that 
their lives should be spared. The complaint of their villages 
being " half way houses for the warriors " was at an end, as 
they had been removed to Sandusky the fall before. It was 
therefore an atrocious and unqualified murder. But by whom 
committed? By a majority of the campaign? For the honor 
of my country I hope I may safely answer this question in the 
negative. It was one of those convulsions of the moral state 
of society in which the voice of the justice and humanity of a 
majority is silenced by the clamor and violence of a lawless 
minority. Very few of our men imbrued their hands in the 
blood of the Moravians. Even those who had not voted for 
saving their lives retired from the scene of slaughter with 
horror and disgust. Why then did they not give their votes in 
their favor? The fear of public indignation restrained them 
from doing so. They thought well ; but had not heroism enough 
to express their opinion. Those who did so deserve honorable 
mention for their intrepidity. So far as it may hereafter be in 
my power, this honor shall be done them. While the names of 
the murderers shall not stain the pages of history, from my 
pen at least. 1 

i The names of some of the men who were at Gnadenhutten, March 8, 
1782, with Colonel Williamson are: Joseph Vance, John McWilliams, Charles 
Campbell, Robert Marshall, Thomas Marshall, Thomas Cherry, James Ross, 
Moses Patterson, David Kerr, John Graham, Samuel Merchant, Robert 
Wallace, Judge James Taylor, Solomon Vaile, David Gault, Solomon Urie 
(died in 1830). — (Simpson.) 

Another member of the expedition was Obadiah Holmes, Jr. His 
grand nephew, Col. J. T. Holmes, a prominent attorney at law of Columbus, 
O., and a careful student of early frontier history, writing to the pub- 
lishers of this edition touching the motive of the leaders and members 
of the Moravian expedition says : 

202 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

"l was amazed, at the beginning of 1900, when my attention was first 
forcibly turned to the subject of the Moravian massacre, and when I took 
it up for consideration, to learn that there was no muster roll of William- 
son's command to be found. I was not content, however, to accept the 
first assurance which came to me to that effect. Crumrine's history of 
Washington County says there was a list in some attic, or in the custody 
of some family, in that county. I spent considerable time and labor trying 
to locate it, or some other, but failed to obtain the smallest trace of it, 
although I thought I had exceptional facilities for obtaining a list, if one 

"One of my grandfather's brothers. Obadiah Holmes, Jr. (1760-1834), 
was on both the Moravian and Sandusky campaigns. He voted against 
the killing, and lived an honored Christian life from first to last among 
men. He and Colonel Williamson stood together on the bank of the 
Muskingum River at Gnadenhutten, between the prison houses and the 
stream, after the vote, and after the massacre began, and as they so stood 
my great uncle interposed his person to save the life of an Indian boy who 
was pursued by one of the maddened majority, whose menaces were suc- 
cessfully defied. My great uncle protected this little fellow, and took him 
home with him. The boy lived with the family on the homestead, two 
miles below Catfish Camp, on the south bank of Chartiers Creek, or with 
some of its members, for approximately ten years next following. Then the 
wanderlust came over him and he disappeared, presumably returning to his 
own people. 

" I have often queried and debated, on my private record, why . Dr. 
Doddridge did not leave us in print, or in manuscript, more particulars, 
which he must have had, and which he must have known were most liable 
to perish ; this especially in connection with the Logan family incident, 
the Fort Henry sieges and the two campaigns mentioned. There were 
reasons, no doubt, for all the omissions. 

" I have followed author after author, some of them plainly without 
a moment's original research, denouncing the Gnadenhutten expedition as 
unauthorized, unorganized, a mob, and the men as border ruffians, the scum 
of society, cutthroats, cowards, murderers, assassins, demons, and so on 
and on until, with the mass of actual facts in hand, I was a little tired 
at this climax. The truth will not justify an indiscriminate condemnation 
of the participants in the Moravian campaign. 

" You have asked who planned this campaign, and where Colonel 
Williamson was elected leader? I was born among those hills, about six- 
teen miles from the site of Carpenter's block house, which is at the 
mouth of Indian Short Creek — just above it — on the the Ohio side. It is 
credible tradition that the expedition, the actual campaign, was first pro- 
posed in a small company of frontiersmen gathered and talking in an in- 
formal way at Carpenter's block house in the latter part of February or 
the beginning of March, 1782. The calls of the suffering borderers on the 
government for relief had been insistent and pathetic in the preceding months. 
This is of record, made at the time. Out of those calls, or by reason of 
them, came the authority for the expedition and the expedition itself. 

" The rendezvous, and the place of Colonel Williamson's election, was 
at Mingo Bottom. There were two Mingoes in those days : First, the 
famous Mingo Spring in Ohio, a little way below Steubenville, if not now 
taken into the city ; and, second, a long valley on the Virginia side, running 
back from the Ohio River, across from the lower end of Steubenville. This 
latter was Mingo Bottom. The former was Mingo Spring. In time they 
were confused, except that the Bottom was not called the Spring, while the 
latter has succeeded to the fame of both. Very few know of the tradition, 
even, that there were two. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 203 

" Col. Wm. Crawford started on the Sandusky expedition from Mingo 
Spring three months after Gnadenhutten ; and, hy the way, Colonel William- 
son was elected second in command at the Spring and conducted the re- 
treat after the defeat at 'Sandusky Plains. The Williamson force en- 
countered a great deal of trouble at starting for Gnadenhutten in March, 
1782, in making the crossing of the Ohio River from the Bottom to the 
Spring. The stream was full of floating cakes of ice, making the work 
excessively chilly and discouraging. The old Moravian trail from Mingo 
passed within four miles of my birthplace and early home, and one of the 
Indian trails going east broke off from it near where Cadiz now stands ; and, 
three miles down Middle Fork, passed within a mile of that home. It 
followed Indian Short Creek from the forks, where Adena is located, down 
to the Ohio at Carpenter's. 

" One member of the expedition, I have ascertained, killed sixteen 
of the Moravian Indians, as he claimed, and then desisted only because 
his arm was wearied to a standstill ; and he sat down and cried because 
he found in it no satisfaction for his murdered wife and children. Another 
afterward boasted of the number he had slain ; and this man had the mis- 
fortunate some time later — I think later than the Sandusky campaign — to be 
captured by the Indians and to undergo the most exquisite tortures they 
could inflict in putting him to death. 

" Obadiah Holmes, Jr., was one of the volunteers on each of the 
expeditions. He died in Pittsburgh, at the home of his son, Dr. Shepley 
Ross Holmes, in June, 1834, and is buried at Woodville, about ten miles 
out of the city, beside his wife, Jane Richardson. The descendants of 
Obadiah Holmes, Jr. — he had ten daughters and three sons — permeate Pitts- 
burgh society. Obadiah Holmes, Jr. was one of the sixteen members of the 
Moravian expedition who voted against the massacre. He distinguished 
himself as a young man of courage and self-sacrifice on each campaign. 
His descendants are sons and daughters of the American Revolution by 
virtue of the commission which he bore at the close of the war. There 
was never, at any time, in his case or conduct anything of which any one 
need be or ever has been ashamed." 

In a paper on the Moravian massacre by Wm. M. Farrar, read in 
1891 at the sixth annual meeting of the Ohio Archeological and Historical 
Society, the author says : " The expedition was neither infantry nor cavalry, 
mounted nor dismounted, but a mixed crowd made up in part from that 
reckless and irresponsible element usually found along the borders of civiliza- 
tion ; boys from eighteen to twenty years of age, who joined the expedition 
from love of adventure ; and partly of such well-known characters as 
Capt. Sam Brady, of West Liberty, Virginia, and at least one of the Wetzels, 
from near Wheeling, who, from their experience and well known bravery 
as frontiersmen, are said to have exercised very great influence in deciding 
the fate of the Indians. • * • Col. David Williamson was the one 
member of the expedition who, by reason of the position he filled, could 
not hide from public censure, and hence his undue share of it." 

P'arrar quotes a tradition that Joseph Vance, proprietor of Vance's 
Fort, had told Robert Lyle, in 1792, that the scheme of the raid originated 
at Vance's Fort, in the fall of 1781, with the men of some twenty-five or 
thirty families then forting there for protection from the Indians. These 
men believed the Moravian villages to be sheltering places for plundering 
bands of savages. The intention was to make the raid that fall, but it was 
nullified unexpectedly by the department sending out Colonel Williamson 
with two companies of soldiers to remove the Muskingum Moravians to 
Fort Pitt. Williamson found, however, that an expedition from Detroit had 
taken the missionaries and their converts to Sandusky. But in the follow- 
ing spring the spirit of destruction flamed up again, and the purpose of ex- 
termination was ruthlessly carried out. Even the families of many of the 
participants in the raid were ignorant of their connection with it. 

204 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The Indian Summer. 

As connected with the history of the Indian wars of the 
western country it may not be amiss to give an explanation of 
the term Indian summer. This expression, like many others, 
has continued in general use notwithstanding its original import 
has been forgotten. A backwoodsman seldom hears this ex- 
pression without feeling a chill of horror, because it brings to 
his mind the painful recollection of its original application. Such 
is the force of the faculty of association in human nature. 

The reader must here be reminded that, during the long con- 
tinued Indian wars sustained by the first settlers of the western 
country, they enjoyed no peace excepting in the winter season, 
when, owing to the severity of the weather, the Indians were 
unable to make their excursions into the settlements. The onset 
of winter was therefore hailed as a jubilee by the early inhabi- 
tants of the country who, throughout the spring and the early 
part of the fall, had been cooped up in their little uncomfortable 
forts, and subjected to all the distresses of the Indian war. At 
the approach of winter, therefore, all the farmers, excepting the 
owner of the fort, removed to their cabins on their farms, with 
the joyful feeling of a tenant of a prison on recovering his re- 
lease from confinement. All was bustle and hilarity, in prepar- 
ing for winter, by gathering in the corn, digging potatoes, fatten- 
ing hogs and repairing the cabins. To our forefathers, the 
gloomy months of winter were more pleasant than the zephyrs 
of spring and the flowers of May. 

It however sometimes happened that after the apparent onset 
of winter the weather became warm, the smoky time commenced 
and lasted for a considerable number of days. This was the In- 
dian summer, because it afforded the Indians another opportunity 
of visiting the settlements with their destructive warfare. The 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. * 205 

melting of the snow saddened every countenance and the general 
warmth of the sun chilled every heart with horror. The appre- 
hension of another visit from the Indians, and of being driven 
back to the detested fort, was painful in the highest degree and 
the distressing apprehension was frequently realized. 

Toward the latter part of February we commonly had a fine 
spell of open warm weather, during which the snow melted away. 
This was denominated the Pawwawing days, from the supposi- 
tion that the Indians were then holding their war councils, for 
planning off their spring campaigns into the settlements. Sad 
experience taught us that in this conjecture we were not often 

Sometimes it happened that the Indians ventured to make 
their excursions too late in the fall, or too early in the spring 
for their own convenience. 

A man of the name of John Carpenter ! was taken early in 
the month of March, in the neighborhood of this place. There 
had been several warm days, but the night preceding his capture 
there was a heavy fall of snow. His two horses, which they 
took with him, nearly perished in swimming the Ohio. The 
Indians, as well as himself, suffered severely with the cold before 
they reached the Moravian towns on the Muskingum. In the 
morning after the first day's journey beyond the Moravian towns, 
the Indians sent out Carpenter to bring in the horses which had 
been turned out in the evening, after being hobbled. The horses 
had made a circuit and fallen into the trail by which they came 
the preceding day, and were making their way homeward. When 
he overtook the horses and had taken off their fetters, as he said, 
he had to make a most awful decision. He had a chance and- 
barely a chance, to make his escape, with a certainty of death 
should he attempt it without success ; on the other hand the 
horrible prospect of being tortured to death by fire presented it- 
self, as he was the first prisoner taken that spring; of course the 
general custom of the Indians, of burning the first prisoner every 

i John Carpenter afterwards built the fort at the mouth of Short 
Creek, on the Ohio side. Tn 1800 he removed to what is now Coshocton 
county, Ohio, where he is buried — he and his wife. — (Simpson.) 

206 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

spring, doomed him to the flames. After spending a few minutes 
in making his decision he resolved on attempting an escape, and 
effected it by way of Forts Laurens, M'Intosh and Pittsburg. If 
I recollect rightly, he brought both his horses home with him. 

This happened in the year 1782. The capture of Mr. Car- 
penter and the murder of two families about the same time, that 
is to say, in the two or three first days of March, contributed 
materially to the Moravian campaign, and the murder of that 
unfortunate people. . 

Crawford's Campaign. 

This, in one point of view at least, is to be considered as a 
second Moravian campaign, as one of its objects was that of fin- 
ishing the work of murder and plunder with the Christian In- 
dians at their new establishment on the Sandusky. The next 
object was that of destroying the Wyandot towns on the same 
river. It was the resolution of all those concerned in this ex- 
pedition not to spare the life of any Indians that might fall into 
their hands, whether friends or foes. It will be seen in the sequel 
that the result of this campaign was widely different from that 
of the Moravian campaign the preceding March. 

It would seem that the long continuance of the Indian war 
had debased a considerable portion of our population to the 
savage state of our nature. Having lost so many relatives by 
the Indians, and witnessed their horrid murders and other de- 
predations on so extensive a scale, they became subjects of that 
indiscriminating thirst for revenge which is such a prominent 
feature in the savage character, and haying had a taste of blood 
and plunder, without risk or loss on their part, they resolved to 
go on and kill every Indian they could find, whether friend or 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 207 

Preparations for this campaign commenced soon after the 
return of the Moravian campaign in the month of March, and 
as it was intended to make what was called at that time a dash, 
that is an enterprise conducted with secrecy and dispatch, the 
men were all mounted on the best horses they could procure. 
They furnished themselves with all their outfits, except some 
ammunition which was furnished by the lieutenant colonel of 
Washington county. 

On the 25th of May, 1782, 480 men mustered at the old 
Mingo towns, on the western side of the Ohio river. 1 They were 
all volunteers from the immediate neighborhood of the Ohio, 
with the exception of one company from Ten Mile in Washing- 
ton county. Here an election was held for the office of com- 
mander-in-chief for the expedition. The candidates were Col. 
Williamson and Col. Crawford. The latter was the successful 
candidate. When notified of his appointment, it is said that he 
accepted it with apparent reluctance. 

The army marched along Williamson's trail, as it was then 
called, until they arrived at the upper Moravian town, in the 
fields belonging to which there was still plenty of corn on the 
stalks, with which their horses were plentifully fed during 
the night of their encampment there. 

Shortly after the army halted at this place two Indians were 
discovered by three men, who had walked some distance out of- 
the camp. Three shots were fired at one of them, but without 
hurting him. As soon as the news of the discovery of Indians 
had reached the camp more than one-half of the men rushed 
out, without command, and in the most tumultuous manner, to 
see what happened. From that time Col. Crawford felt a pre- 
sentiment of the defeat which followed. 

The truth is, that notwithstanding the secrecy and dispatch 
of the enterprise, the Indians were beforehand with our people. 
They saw the rendezvous on the Mingo Bottom, knew their 
number and destination. They visited every encampment imme- 
diately on their leaving it, and saw from their writing on the 

i Butterfield says Westmoreland county sent 130 men, Washington 
county 320, and Ohio county, Virginia, 20, as nearly as could be ascertained. 

208 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

trees and scraps of paper that " No quarter was to be given to 
any Indian, whether man, woman or child." Nothing material 
happened during their march until the sixth of June, when their 
guides conducted them to the site of the Moravian villages, on one 
of the upper branches of the Sandusky river; but here, instead of 
meeting with Indians and plunder, they met with nothing but ves- 
tiges of desolation. The place was covered with high grass and 
the remains of a few huts alone announced that the place had been 
the residence of the people whom they intended to destroy; but 
who had moved off to Scioto some time before. 

In this dilemma what was to be done? The officers held a 
council in which it was determined to march one day longer in 
the direction of upper Sandusky, and if they should not reach 
the town in the course of the day, to make a retreat with all 

The march was commenced the next morning through the 
plains of Sandusky and continued until about two o'clock, when 
the advance guard was attacked and driven in by the Indians, 
who were discovered in large numbers in the high grass with 
which the place was covered. The Indian army was at that 
moment about entering a piece of woods, almost entirely sur- 
rounded by plains ; but in this they were disappointed by a rapid 
movement of our men. The battle then commenced by a heavy 
fire from both sides. From a partial possession of the woods 
which they had gained at the onset of the battle, the Indians 
were soon dislodged. They then attempted to gain a small skirt 
of wood on our right flank, but were prevented from doing so 
by the vigilance and bravery of Maj. Leet, 1 who commanded the 
right wing of the army at that time. The firing was incessant 
and heavy until dark, when it ceased. Both armies lay on their 
arms during the night. Both adopted the policy of kindling large 
fires along the line of battle, and then retiring some distance in 
the rear of them, to prevent being surprised by a night attack. 
During the conflict of the afternoon three of our men were 
killed and several wounded. 

i Major Daniel Leet died at Sewickley Bottom, June 18, 1830. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. . 209 

In the morning our army occupied the battle ground of the 
preceding day. The Indians made no attack during the day, until 
late in the evening, but were seen in large bodies traversing the 
plains in various directions. Some of them appeared to be em- 
ployed in carrying off their dead and wounded. 

In the morning of this day a council of the officers was held, 
in which a retreat was resolved on as the only means of saving 
their army, the Indians appearing to increase in number every 
hour. During the sitting of this council Col. Williamson pro- 
posed taking one hundred and fifty volunteers and marching 
directly to upper Sandusky. This proposition the commander- 
in-chief prudently rejected, saying: 

" I have no doubt but that you would reach the town, but 
you would find nothing there but empty wigwams, and having 
taken off so many of our best' men you would leave the rest to 
be destroyed by the host of Indians with which we are now sur- 
rounded, and on your return they would attack and destroy you. 
They care nothing about defending their towns. They are 
worth nothing. Their squaws, children and property, have been 
removed from them long since. Our lives and baggage are what 
they want, and if they can get us divided they will soon have 
them. We must stay together and do the best we can." 

- During this day preparations were made for a retreat by 
burying the dead, burning fires over their graves to prevent dis- 
covery, and preparing means for carrying off the wounded. The 
retreat was to commence in the course of the night. The Indians, 
however, became apprised of the intended retreat, and about sun- 
down attacked the army with great force and fury in every 
direction excepting that of Sandusky. 

When the line of march was formed by the commander- 
in-chief and the retreat commenced, our guides prudently took the 
direction of Sandusky, which afforded the only opening in the 
Indian lines, and the only chance of concealment. After march- 
ing about a mile in this direction the army wheeled about to the 
left, and by a circuitous route gained the trail by which they 
came before day. They continued their march the whole of the 
next day, with a trifling annoyance from the Indians, who fired 

210 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

a few distant shots at the rear guard, which slightly wounded 
two or three men. At night they built fires, took their suppers, 
secured the horses and resigned themselves to repose, without 
placing a single sentinel or vidette for safety. In this careless 
situation they might have been surprised and cut off by the In- 
dians who, however, gave them no disturbance during the night, 
nor afterwards during the whole of their retreat. The number 
of those composing the main body in the retreat was supposed to 
be about three hundred. 

Most unfortunately, when a retreat was resolved on, a differ- 
ence of opinion prevailed concerning the best mode of effecting 
it. The greater number thought best to keep in a body and retreat 
as fast as possible, while a considerable number thought it safest 
to break off in small parties, and make their way home in different 
directions, avoiding the route by which they came. Accordingly 
many attempted to do so, calculating that the whole body of the 
Indians would follow the main army. In this they were entirely 
mistaken. The Indians paid but little attention to the main body 
of the army, but pursued the small parties with such activity that 
but very few of those who composed them made their escape. 

The only successful party who were detached from the main 
army was that of about forty men under the command of 
Captain Williamson, who, pretty late in the night of the retreat, 
broke through the Indian lines under a severe fire, and with 
some loss, and overtook the main army on the morning of the 
second day of the retreat. 

For several days after the retreat of our army the Indians 
were spread over the whole country, from Sandusky to the Musk- 
ingum, in pursuit of the straggling parties, most of whom were 
killed on the spot. They even pursued them almost to the banks 
of the Ohio. A man of the name of Mills was killed two miles 
to the eastward of the site of St. Clairsville, in the direction of 
Wheeling from that place. The number killed in this way must 
have been very great; the precise amount, however, was never 
fairly ascertained. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 211 

At the commencement of the retreat Col. Crawford placed 
himself at the head of the army and continued there until they 
had gone about a quarter of a mile, when, missing his son John 
Crawford, 1 his son-in-law Major Harrison, and his nephews 
Major Rose 2 and William Crawford, he halted and called for 
them as the line passed, but without finding them. After the 
army had passed him he was unable to overtake it, owing to 
the weariness of his horse. Falling in company with Doctor 
Knight 3 and two others they traveled all night, first north, 
and then to the east, to avoid the pursuit of the Indians. They 
directed their course during the night by the north star. On the 
next day they fell in with Captain John Biggs and Lieutenant 
Ashley, the latter of whom was severely wounded. There were 
two others in company with Biggs and Ashley. They encamped 
together the succeeding night. On the next day, while on their 
march, they were attacked by a party of Indians who made Col- 
onel Crawford and Doctor Knight prisoners. The other four 
made their escape, but Captain Biggs and Lieutenant Ashley were 
killed the next day. 

Colonel Crawford and Dr. Knight were immediately taken 
to an Indian encampment at a short distance from the place where 
they were captured. Here they found nine fellow prisoners and 
seventeen Indians. On the next day they were marched to the old 
Wyandot town, and on the next morning were paraded to set off, 

iJohn Crawford got home. He died in Adams county, Ohio, in 1816. 
(Butter-field's History, pages 295-6). 

2 Major John Rose was a native of Russia. His real name was Gus- 
tavus H. de Rosenthal, of Livonia, Russia, a baron of the empire. He was 
not a nephew of Col. Crawford. He was elected secretary of the Council of 
Censors of Pennsylvania in 1783, but resigned in 1784. He was an aide on the 
staff of General Irvine, commandant at Fort Pitt. The identity of Rose was 
never disclosed until 1784. after his return to Russia, when, on Feb. 21, he 
wrote a letter to Gen. Irvine, to whom he had become greatly attached, stating 
tliat he had left his native country because he had killed in a duel within 
the precincts of the royal palace in St. Petersburg a man whom he had seen 
strike his aged uncle. Fearful of the Czar's displeasure, not on account of 
the killing, but because of the violation of the sanctity of the palace, Rose 
fled to England, and learning there of the war in America he came to this 
country. Time and absence mitigated his offense. After his return home 
he was appointed grand marshal of Livonia. He died in 1830. 

S Dr. John Knight was surgeon of the Seventh Virginia Regiment. 
Both he and Rose were virtually assigned to service by Gen. Irvine in the com- 
mand of Col. Crawford. Rose acted as adjutant. — (Simpson.) 

212 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

as they were told, to go to the new town. But alas ! a very dif- 
ferent destination awaited these captives. Nine of the prisoners 
were marched off some distance before the colonel and the doctor, 
who were conducted by Pipe * and Wingemond, two Delaware 
chiefs. Four of the prisoners were tomahawked and scalped 
on the way at different places. 

Preparations had been made for the execution of Colonel 
Crawford by setting a post about fifteen feet high in the ground, 
and making a large fire of hickory poles about six yards from it. 
About half a mile from the place of execution the remaining five 
of the nine prisoners were tomahawked and scalped by a number 
of squaws and boys. When arrived at the fire the colonel was 
stripped and ordered to sit down. He was then severely beaten 
with sticks and afterwards tied to the post by a rope of such 
length as to allow him to walk two or three times round it, and 
then back again. This done, they began the torture by discharging 
a great number of loads of powder upon him, from head to foot, 
after which they began to apply the burning ends of the hickory 
poles, the squaws in the meantime throwing coals and hot ashes 
on his body, so that in a little time he had nothing but coals to 
walk on. In the midst of his sufferings he begged of the noted 
Simon Girty 2 to take pity on him and shoot him. Girty taunt- 
ingly answered : 

" You see I have no gun, I cannot shoot," and laughed heart- 
ily at the scene. 

After suffering about three hours he became faint and fell 
down on his face ; an Indian then scalped him, and an old squaw 
threw a quantity of burning coals on the place from which the 
scalp was taken. After this he rose and walked round the post 
a little, but did not live much longer. After he expired his body 
was thrown into the fire and consumed to ashes. Colonel Craw- 
ford's son 3 and son-in-law were executed at the Shawnees' town. 

i Pipe died on the Maumee river in 1794. It is not known when or 
where Wingemond died. — (Simpson). 

2 See Appendix : " Logan, Michael Cresap and Simon Girty." 

3 This statement of the execution of Crawford's son conflicts with 
Butterfield's statement. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 213 

Dr. Knight was doomed to be burned at a town about forty 
miles distant from Sandusky, and committed to the care of a 
young Indian to be taken there. The first day they traveled about 
twenty-five miles, and encamped for the night. In the morning 
the gnats being very troublesome, the doctor requested the Indian 
to untie him, that he might help him to make a fire to keep them 
off. With this request the Indian complied. While the Indian 
was on his knees and elbows, blowing the fire, the doctor caught 
up a piece of a tent pole which had been burned in two, about 
eighteen inches long, with which he struck the Indian on the 
head with all his might, so as to knock him forward into the fire. 
The stick however broke, so that the Indian, although severely 
hurt, was not killed, but immediately sprang up; on this the 
doctor caught up the Indian's gun to shoot him, but drew back 
thp cock with so much violence that he broke the main spring. 
The Indian ran off with an hideous yelling. Dr. Knight x then 
made the best of his way home, which he reached in twenty-one 
days, almost famished to death. The gun being of no use, after 
carrying it a day or two he left it behind. On his journey he 
subsisted on roots, a few young birds, and berries. 

A Mr. Slover, 2 who had been a prisoner among the Indians 
and was one of the pilots of the army, was also taken prisoner, 
to one of the Shawanee towns on the Scioto. After being there 
a few days, and as he thought in favor of the Indians, a council 
of the chiefs was held in which it was resolved that Slover should 
be burned. The fires were kindled and he was blackened and tied 
to a stake, in an uncovered end of the council house. Just as 
they were about commencing the torture there came on suddenly 
a heavy thunder gust with a great fall of rain which put out the 
fires. After the rain was over the Indians concluded that it was 
then too late to commence and finish the torture that day, and 
therefore postponed it till the next day. Slover was then loosed 

i Dr. Knight moved to Shelbyville, Ky., where he died March 12, 1838. 
(Butterfield's history, page 374.) 

2 John Slover, a wilderness guide, left Fayette county, Pa., and went to 
Kentucky some years after he got home from this campaign. It is not 
known when he died. — (Simpson.) 

214 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

from the stake, conducted to an empty house, to a log of which 
he was fastened with a buffalo tug fastened round his neck, his 
arms were pinioned behind him with a cord. Until late in the 
night the Indians sat up smoking and talking. They frequently 
asked Slover how he would like to eat fire the next day. At 
length one of them laid down and went to sleep, the other con- 
tinued smoking and talking with Slover. Sometime after mid- 
night he also laid down and went to sleep. Slover then resolved 
to make an effort to get loose if possible, and soon extricated one 
of his hands from the cord and then fell to work with the tug 
round his neck; but without effect. He had not been long 
engaged in these efforts before one of the Indians got up and 
smoked his pipe awhile. During this time Slover kept very still 
for fear of an examination. The Indian lying down, the prisoner 
renewed his efforts, but for some time without effect. He re- 
signed himself to .his fate. After resting for awhile he resolved 
to make another and a last effort, and as he related, put his hand 
to the tug, and without difficulty slipped it over his head. The 
day was just then breaking.' He sprang over a fence into a corn- 
field, but had proceeded but a little distance in the field before 
he came across a squaw and several children lying asleep under 
a mulberry tree. He then changed his course for part of the 
commons of the town, on which he saw some horses feeding. 
Passing over the fence from the field he found a piece of an 
old quilt. This he took with him. It was the only covering he 
had. He then untied the cord from the other arm, which by this 
time was very much swelled. Having selected, as he thought, 
the best horse on the commons, he tied the cord to his lower jaw, 
mounted him and rode off at full speed. The horse gave out 
about ten o'clock, so that he had to leave him. He then traveled 
on foot with a stick in one hand, with which he put up the weeds 
behind him, for fear of being tracked by the Indians. In the 
other hand he carried a bunch of bushes to brush the gnats and 
mosquitoes from his naked body. Being perfectly acquainted with 
the route he reached the river Ohio in a short time, almost fam- 
ished with hunger and exhausted with fatigue. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 215 

Thus ended this disastrous campaign. It was the last one 
which took place in this section of the country during the revolu- 
tionary contest of the Americans with the mother country. It 
was undertaken with the very worst of views, those of murder 
and plunder. It was conducted without sufficient means to en- 
counter, with any prospect of success, the large force of Indians 
opposed to ours in the plains of Sandusky. It was conducted 
without that subordination and discipline so requisite to insure 
success in any hazardous enterprise, and it ended in a total dis- 
comfiture. Never did an enterprise more completely fail of at- 
taining its object. Never, on any occasion, had the ferocious 
savages more ample revenge for the murder of their pacific 
friends than that which they obtained on this occasion. 

Should it be asked what consideration led so great a number 
of people into this desperate enterprise? Why, with so small a 
force, and such slender means, they pushed on so far as the 
plains of Sandusky? The answer is, that many believed that the 
Moravian Indians, taking no part in the war, and having given 
offense to the warriors on several occasions, their belligerent 
friends would not take up arms in their behalf. In this con- 
jecture they were sadly mistaken. They did defend them with 
all the force at their command, and no wonder, for, notwith- 
standing their Christian and pacific principles, the warriors still 
regarded the Moravians as their relations, whom it was their duty 
to defend. 

The reflections which naturally arise out of the history of 
the Indian war in the western country, during our revolutionary 
contest with Great Britain, are not calculated to do honor to 
human nature, even in its civilized state. On our side, indeed, 
as to our infant government, the case is not so bad. Our congress 
faithfully endeavored to prevent the Indians from taking part in 
the war on either side. The English government, on the other 
hand, made allies of as many of the Indian nations as they could, 
and they imposed no restraint on their savage mode of warfare. 
On the contrary the commandants at their posts along our western 
frontier received and paid the Indians for scalps and prisoners. 
Thus the skin of a white man's, or even a woman's head served, 

216 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

in the hands of the Indian, as current coin, which he exchanged 
for arms and ammunition, for the farther prosecution of his 
barbarous warfare, and clothing to cover his half naked body. 
Were not these rewards the price of blood? Of blood shed in a 
cruel manner on an extensive scale ; but without advantage to 
that government which employed the savages in their warfare 
against their relatives and fellow Christians, and paid for their 
murders by the piece. 

The enlightened historian must view the whole of the Indian 
war, from the commencement of the revolutionary contest, in no 
other light than a succession of the most wanton murders of all 
ages, from helpless infancy to decrepid old age, and of both sexes ; 
without object and without effect. 

On our side it is true that the pressure of the war along our 
Atlantic border was such that our government could not furnish 
the means for making a conquest of the Indian nations at war 
against us. The people of the western country, poor as they 
were at that time, and unaided by government, could not subdue 
them. Our campaigns, hastily undertaken, without sufficient 
force and means, and illy executed, resulted in nothing beneficial. 
On the other hand, the Indians, with the aid their allies could 
give them in the western country, were not able to make a con- 
quest of the settlements on this side of the mountains. On the 
contrary our settlements, and the forts belonging to them, be- 
came stronger and stronger from year to year during the whole 
continuance of the wars. It was therefore a war of mutual but 
unavailing slaughter, devastation and revenge, over whose record 
humanity still drops a tear of regret, but that tear cannot efface 
its disgraceful history. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 217 

Attack on Rice's Fort. 

This fort consisted of some cabins and a small block house, 
and was, in dangerous times, the residence and place of refuge 
for twelve families of its immediate neighborhood. It was sit- 
uated on Buffalo creek, about twelve or fifteen miles from its 
junction with the river Ohio. 

Previously to the attack on this fort, which took place in the 
month of September, 1782, several of the few men belonging to 
the fort had gone to Hagerstown to exchange their peltry and 
furs for salt, iron and ammunition, as was the usual custom of 
those times. They had gone on this journey somewhat earlier 
that season than usual, because there had been a still time. That 
is no recent alarms of the Indians. 

A few days before the attack on this fort about 300 Indians 
had made their last attack on Wheeling fort. On the third night 
of the investment of Wheeling the Indian chiefs held a council, 
in which it was determined that the siege of Wheeling should be 
raised, two hundred of the warriors return home, and the re- 
maining hundred of picked men make a dash into the country and 
strike a heavy blow somewhere before their return. It was their 
determination to take a fort somewhere and massacre all its 
people, in revenge for their defeat at Wheeling. 

News of the plan adopted by the Indians was given by two 
white men who had been made prisoners when lads, raised among 
the Indians, and taken to war with them. These men deserted 
from them soon after their council at the close of the siege of 
Wheeling. 1 The notice was indeed but short, but it reached Rice's 
fort about half an hour before the commencement of the attack. 
The intelligence was brought by Mr. Jacob Miller who received 

1 One of these deserters was Christian Fast, who had been captured 
in Col. Langheim's expedition in 1781. Past was from what is now 
Fayette county, Pa. He died in Orange township, Ashland county, Ohio, in 
1849, aged 85 years, leaving nine sons and four daughters. — (Simpson.) 

218 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

it at Dr. Moore's, in the neighborhood of Washington. Making 
all speed home he fortunately arrived in time to assist in the 
defense of the place. On receiving this news the people of the 
fort felt assured that the blow was intended for them and in this 
conjecture they were not mistaken. But little time was allowed 
them for preparation. The Indians had surrounded the place 
before they were discovered ; but they were still at some distance. 
When discovered the alarm was given, on which every man ran 
to his cabin for his gun and took refuge in the block house. The 
Indians, answering the alarm with a war whoop from their 
whole line, commenced firing and running towards the fort from 
every direction. It was evidently their intention to take the place 
by assault; but the fire of the Indians was answered by that of 
six brave and skillful sharpshooters. This unexpected reception 
prevented the intended assault and made the Indians take refuge 
behind logs, stumps and trees. The firing continued with little 
intermission for about four hours. In the intervals of the firing 
the Indians frequently called out to the people of the fort: 

" Give up, give up, too many Indian. Indian too big. No 

They were answered with defiance. " Come on you cowards ; 
we are ready for you. Show us your yellow hides and we will 
make holes in them for you." 

During the evening many of the Indians, at some distance 
from the fort, amused themselves by shooting the horses, cattle, 
hogs and sheep, until the bottom was strewed with their dead 

About ten o'clock at night the Indians set fire to a barn about 
thirty yards from the fort. The barn was large and full of grain 
and hay. The flame was frightful and at first it seemed to en- 
danger the burning of the fort, but the barn stood on lower 
ground than the fort. The night was calm, with the exception of 
a slight breeze up the creek. This carried the flame and burning 
splinters in a different direction, so that the burning of the barn, 
which at first was regarded as a dangerous if not fatal occurrence, 
proved in the issue the means of throwing a strong light to a 
great distance in every direction, so that the Indians durst not 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 219 

approach the fort to set fire to the cabins, which they might 
have done, at little risk, under the cover of darkness. After the 
barn was set on fire the Indians collected on the side of the 
fort opposite the barn, so as to have the advantage of the light, 
and kept a pretty constant fire, which was as steadily answered 
by that of the fort, until about two o'clock, when the Indians left 
the place and made a hasty retreat. 

Thus was this little place defended by a Spartan band of six 
men against one hundred chosen warriors, exasperated to mad- 
ness by their failure at Wheeling fort. Their names shall be 
inscribed in the list of the heroes, of our early times. They were 
Jacob Miller, George Lefler, Peter Fullenweider, Daniel Rice, 
George Felebaum and Jacob Lefler, jr. George Felebaum was 
shot in the forehead, through a port hole, at the second fire of the 
Indians and instantly expired, so that in reality the defense of 
the place was made by only five men. 

The loss of the Indians was four, three of whom were killed 
at the first fire from the fort, the other was killed about sun 
down. There can be no doubt but that a number more were 
killed and wounded in the engagement, but concealed or 
carried off. 

A large division of these Indians on their retreat passed 
within a little distance of my father's fort. In following their 
trail, a few days afterwards, I found a large poultice of chewed 
sassafras leaves. This is the dressing which the Indians usually 
apply to recent gun shot wounds. The poultice which I found 
had become too old and dry, was removed and replaced with a 
new one. 

Examples of personal bravery and hair breadth escapes are 
always acceptable to readers of history. An instance of both 
of these happened during the attack on this fort, which may be 
worth recording. 

Abraham Rice, one of the principal men belonging to the 
fort of that name, on hearing the report of the deserters from the 
Indians mounted a very strong, active mare and rode in all haste 
to another fort, about three and a half miles from his own, for 
further news, if any could be had, concerning the presence of a 

220 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

body of Indians in the neighborhood. Just as he reached the 
place he heard the report of the guns at his own fort. He in- 
stantly returned as fast as possible until he arrived within sight 
of the fort. Finding that it still held out, he determined to reach 
it and assist in its defense, or perish in the attempt. In doing this, 
he had to cross the creek, the fort being some distance from it 
on the opposite bank. He saw no Indians until his mare sprang 
down the bank of the creek, at which instant about fourteen of 
them jumped up from among the weeds and bushes and dis- 
charged their guns at him. One bullet wounded him in the 
fleshy part of the right arm above the elbow. By this time sev- 
eral more of the Indians came up and shot at him. A second ball 
wounded him in the thigh a little above the knee, but without 
breaking the bone ; the ball then passed transversely through the 
neck of the mare; she however sprang up the bank of the creek, 
fell to her knees and stumbled along about a rod before she re- 
covered ; during this time several Indians came running up to 
tomahawk him. He made his escape after having about thirty 
shots fired at him from a very short distance. After riding about 
four miles he reached Lamb's fort much exhausted with the loss 
of blood. After getting his wounds dressed and resting a while he 
set off late in the evening with twelve men, determined if possible 
to reach the fort under cover of the night. When they got within 
about two hundred yards of it they halted. The firing at the fort 
still continued; ten of the men, thinking the enterprise too 
hazardous, refused to go any farther and retreated. Rice and 
two other men crept silently along towards the fort, but had 
not proceeded far before they came close upon an Indian in his 
concealment. He gave the alarm yell, which was instantly passed 
round the lines with the utmost regularity. This occasioned the 
Indians to make their last effort to take the place and make their 
retreat, under cover of the night. Rice and his two companions 
returned in safety to Lamb's fort. 

* About ten o'clock next morning sixty men collected at Rice's 
fort for the relief of the place. They pursued the Indians who 
kept in a body for about two miles. The Indians had then divided 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 221 

into small parties and took over the hills in different directions, 
so that they could be tracked no farther. The pursuit was of 
course given up. 

A small division of the Indians had not proceeded far after 
their separation before they discovered four men coming from 
a neighboring fort in the direction of that which they had left. 
The Indians waylaid the path and shot two of them dead on the 
spot. The others fled. One of them being swift of foot soon 
made his escape. The other, being a poor runner, was pursued 
by an Indian who after a smart chase came close to him. The 
man then wheeled round and snapped his gun at the Indian. 
This he repeated several times. The Indian then threw his toma- 
hawk at his head but missed him; he then caught hold of the 
ends of his belt which was tied behind in a bow knot. In this 
again the Indian was disappointed, for the knot came loose so 
that he got the belt but not the man, who wheeled round and 
tried his gun again. It happened to go off and laid the Indian 
dead at his feet. 


Expected Attack on my Father's Fort. 

When we received advice at my father's fort of the attack 
on Rice's blockhouse, which was but a few miles distant, we sent 
word to all those families who were out on their farms to come 
immediately to the fort. It became nearly dark before the two 
runners had time to give the alarm to the family of a Mr. Charles 
Stuart who lived about three-quarters of a mile from the fort. 
They returned in great haste, saying that Stuart's house was 
burned down, and that they had seen two fires between that and 
the fort, at which the Indians were encamped. There was, there- 
fore, no doubt that an attack would be made on our fort early in 
the morning. 

222 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

In order to give the reader a correct idea of the military 
tactics of our early times I will give, in detail, the whole progress 
of the preparations which were made for the expected attack 
and, as nearly as I can, I will give the commands of Capt. Teter, 1 
our officer, in his own words. 

In the first place he collected all our men together, and 
related the battles and skirmishes he had been in, and really they 
were not few in number. He was in Braddock's defeat, Grant's 
defeat, the taking of Fort Pitt, and nearly all the battles which 
took place between the English and the French and the Indians, 
from Braddock's defeat until the capture of that place by Gen. 
Forbes. He reminded us, " That in case the Indians should suc- 
ceed we need expect no mercy, that every man, woman and child 
would be killed on the spot. They have been defeated at one 
fort and now they are mad enough. If they should succeed in 
taking ours all their vengeance will fall on our heads. We must 
fight for ourselves and one another, and for our wives and 
children, brothers and sisters. We must make the best prepara- 
tions we can. A little after day break we shall hear the crack of 
the guns." 

He then made a requisition of all the powder and lead in the 
fort. The ammunition was accurately divided amongst all the 
men, and the amount supposed to be fully sufficient. When this 
was done, " Now," says the captain, " when you run your bullets, 
cut off the necks very close, and scrape them, so as to make them 
a little less, and get patches one hundred finer than those you 
commonly use, and have them well oiled, for if a rifle happens 
to be choked in the time of battle there is one gun and one man 
losf for the rest of the battle. You will have no time to unbreach 
a gun and get a plug to drive out a bullet. Have the locks well 
oiled, and your flints sharp, so as not to miss fire." 

Such were his orders to the men. He then said to the 
women : 

i See Appendix : " The Teter and Manchester Families." 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 223 

" These yellow fellows are very handy at setting fire to 
houses, and water is a very good thing to put out fire. You must 
fill every vessel with water. Our fort is not well stockaded, and 
these ugly fellows may rush into the middle of it and attempt to 
set fire to our cabins in twenty places at once." 

They fell to work, and did as he had ordered. 

The men having put their rifles in order, " Now," says he, 
" let every man gather in his axes, mattocks and hoes, and place 
them inside of his door, for the Indians may make a dash at them 
with their tomahawks to cut them down, and an axe in that 
case might hit when a gun would miss fire." 

Like a good commander our captain, not content with giving 
orders, went from house to house to see that everything was right. 

The ladies of the present day will suppose that our women 
were frightened half to death, with the near prospect of such an 
attack of the Indians ; on the contrary, I do not know that I ever 
saw a merrier set of women in my life. They went on with their 
work of carrying water and cutting bullet patches for the men 
apparently without the least emotion of fear, and I have every 
reason to believe that they would have been pleased with the 
crack of the guns in the morning. 

During all this time we had no sentinels placed around the 
fort, so confident was our captain that the attack would not be 
made before day break. 

I was at that time thirteen or fourteen years of age, but 
ranked as a fort soldier. After getting my gun and all things 
else in order I went up into the garret loft of my father's house, 
and laid down about the middle of the floor, with my shot pouch 
on and my gun by my side, expecting to be waked up by the 
report of the guns at day break, to take my station at the port 
hole assigned me, which was in the second story of the house. 
I did not awake till about sun rise, when the alarm was all over. 
The family which we supposed had been killed had come into 
the fort about day break. Instead of the house being burnt it 
was only a large old log on fire, near the house, which had been 

224 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

seen by our expresses. If they had seen anything like fire, 
between that and the fort, it must have been fox fire. Such 
is the creative power of imagination when under the influence 
of fear. 

Coshocton Campaign. 

This campaign took place in the summer of 1780, and was 
directed against the Indian villages at the forks of the Musk- 
ingum. The place of rendezvous was Wheeling. The number 
of regulars and militia about eight hundred. From Wheeling 
they made a rapid march, by the nearest route, to the place of 
their destination. When the army reached the river a little below 
Salem, the lower Moravian town, Colonel Broadhead sent an 
express to the missionary of that place, the Rev. John Hecke- 
welder, informing him of his arrival in his neighborhood with his 
army, requesting a small supply of provisions and a visit from 
him in his camp. When the missionary arrived at the camp the 
general informed him of the object of the expedition he was 
engaged in, and enquired of him whether any of the Christian 
Indians were hunting, or engaged in business, in the direction of 
his march. On being answered in the negative, he stated that 
nothing would give him greater pain than to hear that any of the 
Moravian Indians had been molested by the troops, as these 
Indians had always, from the commencement of the war, con- 
ducted themselves in a manner that did them honor. 

A part of the militia had resolved on going up the river to 
destroy the Moravian villages, but were prevented from execut- 
ing their project by General Broadhead, and Colonel Shepherd 
of Wheeling. 

At White Eyes' Plain, a few miles from Coshocton, an 
Indian prisoner was taken. Soon afterwards two more Indians 
were discovered, one of whom was wounded, but he, as well as 
the other, made his escape. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 225 

The commander, knowing that these two Indians would make 
the utmost dispatch in going to the town to give notice of the 
approach of the army, ordered a rapid march, in the midst of 
a heavy fall of rain, to reach the town before them and take it 
by surprise. The plan succeeded. The army reached the place 
in three divisions. The right and left wings approached the river 
a little above and below the town, while the center marched 
directly upon it. The whole number of the Indians in the village 
on the east side of the river, together with ten or twelve from a 
little village some distance above, were made prisoners without 
firing a single shot. The river having risen to a great height, 
owing to the recent fall of rain, the army could not cross it. 
Owing to this the villages with their inhabitants, on the west 
side of the river, escaped destruction. 

Among the prisoners sixteen warriors were pointed out by 
Pekillon, a friendly Delaware chief, who was with the army of 

A little after dark a council of war was held to determine 
on the fate of the warriors in custody. They were doomed to 
death and by the order of the commander they were bound, taken 
a little distance below the town, and dispatched with tomahawks 
and spears and scalped. 

Early the next morning an Indian presented himself on the 
opposite bank of the river and asked for the big captain. Broad- 
head presented himself and asked the Indian what he wanted. 
To which he replied : 

" I want peace." 

" Send over some of your chiefs," said Broadhead. 

" May be you kill," said the Indian. 

He was answered, " They shall not be killed." 

One of the chiefs, a well looking man, came over the river 
and entered into conversation with the commander in the street ; 
but while engaged in conversation a man of the name of Wetzel 
came up behind him with a tomahawk concealed in the bosom 
of his hunting shirt and struck him on the back of his head. He 
fell and instantly expired. 

226 Early Settlement and Indian War's of 

About eleven or twelve o'clock the army commenced its re- 
treat from Coshocton. Gen. Broadhead committed the care of 
the prisoners to the militia. They were about twenty in number. 
After marching about half a mile the men commenced killing 
them. In a short time they were all dispatched, except a few 
women and children who were spared and taken to Fort Pitt, and 
after some time exchanged for an equal number of their 
prisoners. 1 


Captivity of Mrs. Brown. 

On the 27th day of March, 1789, about 10 o'clock in the 
forenoon, as she was spinning in her house, her black woman 
who had stepped out to gather sugar water screamed out, " Here 
are Indians." She jumped up, ran to the window and then to 
the door, where she was met by one of the Indians presenting his 
gun. She caught hold of the muzzle and turning it aside begged 
him not to kill, but take her prisoner. The other Indian in the 
meantime caught the negro woman and her boy, about four years 
old, and brought them into the house. They then opened a chest 
and took out a small box and some articles of clothing, and with- 
out doing any further damage, or setting fire to the house', set 
off with herself and son about two years and a half old, the black 
woman and her two children, the oldest four years and the 
youngest one year old. After going about one and a half mile, 
they halted and held a consultation, as she supposed, about killing 

i The destruction of Coshocton, according to the story related in " Old 
Westmoreland," resulted from the action of an Indian council there in Feb- 
ruary, 1781, voting to join the hostile league of savage western tribes against 
the colonies. The league permitted bands of warriors to go out on bloody 
raids against the Penna. and Virginia borders. Col. Brodhead determined 
to attack Coshocton and punish the Delawares for their perfidy. This he did. 
(See pages 128-9, "Old Westmoreland.") This book does not agree with 
Doddridge's account of the destruction of Coshocton. It says : " Doddridge's 
book well describes conditions of pioneer life in Western Pennsylvania, but 
as to historical events it is totally unreliable. At the time Brodhead des- 
troyed Coshocton, Doddridge was about 12 years old, and he did not write 
his "Notes" until 40 years afterward. His only sources of information 
were the exaggerated yarns told by ignorant frontiersmen beside the log 
cabin fires into the ears of the wondering boy." 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 227 

the children. This she understood to be the subject by their 
gestures and frequently pointing at the children. To one of the 
Indians who could speak English she held out her little boy 
and begged him not to kill him, as he would make a fine little 
Indian after a while. The Indian made a motion to her to walk 
on with her child. The other Indian then struck the negro boy 
with the pipe end of his tomahawk, which knocked him down, and 
then dispatched him by a blow with the edge across the back of 
the neck and then scalped him. 

About four o'clock in the evening they reached the river, 
about a mile above Wellsburg, and carried a canoe, which had 
been thrown up in some drift wood, into the river. They got 
into this canoe and worked it down to the mouth of Rush run, a 
distance of about five miles. They pulled up the canoe into the 
mouth of the run, as far as they could, then went up the run 
about a mile and encamped for the night. The Indians gave the 
prisoners all their own clothes for covering and added one of 
their own blankets. A while before daylight the Indians got up 
and put another blanket over them. 

About sun rise they began their march up a very steep hill, 
and about two o'clock halted on Short creek, about twenty miles 
from the place from whence they had set out in the morning. 
The place where they halted had been an encampment shortly 
before, as well as a place of deposit for the plunder which they 
had recently taken from the house of a Mr. Vanmeter, whose 
family had been killed. The plunder was deposited in a sycamore 
tree. They tapped some sugar trees when there before. Here 
they kindled a fire and put on a brass kettle, with a turkey which 
they had killed on the way, to boil in sugar water. 

Mr. Glass, 1 the first husband of Mrs. Brown, was working 
with an hired man in a field, about a quarter of a mile from the 
house, when his wife and family were taken, but knew nothing 
of the event until two o'clock. After searching about the place 
and going to several houses in quest of his family, he went to 

t Mrs. Glass, after the death of Mr. Glass, married John Brown. One 
daughter was born, Jane, who became on March 12, 1811, the wife of Bishop 
Alexander Campbell, founder of the Disciple church. They were married 
by Rev. James Hughes, of Lower Buffalo. — (Simpson.) 

228 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Mr. Wells's fort, and collected ten men besides himself, and the 
same night lodged in a cabin on the bottom on which the town 
now stands. 

Next morning they discovered the place from which the 
Indians had taken the canoe from the drift, and their tracks at 
the place of their embarkation. Mr. Glass could distinguish the 
track of his wife by the print of the high heel of her shoe. They 
crossed over the river and went down on the other side until they 
came to the mouth of Rush run; but discovering no tracks of 
the Indians most of the men concluded that they would go to the 
mouth of the Muskingum by water, and therefore wished to turn 
back. Mr. Glass begged of them to go as far as the mouth of 
Short creek, which was only two or three miles farther. To this 
they agreed. When they got to the mouth of Rush run they 
found the canoe of the Indians. This was identified by a proof 
which goes to show the presence of mind of Mrs. Brown. While 
going down the river one of the Indians threw into the water 
several papers which he had taken out of Mr. Glass's trunk; 
some of these she picked up out of the water, and under pretense 
of giving them to the child dropped them into the bottom of the 
canoe. These left no doubt. The trail of the Indians and their 
prisoners up the run to their camp, and then up the river hill, 
was soon discovered. The trail at that time, owing to the soft- 
ness of the ground and the height of the weeds, was easily 

About an hour after the Indians had halted Mr. Glass and 
his men came within sight of the smoke of their camp. The 
object then was to save the lives of the prisoners by attacking 
the Indians so unexpectedly as not to allow them time to kill 
them. With this view they crept as slily as they could till they 
got within something more than one hundred yards from the 
camp. Fortunately Mrs. Brown's little son had gone to a sugar 
tree to get some water, but not being able to get it out of the 
bark trough his mother had stepped out of the camp to get it for 
him. The negro woman was sitting some distance from the two 
Indians who were looking attentively at a scarlet jacket which 
they had taken some time before. On a sudden they dropped the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 229 

jacket and turned their eyes towards the men, who, supposing 
they were discovered, immediately discharged several guns and 
rushed up on them at full speed with an Indian yell. One of 
the .Indians, it was supposed, was wounded the first fire, as he 
fell and dropped his gun and shot pouch. After running about 
one hundred yards a second shot was fired after him by Maj. 
M'Guire, 1 which brought him to his hands and knees; but there 
was no time for pursuit, as the Indians had informed Mrs. Brown 
that there was another encampment close by. They therefore 
returned home with all speed, and reached the Beach Bottom fort 
that night. 

The other Indian, at the first fire, ran a little distance beyond 
Mrs. Brown, so that she was in a right line between him and the 
white men ; here he halted for a little to put on his shot pouch 
which Mr. Glass, for the moment, mistook for an attempt to kill 
his wife with a tomahawk. This artful manoeuvre, no doubt, 
saved the life of the savage, as his pursuers durst not shoot at 
him without risking the life of Mrs. Brown. 


Escape of Lewis Wetsel. 

The following narrative goes to show how much may be 
effected by the skill, bravery and physical activity of a single 
individual in the partizan warfare carried on against the Indians 
on the western frontier. 

Lewis Wetsel 1 was the son of John Wetsel, a German, who 

i Major Francis McGuire died Sept. 18. 1820, aged 66 years, and was 
buried one-half mile west of Independence, Pa., near Dr. Parkinson's resi- 
dence. Barbara, his wife, died Dec. 29, 1835, aged 81 years. — (Simpson.) 

i The Wetsel family, John and his five sons, Martin, George, John, 
Jacob and Lewis, with two daughters, Susan and Christiana, settled in 1772 
at the mouth of Wheeling Creek, in the West Virginia panhandle. All the 
men were hunters and Indian fighters, but Lewis was the most reckless 
and daring. He made the fighting of Indians a business, not a summer recre- 
ation. He died in the summer of 1808, aged 44 years, while visiting Philip 
Sikes, a relative, 20 miles in the interior from Natchez, Miss. Lewis Wet- 
sel's rifle and pipe belonged, in 1890. to the late Judge G. L. Cranmer, of 
Wheeling, known as " Wheeling's Historian." On the pipe was inscribed in 
rude characters, "Lewis Wetsel. 1801." 

230 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

settled on Big Wheeling, about fourteen miles from the river. 
He was amongst the first adventurers into that part of the 
country. His education, like that of his contemporaries, was that 
of the hunter and warrior. When a boy he adopted the practice 
of loading and firing his rifle as he ran. This was a means of 
making him so destructive to the Indians afterwards. When 
about thirteen years old he was taken prisoner by the Indians, 
together with his brother Jacob, about eleven years years old. 
Before he was taken he received a slight wound in the breast 
from a bullet, which carried off a small piece of his breast bone. 
The second night after they were taken the Indians encamped at 
the big lick, twenty miles from the river, on the waters of 
M'Mahan's creek. The boys were not confined. After the In- 
dians had fallen asleep Lewis whispered to his brother Jacob that 
he must get up and go back home with him. Jacob at first 
objected but afterwards got up and went along with him. When 
they had got about one hundred yards from the camp they sat 
down on a log. 

" Well," said Lewis, " we can't go home barefooted. I will 
go back and get a pair of moccasins for each of us," and accord- 
ingly did so, and returned. 

After sitting a little longer, " Now," says he, " I will go back 
and get father's gun, and then we'll start." 

This he effected. They had not traveled far on the trail by 
which they came before they heard the Indians coming after 
them. It was a moonlight night. When the Indians came pretty 
nigh them they stepped aside into the bushes, let them pass, then 
fell into their rear and traveled on. On the return of the Indians 
they did the same. They were then pursued by two Indians on 
horse back, whom they dodged in the same way. The next day 
they reached Wheeling in safety, crossing from the Indian shore 
to Wheeling island on a raft of their own making. By this time 
Lewis had become almost spent from his wound. 

In the year 1782, after Crawford's defeat, Lewis went with 
a Thomas Mills, who had been in the campaign, to get his horse, 
which he had left near the place where St. Clairsville now stands. 
At the Indian springs, two miles from St. Clairsville, on the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 231 

Wheeling road, they were met by about forty Indians, who were 
in pursuit of the stragglers from the campaign. The Indians and 
white men discovered each other about the same moment. 

Lewis fired first and killed an Indian ; the fire from the In- 
dians wounded Mills in the heel ; he was soon overtaken and 
killed. Four of the Indians then singled out, dropped their guns, 
and pursued Wetsel. Wetsel loaded his rifle as he ran. After 
running about half a mile, one of the Indians having got within 
eight or ten steps of him, Wetsel wheeled round and shot him 
down, ran and loaded his gun as before. After going about 
three-quarters of a mile farther a second Indian came so close to 
him that when he turned to fire the Indian caught the muzzle 
of his gun, and as he expressed it " He and the Indian had a 
severe wring." He however succeeded in bringing the muzzle to 
the Indian's breast and killed him on the spot. By this time he, 
as well as the Indians, were pretty well tired ; the pursuit was 
continued by the two remaining Indians. Wetsel, as before, 
loaded his gun and stopped several times during this latter chase ; 
when he did so the Indians tree'd themselves. After going some- 
thing more than a mile Wetsel took advantage of a little open 
piece of ground over which the Indians were passing, a short 
distance behind him, to make a sudden stop for the purpose of 
shooting the foremost, who got behind a little sapling which was 
too small to cover his body. Wetsel shot and broke his thigh. 
The wound, in the issue, proved fatal. The last of the Indians 
then gave a little yell and said, " No catch dat man, gun always 
loaded," and gave up the chase, glad, no doubt, to get off with 
his life. 

It is said that Lewis Wetsel, in the course of the Indian wars 
in this part of the country, killed twenty-seven Indians, besides 
a number more along the frontier settlements of Kentucky. 

232 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The Struggle of Adam Poe. 1 

In the summer of 1782 a party of seven Wyandots made an 
incursion into a settlement some distance below Fort Pitt, and 
several miles from the Ohio river. Here finding an old man alone 
in a cabin they killed him, packed up what plunder they could 
find and commenced their retreat. Amongst their party was a 
celebrated Wyandot chief who, in addition to his fame as a war- 
rior and counsellor, was as to his size and strength a real giant. 

The news of the visit of the Indians soon spread through the 
neighborhood, and a party of eight good riflemen was collected, 
in a few hours, for the purpose of pursuing the Indians. In this 
party were two brothers of the names of Adam and Andrew Poe. 
They were both famous for courage, size and activity. This little 
party commenced the pursuit of the Indians with a determination, 
if possible, not to suffer them to escape, as they usually did on 
such occasions by making a speedy flight to the river, crossing it, 
and then dividing into small parties, to meet at a distant point, 
in a given time. 

The pursuit was continued the greater part of the night 
after the Indians had done the mischief. In the morning the 
party found themselves on the trail of the Indians, which led to 
the river. When arrived within a little distance of the river 
Adam Poe, fearing an ambuscade, left the party, who followed 

i This was Andrew Poe's struggle, not Adam's, says McKnight's " Our 
Western Border," which contains an account of this fight written by Simpson 
R. Poe, of Ravenna, Ohio, grandson of Andrew. It does not differ materially 
from the Doddridge story. But Dr. Doddridge got the two Poes mixed. The 
larger of the two Indians was named Big Foot. Andrew Poe was first of 
the two brothers to settle west of the mountains, about 1763. Both were 
natives of Frederick county, Maryland. Andrew was born Sept. 30, 1742, 
and Adam six years later. After acquiring some means by working in Pitts- 
burgh, Andrew bought a farm on Harmon's Creek, in Washington county, 
about 12 miles back from the Ohio, where half a dozen years later he was 
joined bv Adam, who also bought a farm there. Adam Poe died Sept. 23, 
1838, and was buried three miles north of Massillon, Stark county, Ohio. 
Andrew Poe died in 1823 and is buried at Mill Creek, Beaver county, Pa. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 233 

directly on the trail, to creep along the brink of the river bank, 
under cover of the weeds and bushes, to fall on the rear of the 
Indians, should he find them in ambuscade. He had not gone 
far before he saw the Indian raft at the water's edge. Not 
seeing any Indians he stepped softly down the bank with his rifle 
cocked. When about half way down he discovered the large 
Wyandot chief and a small Indian within a few steps of him. 
They were standing with their guns cocked, and looking in the 
direction of our party, who by this time had gone some distance 
lower down the bottom. Poe took aim at the large chief, but his 
rifle missed fire. The Indians hearing the snap of the gun lock, 
instantly turned round and discovered Poe, who, being too near 
them to retreat, dropped his gun and instantly sprang from the 
bank upon them, and seizing the large Indian by the cloths on his 
breast, and at the same time embracing the neck of the small one, 
threw them both down on the ground, himself being uppermost. 
The smaller Indian soon extricated himself, ran to the raft, got his 
tomahawk, and attempted to dispatch Poe, the large Indian hold- 
ing him fast in his arms with all his might, the better to enable his 
fellow to effect his purpose. Poe, however, so well watched the 
motions of the Indian that when in the act of aiming his blow at 
his head, by a vigorous and well directed kick with one of his feet 
he staggered the savage and knocked the tomahawk out of his 
hand. This failure on the part of the small Indian was reproved 
by an exclamation of contempt from the large one. 

In a moment the Indian caught up his tomahawk again, 
approached more cautiously, brandishing his tomahawk and mak- 
ing a number of feigned blows in defiance and derision. Poe, 
however, still on his guard, averted the real blow from his head, 
by throwing up his arm and receiving it on his wrist on which 
he was severely wounded; but not so as to lose entirely the use 
of his hand. 

In this perilous moment Poe, by a violent effort, broke loose 
from the Indian, snatched up one of the Indian's guns and shot 
the small Indian through the breast as he ran up the third time 
to tomahawk him. 

234 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The large Indian was now on his feet, and grasping Poe by 
a shoulder and leg threw him down on the bank. Poe instantly 
disengaged himself and got on his feet. The Indian then seized 
him again and a new struggle ensued, which, owing to the slippery 
state of the bank, ended in the fall of both combatants into the 
water. In this situation it was the object of each to drown the 
other. Their efforts to effect their purpose were continued for 
some time with alternate success, sometimes one being under the 
water and sometimes the other. Poe at length seized the tuft of 
hair on the scalp of the Indian, with which he held his head under 
the water until he supposed him drowned. Relaxing his hold too 
soon, Poe instantly found his gigantic antagonist on his feet 
again, and ready for anothe'r combat. In this they were carried 
into the water beyond their depth. In this situation they were 
compelled to loose their hold on each other and swim for mutual 
safety. Both sought the shore to seize a gun and end the contest 
with bullets. The Indian being the best swimmer reached the 
land first. Poe, seeing this, immediately turned back into the water 
to escape, if possible, being shot, by diving. Fortunately the 
Indian caught up the rifle with which Poe had killed the other 

At this juncture Andrew Poe, missing his brother from the 
party, and supposing from the report of the gun which he shot, 
that he was either killed or engaged in conflict with the Indians,- 
hastened to the spot. On seeing him Adam called out to him to 
" Kill the big Indian on shore." But Andrew's gun, like that of 
the Indian, was empty. The contest was now between the white 
man and the Indian, who should load and fire first. Very for- 
tunately for Poe, the Indian, in loading, drew the ramrod from 
the thimbles of the stock of the gun with so much violence that 
it slipped out of his hand and fell a little distance from him ; he 
quickly caught it up and rammed down his bullet. This little 
delay gave Poe the advantage. He shot the Indian as he was 
raising his gun to take aim at him. As soon as Andrew had shot 
the Indian he jumped into the river to assist his wounded brother 
to shore; but Adam, thinking more of the honor of carrying the 
big Indian's scalp home, as a trophy of victory, than of his own 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 235 

safety, urged Andrew to go back and prevent the struggling 
savage from rolling himself into the river and escaping. Andrew's 
solicitude for the life of his brother prevented him from com- 
plying with this request. 

In the meantime the Indian, jealous of the honor of his 
scalp, even in the agonies of death, succeeded in reaching the river 
and getting into the current, so that his body was never obtained. 

An unfortunate occurrence took place during this conflict. 
Just as Andrew arrived at the top of the bank, for the relief of 
his brother, one of the party who had followed close behind him, 
seeing Adam in the river and mistaking him for a wounded In- 
dian, shot at him and wounded him in the shoulder. He, how- 
ever, recovered from his wounds. During the contest between 
Adam Poe and the Indians the party had overtaken the remaining 
six of them. A desperate conflict ensued, in which five of the 
Indians were killed. Our loss was three men killed and Adam 
Poe severely wounded. 

Thus ended this Spartan conflict, with the loss of three val- 
iant men on our part and with that of the whole of the Indian 
party with the exception of one warrior. 1 • Never, on any occa- 
sion, was there a greater display of desperate bravery, and seldom 
did a conflict take place which, in the issue, proved fatal to so 
great a proportion of those engaged in it. 

i One of the men slain was John Cherry. This fight occurred at the 
mouth of Tomlinson Run. Seven Wyandots. three of whom were sons of 
Dunquat, the Wyandot half-king — one of these three being Scotosh — were on 
a foray south of the Ohio. They took Philip Jackson, while at work in his 
flax field on Harman's creek, in Washington county. The Indians knew him 
to be a carpenter, and designed using him to build houses for them. But 
his capture was seen by his son, who fled nine miles to Fort Cherry, on Little 
Raccoon creek, and told there what had happened. A rescue party set out 
next morning. It consisted of John Jack, John Cherry, Adam Poe, Andrew 
Poe, Wm. Castleman, William Rankin and James Whitacre. They rode in a 
gallop direct to the mouth of Tomlinson's Run, above which, at the top of the 
hill, they tied their horses, and descended cautiously to the river bank. At 
the mouth of the stream were five Indians with their prisoners preparing to 
cross the Ohio. John Cherry fired the first shot at them, and was himself 
killed by the return fire. Four of these five Indians were killed, and Jackson 
was rescued without injury. It was here and at this time that Andrew Poe 
had his famous encounter in the water with two Indians — two of these seven 
who at the moment happened to be some distance from the other five. An- 
drew Poe killed one and his brother Adam the other. Scotosh was the only 
one of the seven Indians who escaped. " John Cherry was," says Hassler's 
" Old Westmoreland," " a man of great popularity, and a natural leader on 
the frontier." " His body was carried home on a horse and buried in the old 
Cherry graveyard in Mt. Pleasant township," says Simpson. 

236 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The fatal issue of this little campaign, on the side of the 
Indians, occasioned an universal mourning among the Wyandot 
nation. The big Indian, with his four brothers, all of whom were 
killed at the same place, were amongst the most distinguished 
chiefs and warriors of their nation. The big Indian was mag- 
nanimous as well as brave. He, more than any other individual, 
contributed by his example and influence to the good character 
of the Wyandots for lenity towards their prisoners. He would 
not suffer them to be killed or ill treated. This mercy to captives 
was an honorable distinction in the character of the Wyandots, 
and was well understood by our first settlers, who, in case of 
captivity, thought it a fortunate circumstance to fall into their 

It is consoling to the historian to find instances of those en- 
dowments of mind which constitute human greatness even among 
savages. Their original stamina of those endowments, or what 
it called genius, are but thinly scattered over the earth, and there 
can be but little doubt that the lower grades of society 
possess their equal proportion of the basis of moral greatness ; or, 
in other words, there is as much of native genius, in proportion 
to numbers, among savages, as there is among civilized people. 
The difference between these two extremes of society is merely 
the difference of education. This view of human nature, philo- 
sophically correct, is well calculated to increase the benevolence, 
even of the good Samaritan himself, and encourage his endeavors 
for the instruction of the most ignorant and the reformation of 
the most barbarous. 

Had the aborigines of our country been possessed of science 
to enable them to commit to the faithful page of history the 
events of their intercourse with us, since the discovery and settle- 
ment of their native land by the Europeans, what would be the 
contents of this history? Not such as it is from the hands of 
our historians, who have presented nought but the worst features 
of the Indian character, as exhibited in the course of their wars 
against the invaders of their country, while the wrongs inflicted 
on them by civilized men have occupied but a very small portion 
of the record. Their sufferings, their private virtues, their 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 237 

bravery and magnanimity in war, all individual instances of great- 
ness of mind, heroism, and clemency to captives, in the midst of 
the cruelties of their barbarous warfare, must soon be buried 
with themselves in the tomb of their national existence. 

The Affair of the Johnsons. 

The following narrative goes to show that the long con- 
tinuance of the Indian war had inspired even the young lads of 
our country not only with all the bravery but even the sub- 
tlety of the Indians themselves. 

In the fall of the year 1793 two boys of the name of John 
and Henry Johnson, the first thirteen and latter eleven years 
old, whose parents lived in Carpenter's station, a little dis- 
tance above the mouth of Short creek, on the west side of the 
Ohio river, were sent out in the evening to hunt the cows. 
At the foot of the river hill, at the back of the bottom, they 
sat down under a hickory tree to crack nuts. After some time 
they saw two men coming towards them, one of whom had a 
bridle in his hand ; being dressed like white men they mistook 
them for their father and an uncle in search of horses. When 
they discovered their mistake and attempted to run off the 
Indians, pointing their guns at them, told them to stop or they 
would kill them. They halted and were taken prisoners. 

The Indians, being in pursuit of horses, conducted the 
boys by a circuitous route over the Short creek hills in search 
of them, until, late in the evening, they halted at a spring in a 
hollow place about three miles from the fort. Here they 
kindled a small fire, cooked and ate some victuals, and pre- 
pared to repose for the night. 

Henry, the oldest of the boys, during the ramble had 
affected the greatest satisfaction at having been taken prisoner. 
He said his father was a hard master, who kept him always 
at hard work, and allowed him no play ; but that for his part 

238 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

he wished to live in the woods and be a hunter. This deport- 
ment soon brought him into intimacy with one of the Indians, 
who could speak very good English. The Indian frequently 
asked the boys if they knew of any good horses : running in 
the woods. Sometime before they halted one of the Indians 
gave the largest of the boys a little bag, which he supposed 
contained money, and made him carry it. 

When night came on the fire was covered up, the boys 
pinioned and made to lay down together. The Indians then 
placed their hoppis straps 1 over them, and laid down, one on 
each side of them, on the ends of the straps. 

Pretty late in the night the Indians fell asleep, and one 
of them becoming cold caught hold of John in his arms and 
turned him over on the outside. In this situation the boy, 
who had kept awake, found means to get his hands loose; he 
then whispered to his brother, made him get up, and untied 
his arms. This done, Henry thought of nothing but running 
off as fast as possible; but when about to start John caught 
hold of him, saying: 

" We must kill these Indians before we go." 

After some hesitation Henry agreed to make the attempt. 
John then took one of the rifles of the Indians and placed it on 
a log with the muzzle close to the head of one of them. He 
then cocked the gun and placed his little brother at the breach 
with his finger on the trigger, with instructions to pull it as 
soon as he should strike the other Indian. He then took one 
of the Indian's tomahawks and standing a-straddle of the 
other Indian struck him with it. The blow, however, fell on 
the back of the neck and to one side, so as not to be fatal. The 
Indian then attempted to spring up ; but the little fellow re- 
peated his blows with such force and rapidity on the skull that 
as he expressed it : 

" The Indian laid still and began to quiver." 

t A hoppis-strap was probably the tump-line strap, or burden band, car- 
ried by all Indian hunters and travelers in the early days. It was both used 
to carry burdens and fasten prisoners. Some think it the equivalent of 
hobble-strap, as which it may have been used as necessity required. Straps 
of any kind serve many purposes. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 239 

At the moment of the first stroke given by the elder 
brother with the tomahawk the younger one pulled the trigger 
and shot away a considerable portion of the Indian's lower 
jaw r . This Indian, a moment after receiving the shot, began to 
flounce about and yell in the most frightful manner. The boys 
then made the best of their way to the fort and reached it a 
little before day break. On getting near the fort they found 
the people all up and in great agitation on their account. On 
hearing a woman exclaim, " Poor little fellows, they are 
killed, or taken prisoners," the oldest one answered, " No ! 
mother, we are here yet." 

Having brought nothing away with them from the Indian 
Camp, their relation of what had taken place between them 
and the Indians was not fully credited. A small party was 
soon made up to go and ascertain the truth or falsehood of 
their report. This party the boys conducted to the spot by 
the shortest route. On arriving at the place they found the 
Indian whom the eldest brother had tomahawked lying dead 
in the camp. The other had crawled away and taken his gun 
and shot pouch with him. After scalping the Indian the party 
returned to the fort, and the same day a larger party went out 
to look after the wounded Indian, who had crawled some dis- 
tance from the camp and concealed himself in the top of a 
fallen tree, where, notwithstanding the severity of his wound, 
with a Spartan bravery he determined to sell his life as dearly 
as possible, and having fixed his gun for the purpose, on the 
approach of the men to a proper distance, he took aim at one of 
them and pulled the trigger, but his gun missed fire. On 
hearing the snap of the lock one of the men exclaimed : 

14 I should not like to be killed by a dead Indian." 

The party concluding that the Indian would die at any 
rate thought best to retreat and return and look for him after 
some time. On returning, however, he could not be found, 
having crawled away and concealed himself in some other 
place. His skeleton and gun were found some time afterwards. 

240 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The Indians who were killed were great warriors and very 
wealthy. The bag which was supposed to contain money it 
was conjectured was got by one of the party who went out 
first in the morning. On hearing the report of the boys he 
slipped off by himself and reached the place before the party 
arrived. For some time afterwards he appeared to have a 
greater plenty of money than his neighbors. 

The Indians themselves did honor to the bravery of these 
two boys. After their treaty with Gen. Wayne, a friend of the 
Indians who were killed made inquiry of a man from Short 
creek what had become of the boys who killed the Indians? 
He was answered that they lived at the same place with their 
parents. The Indian replied, " You have not done right. You 
should make kings of those boys." 




By Narcissa Doddridge. 1 

The author of " Doddridge's Notes," the Rev. Dr. Joseph 
Doddridge, was the eldest son of John Doddridge of Maryland, 
of English descent, and of Mary, daughter of Col. Richard 
Wells, of the same state. He was born Oct. 14, 1769, in 
Friend's Cove, a valley situated a few miles south of the town 
of Bedford, in Bedford county, Pennsylvania. His father hav- 

* Miss Narcissa Doddridge, author of this memoir, died in January, 

1874, two years prior to publication of the second edition of these " Notes." 

She was the eldest daughter of John and Mary 

Wells Doddridge, and was born at Wellsburg, 

Brooke Co., Virginia, April 7th, 1796. 

She is remembered as a woman of superior intel- 
lect and strength of character, with a quiet, 
thoughtful nature. She looked upon life seriously, 
even as a child. Never marrying, she gave her life 
to the service of humanity, particularly to her fam- 
ily and those nearest her.' The beauty of her gener- 
ous personality made a lasting impression upon all 
who knew her. 

Virginia in the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury demanded much of its women, many of whose 
names have been recorded in history. Narcissa 
Doddridge realized the needs of the times, and 
exerted her efforts to make life more worth living 
in the colony of new settlers in the new world. 
The pioneers of that period had limited means of 
narcissa doddridge. support, and required assistance and direction from 
those of wider experience in the unknown country. 
This noble woman seemed to grasp the situation by reason of her large 
vision, and although never aggressive, or self assertive, she radiated a 
memorable influence for good in the community in which she lived. 

Dr. Doddridge and his daughter were closely united in affection. In his 
declining years she devoted herself to care of him with the utmost tender- 
ness and loyalty. She inherited marked literary ability and fine personal 
characteristics from her distinguished father. 

Her years passed in the fulfillment of opportunities at hand while her 
varied talents and ambitions lay dormant under the exactions of domestic 
routine. Her friends were well aware that she was fitted for position in 
a wider social circle and a higher sphere of life, and those who had the 
privilege of intimacy regarded her as a woman of unusual gifts and at the 
same time a friend gracious and loyal, with warm affections. She was 
interested in the progress of her age, and the cause of temperance had in 
her an ardent advocate, who never neglected an opportunity in its behalf. 
Her valued work in this direction can only be alluded to here, while her name 
deserves to be spoken reverently by all who labor in and sympathize with 
this great service for mankind. ' 

In later vears Miss Doddridge resided in Wellsburg, Virginia, in the old 
homestead that her father had bequeathed to her. After a long illness, she 
died, January 30th, 1874, and was buried beside her father in the Brooke 


244 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

ing lost his estate in Bedford county, by neglecting to com- 
plete his title to a settlement right, in the spring of 1773 re- 
moved to the western part of Washington county, Pennsyl- 
vania, settling a short distance east of the line which divides 
that state from Virginia. 1 

Thus in the fourth year of his age the subject of this memoir 
became a resident of the western country, then an immense 
wilderness, and the greater part of it in the possession of its 
native inhabitants, the Indians. The opportunities afforded by 
his early and continued association with the pioneer settlers, 
assisted by a habit of close observation, a tenacious memory, 
and the interest he took in gathering up incidents indicative 
of the times and illustrative of the character of those among 
whom he lived, preeminently qualified him for giving an im- 
partial and correct description of the country at its first set- 
tlement, as well as a truthful account of the manners, customs 
and wars of those who with himself labored to transform into 
fruitfulness and beauty its interminable forests. 

From the picture which he has presented of the society 
in which he was reared we may justly conclude that his facili- 
ties for obtaining an education were very limited, and that to 
his own energy and perseverance he was mainly indebted for 
whatever intellectual culture he possessed. His views of life, 
its purposes and its duties, were just and liberal, drawn as 
they were from the Bible, general experience and observation* 
Regarding man as accountable to his creator for the due im- 
provement and practical exercise of the talents committed 
to him, he endeavored by a life of active usefulness and uni- 
form Christian effort to discharge his obligations to God and 
his fellow men. 

Leaving his mother before he was eight years of age, his 
father sent him to Maryland to school, where he remained 
some years. After his return, until he attained the age of 
eighteen years, he was mostly occupied in labors on the farm. 
His father, a strict disciplinarian in the training and govern- 

i See " The Doddridge Family," elsewhere. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 245 

ment of his family, was a member of the Wesleyan Methodist 
society, then in its infancy, and differing but little in its doc- 
trines and public ritual from the Church of England, to which 
he had been attached in his native state. He was a man of 
intelligence and remarkable for firmness and decision of char-: 
acter, qualities which, as they were always exerted in favor 
of morality and religion, rendered his influence in the neighbor- 
hood in which he resided decidedly healthful and salutary. 
Shortly after identifying himself with the settlers in Washing- 
ton county, he erected on his own premises a house for public 
worship, designed also for educational purposes. This me- 
mento of his piety and the interest he took in the moral and 
intellectual improvement of those around him is yet standing, 
though in a dilapidated condition, still retaining its original 
cognomen, Doddridge's Chapel. 2 

All the children of Mr. Doddridge's first marriage, viz : 
Joseph, Philip, Ann and Ruth, were at an early day brought 
under the influence of religious truth, and became members of 
the adopted church of their father. Joseph, the subject of this 
notice, according to the reminiscences furnished the writer 
by the Hon. Thomas Scott, late of Chillicothe, Ohio, labored 
several years as an itinerant in the Wesleyan Society. Mr. 
Scott, who was at the period referred to a traveling preacher 
of the Methodist church, says : 

" My acquaintance with the Rev. J. Doddridge commenced 
at the house of Rev. John J. Jacob in Hampshire county, Va., 
in July, 1788. He was then in company with Rev. Francis 
Asbury by whom he was held in high esteem. At a con- 
ference held at Uniontown, Pa., a short time previous, he had 
been received as a traveling preacher in the Wesleyan con- 
nection, was then on his way to the Holston circuit, and sub- 
sequently labored on the West River and Pittsburg circuits." 

i The date of construction of this chapel is unknown. It passed finally 
into possession of the Methodist Episcopal denomination, and was by them 
used for holding services. Later the African Methodist Episcopals used it. 
Then it was taken down and the logs removed to the adjoining McConnell 
farm. The burial ground adjoining the site of this old meeting house is 
still enclosed, but there have been no interments in it for many years. — 
( Crumrine. ) 

246 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

At the request of the Rev. Mr. Asbury he studied the 
German language with a view to preaching in German settle- 
ments. His knowledge of this language, which was thorough, 
he found very useful to him in after life. In April, 1791, he 
.was recalled from his field of labor to attend the death bed of 
his father, who had previously appointed him executor of his 
estate. l The duties thus devolving upon him, together with 
the unprotected situation of his step-mother and the younger 
members of the family, which required his personal super- 
vision, rendered it necessary for him to relinquish his duties 
as an itinerant preacher of the Methodist church, which, as his 
subsequent history will show, were never again resumed. 

After arranging the business entrusted to him by his' de- 
ceased father, rinding some available means at his disposal, he 
resolved to qualify himself more thoroughly for the respon- 
sible calling which he had chosen, by devoting a portion of 
time to the acquisition of learning, more particularly to per- 
fecting himself in a knowledge of languages ; his education 
thus far having been prosecuted under disadvantageous cir- 
cumstances. Accordingly he entered Jefferson Academy at 
Canonsburg, Pa. His brother Philip, who had been from 
childhood associated with him in efforts to acquire know- 
ledge, both laboring by day in -field or forest, and at night 
poring over books at the family hearth stone, became a student 
in the academy at the same time. Philip, who subsequently 
became very eminent as a jurist and a statesman, died in 
1832 at Washington, D. C., while he was a member of con- 

The following extract from a letter written by a Presby- 
terian clergyman, the Rev. Robert Patterson, 2 late of Pitts- 
burgh, shows the estimation in which the brothers were held 
in the institution at Canonsburg. 

i The will of his father, John Doddridge, dated May 14, 1791, is wit- 
nessed by Josiah Reeves, Philip Doddridge, and David (X, his mark) Har- 
riman. — ( Simpson. ) 

2 Rev. Robert Patterson lived when a boy where William Dunlap now 
lives in Cross Creek township. He was a son of Rev. Joseph Patterson. He 
died in 1854, aged 81 years. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 247 

Green Tree P. O., near Pittsburg, June, 1850. 
It affords me pleasure to comply with your request respecting my early 
acquaintance with the Rev. Dr. Doddridge for whose memory I cherish the 
most profound regard. From 1791 until 1794 I was a student in Jefferson 
academy. During a portion of this time Dr. Doddridge was there. We 
were room mates, boarding in the family of Rev. Mr. Mercer. David John- 
son, tne principal, and the students generally, as is usual in literary institu- 
tions, soon determined the grade of his intellect, his moral character and his 
personal worth ; and none, during my connection with the academy, stood 
higher than he in the estimation of those who knew him. Being his senior 
in years and science it was sometimes my privilege to give him explanations 
and help him through knotty passages in his lessons, in doing which I soon 
discovered that it was not necessary to tell him the same thing twice, so re- 
tentive and comprehensive was his. mind. His brother Philip was a student 
with him at the same time. Both of them were remarkable for original 
genius, intellectual strength, and close investigation of any subject that came 
before them. These qualities, combined with ingenuous, amiable dispositions 
and uprightness of deportment, endeared them to all who had the pleasure 
of knowing them. 

It was probably about this time that the subject of this 
memoir resolved to take orders in the Protestant Episcopal 
church. This determination was not, we presume, the result 
of any diminution of his regard for the society with which he 
had been previously connected ; for through life he manifested 
a warm attachment to that people, treated their ministers 
with the greatest courtesy and hospitality, and was ever ready 
to testify to their zealous and self-denying labors in the cause 
of their Lord and Master. In the absence of any direct infor- 
mation as to the cause of his withdrawal we have grounds to 
conclude that as his mind became more matured, and his 
reading more extended, his confidence in the Episcopacy of 
that body was lessened. We are, furthermore, well assured 
that his judgment and preferences were decidedly in favor of 
a precomposed ritual of public worship. The labors subse- 
quently performed by Dr. Doddridge as a member of the 
Episcopal church were so extensive and valuable,. and his devo- 
tion to that church so zealous, that we consider it proper to 
give our readers all the information upon the subject now 

We therefore, in connection with this subject, give his 
views on these points as expressed in a letter written in 1822 
to the Rev. John Waterman, a talented and highly respectable 
clergyman of the Methodist church. The letter was written 
in reply to one from Mr. Waterman, inviting him to attend a 
camp-meeting shortly to be held in the neighborhood of one 
of his parishes, and hinting that if he did not do so he should 

248 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

conclude that he was deterred from so doing by the fear of 
offending a clerical brother who was supposed to hold extreme 
views on the subject of the apostolic succession of the bishops. 

Dear Brother: Your letter inviting me to attend your camp-meeting is 
before me. I should be pleased to meet with you one day at least. But even 
this is uncertain. You live by the altar, I do not. I must depend on my 
medical profession for a support. You are aware that the time of a physi- 
cian is not at his own disposal ***** i certainly would not do anything 
that would bring me into collision with a clerical brother, but not from a 
feeling of fear. I value consistency of character. ***** The first Chris- 
tian service I ever heard was that of the Church of England in Maryland. 

When I was a minister in your society a prayer book was put into my 
hands with an order to use it every Sunday, Wednesday, Friday and Holy- 
day ; also on baptismal and sacramental occasions, which I did. So I may 
say, that in the main the forms of worship I now use have been those of 
my whole life, and I think I shall end as I began. If you have left the 
venerable church of your ancestors, and built an Episcopacy on the priest- 
hood ; if you have laid aside the prayer-book, and become presbyterial in your 
forms of worship, the faults, if any, are not mine. I am truly sorry that 
these events have happened. Glad should I be if we were still one people. 

As to the apostolic succession of the bishops, to which you refer, it is a 
subject to which I have not devoted much attention, and probably never 
shall. The subject for reasons which I have mentioned to you is not agree- 
able to me ; yet I respect the claim and feel satisfied that my ordination has 
descended through so valid and respectable a channel. From this claim, 
however, I will not conclude against the efficacy of the ministry in other 
hands. It is enough for me to know and feel that other societies are Chris- 
tian too. Therefore. I will not curse whom God hath not cursed ; and I am 
willing to join in worship with them, so far as I can do so consistently 
with the duties which I owe to the church of which I am a member. * * * * 

In March, 1792, being then a resident of Pennsylvania, Dr. 
Doddridge was admitted to the order of deacons in the Epis- 
copal church, in Philadelphia, by the Right Rev. Bishop White. 
By the same prelate and in the same city he was in March, 
1800, ordained a priest, having in the interval between his ordi- 
nations removed to Virginia. His reasons for preferring at 
this time to continue under the jurisdiction of Bishop White 
are thus given in a letter to Bishop Moore of Virginia in 1819. 

When I received deacon's orders I lived in Pennsylvania, but previous to 
being admitted to the priesthood, I removed to Virginia. I stated the cir- 
cumstance to Bishop White, at the time, urging that the residence of the 
bishop of Virginia was so far from my own that I could not hold the re- 
quisite correspondence with him without great inconvenience, and also that 
from what I had learned concerning our church in that state, I did not 
think that my uniting with its convention would be in any way satisfactory 
to myself, or beneficial to others ; the church in Virginia having at that 
period little more than a nominal existence. Therefore I preferred re- 
maining in fact, though not canonically, under his jurisdiction. The bishop 
was satisfied with my reasons and accordingly all my communications have 
been made to him. 

To the doctrines and formularies of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church Dr. Doddridge was devotedly attached, regard- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 249 

ing them as promotive of piety and edification. And, although 
for nearly twenty-five years he occupied the cheerless position 
of an advance guard in her ministry, yet he faltered not in 
his labors. The convention which organized the diocese of 
Ohio was held at Columbus in 1818. For twenty years prior 
to that date Dr. Doddridge had been preaching frequently 
at various places in Eastern Ohio, and there formed a number 
of congregations which afterwards became members of the 
diocese of Ohio. 

Early Churches tn North Western Virginia and Ohio. 

We shall now give a brief notice of the congregations 
formed by Dr. Doddridge during the early years of his min- 
istry in the Episcopal church, and our authority for the same. 
We do not find among his papers any indicating that he en- 
tered into written agreements with his parishioners to per- 
form clerical duties continuously from the year 1800. He at- 
tended to such duties continuously from the year 1792, but 
probably, prior to 1800. all his receipts were from voluntary 
contributions, which we may conclude did not amount to 
much, from the fact that a few years after his entrance into 
the ministry he was under the necessity of combining with 
his clerical profession that of medicine in order to obtain a 

His lovely and amiable wife, when speaking of this early 
period of her married life, would playfully say that before her 
husband commenced the practice of medicine he was too poor 
to buy himself a second suit of clothes, and when Saturday 
afternoon intervened he was obliged to remain incognito 
while she adjusted his habiliments for his appearance in the 
pulpit on Sunday. The labor of the laundress as well as the 
skill of the seamstress were frequently called into requisition 
on these occasions, knee breeches and long stockings being 
then in vogue. 

Dr. Doddridge's subscription papers for the year 1800, 
and for some years thereafter, show that in his country par- 
ishes the remuneration promised him for clerical services was 

250 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

to be paid in cash, or wheat delivered in some merchant mill, 
or such other produce as might be agreed upon by the par- 

In Virginia he seems to have found many who desired to 
walk in the " old paths " by worshipping God in the way of 
their fathers. As a matter of interest to their descendants, we 
shall give the names of the supporters of the church in several 
of these parishes built up in the wilderness, as they stand in 
the subscription book of their pastor for the year 1800. From 
these lists may be gleaned some knowledge of the number 
of their descendants who still adhere to the faith of their 
forefathers. They will also show that the number of those in 
the western regions who felt a decided preference for the Epis- 
copal church at that early day was by no means small. 

In the notes furnished the writer by Judge Scott he says : 
<l In the year 1793 Rev. J. Doddridge had three parishes in 
Virginia, viz : West Liberty in Ohio county, St. John's and 
St. Paul's in Brooke county." 

St. John's Church. 

St. John's parish, which is still in existence, was doubtless 
the first one organized by Dr. Doddridge in North Western 
Virginia. As early as '1793 it was provided with a small log 
church, since replaced by a handsome brick edifice. This par- 
ish continued under the charge of its first pastor for nearly 
thirty years, when declining health compelled him to sever a 
relation around which clustered many endearing and fondly 
cherished associations of his youthful and maturer years. 

The names of subscribers in this parish in the year 1800, 
are as follows : 

George Atkinson, John Foster, James Britt, 

Absalom Wells, Abel Johnson, John Crawford, 

Archibald Ellson, William Baxter, John Ellson, 

John Davis, James White, Peter Hay, 

Charles M'Key, George Wells, George Richardson, 

Charles Elliot, George Mahon, Andrew Lackey, 

William Atkinson, Simon Elliot jun., Hugh Lingen, 

John Strong, Simon Elliot, John Hendricks, 

George Swearengen, Daniel Swearengen, Richard T. Ellson, 

William Davis, Anthony Wilcoxen, Israel Swearengen, 

Richard Wells, Andrew Morehead, Richard Ellson, ' 

Asel Owings, Alex. Morrow, Thomas Crawford, 

Andrew Maneally, George Elliot, Jane Morrow. 

Thomas Nicholson, William Lowther, 

John Myers, William Adams, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 251 

Church at West Liberty. 

In the summer of 1792 Dr. Doddridge collected a con- 
gregation at West Liberty, the seat of justice for Ohio county, 
Va. Hon. T. Scott says in his reminiscences of Dr. Doddridge 
that in this place Episcopal services were held in the Court 
House. This parish was much weakened by the removal of 
many of its members to Wheeling when the county seat was 
removed to that place. Dr. Doddridge, however, still held ser- 
vices in West Liberty every third Sunday in the year 1800. 
The supporters of the church in that year were: 

Moses Chapline, Nathan Harding, Isaac Taylor, 

Benjamin Biggs, Charles Tibergein, Thomas Beck, 

Andrew Fout, Ebzy Swearengen, Thomas Wyman, 

Silas Hedges, William Griffith, Stephen G. Francis, 

John Wilson, Christian Foster, William Dement, 

Walter Skinner, Lyman Fouts, Zaccheus Biggs, 

Abraham Roland, Ticy Cooper, Benijah Dement, 

Thomas Dickerson, James Wilson, William Cully, 

John Cully, Jacob Zoll, George G. Dement, 

Nicholas Rogers, John Abrams, John Willius, sen., 

Samuel Beck, John Kirk, ^.William Willius. 

Amount subscribed $98. 

West Liberty, like many other places in the western 
country in the early part of the present century, presented a 
fine opening for Episcopal missionary labor, in the absence of 
which the field has been successfully cultivated by others, and 
at the present period there is probably not an Episcopalian in 
the place. It may not be amiss in this connection to call at- 
tention to the fact that the ritual of the Episcopal church was 
exceedingly popular among the rude pioneers of the west. 
The book of Common Prayer has always been found suited 
to all classes and conditions of mankind. 

St. Paul's Church in Brooke County, Va. 

We have no means of positively ascertaining when this 
primitive structure was erected. We presume, however, that 
it was prior to 1793, as Judge Scott in his reminiscences speaks 
of it as one of the churches of which Dr. Doddridge had charge 
in that year. It was located about five miles east of Charles- 
ton and the Ohio river. The building was of logs, and sur- 
rounded by noble forest trees, amid which in subsequent years 

252 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

might be seen the " narrow houses " of many of those who 
had worshipped within its walls. The list of names in this 
parish for the year 1800 is small, containing only the fol- 

Aaron Robinson, William Hendling, James Robinson,- 

Israel Robinson, John Harris, Peter Mooney. 

Peter Ross, Benedict Wells, 

At a later period St. Paul's was principally sustained by 
the late George Hammond, Esq., and some of his relatives and 
friends, among whom we find the names of Gist, Hood, Craw- 
ford, Wells and others. 

Church in Steubenville, Ohio. 

To David Moody, one of the early settlers of Steubenville, 
the writer is indebted for the following items of information 
respecting the introduction of the Episcopal church in that 
place. He says : " The Rev. Dr. Doddridge was the first 
Christian minister who preached in our little village. As early 
as 1796 he held monthly services in it, his congregation meet- 
ing in a frame building which stood on the south side of Mar- 
ket and Water streets. In 1798 the first court house for the 
county was built, in which an upper room was reserved for 
religious purposes, free to all denominations. In this room the 
Episcopalians met for worship. With some intervals this early 
missionary of the church continued to officiate in Steubenville 
until Dr. Moore took charge of the parish in 1820." 

Trinity Church at Charlestown, now Wellsburg. 

At Charlestown, now Wellsburg, Brooke co., Va., the res- 
idence of Rev. J. Doddridge, Episcopal services in 1800 were 
held in Brooke Academy. This town was at an early period 
of its settlement a stopping place for immigrants from beyond 
the Alleghenies, some of whom became permanent citizens. 
From the number of names attached to the subscription paper 
of Dr. Doddridge for the year 1800 it is inferred that the con- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 253 

gregation was then large. There is now a neat church edifice 
in the place, and notwithstanding numerous removals a few 
families remain who are warmly attached to the church. The 
subscribers for 1800 were as follows : 

Philip Doddridge, A. Green, Oliver Brown, 

Nicholas P. Tillinghast, John T. Windsor, Sebastian Derr, 

Patience Vilettle, Alex. Caldwell, Josias Reeves, 

Elizabeth Taylor, Robt. T. Moore, James Darrow, 

Silas Bent, James H. White, William Thorp, 

John Connel, Robt. H. Johnson, Henry Prather, 

Thomas Hinds, Charles Prather, James Clark, 

Wm. McConnell, Nicholas Murray, John Fling, 

John Bly, Samuel Talman, Thomas Oram. 

In December, 1800, Dr. Doddridge entered into an agree- 
ment with a number of individuals living west of the Ohio, 
to perform the duties of an Episcopal clergyman every third 
Saturday at the house of the widow McGuire. The subscrip- 
tion book, which is dated December 1, 1800, contains the fol- 
lowing names : 

George Mahan, Benj. Doyle, William McConnell, 

William Whitcraft, Joseph Williams, John Scott, 

Eli Kelly, John Long, George Ritchey, 

George Halliwell, Mary McGuire, Moses Hanlon. 

William McColnall, John McKnight, 

John McConnell, Frederick Allbright, 

The little congregation was, we conclude, the germ of the 
present parish of St. James on Cross creek, Jefferson co., Ohio, 
as among the above names we find four of those attached to 
the petition signed by that parish on the 1st of Dec, 1816, 
to be sent to the general convention in 1817, asking leave of 
that body to form a diocese in the western country. These 
names are George Mahan, Wm. McConnell, John McConnell 
and Benj. Doyle. 

We are not acquainted with the gradations by which the 
congregation at the widow McGuire's expanded into the parish 
of St. James, nor how long services were held at her house ; 
but from the pastor's papers we find that from 1814 until his 
resignation in 1823, he remained rector of the parish of St. 
James, the Rev. Intrepid Morse then assuming charge of it in 
connection with that of St. Paul's at Steubenville. That the 
services of Dr. Doddridge were efficient at St. James's church 
is shown by the fact that when the diocese of Ohio was or- 
ganized in 1818 he reported fifty-two communicants, and over 
one hundred baptisms within two years. 

254 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

At Wheeling, Grave Creek, and some other points, were 
many families from Maryland and Eastern Virginia, who hav- 
ing been brought up in the Church of England, now in their 
wilderness homes longed to unite in prayer and praise to God 
in the language of her incomparable liturgy. These people Dr. 
Doddridge visited as often as his other engagements would 
permit, not unfrequently holding service in the open air, the 
stately forest trees being their only surroundings and shelter 
from sun and shower. 

" Ah, why 
Should we, in the world's riper years, neglect 
God's ancient sanctuaries, and adore 
Only among the crowd, and under roofs 
That our frail hands have raised?" 

From several records before us it appears that the few 
Episcopal clergymen in the west at an early period continued 
for many years to keep up a church organization, and intimate 
relations among their people and with each other. These 
meetings were probably appointed for prayer, consultation and 
the mutual edification of ministers and people, and seem to 
have been held semi-annually. The secretary designates them 
as conventions. 

ij. j[« ;jc ij* #}c 

A similar memorandum states that at a meeting of the 
Protestant Episcopal clergy held in St. Thomas's Church in 
Washington country in 1810 it was resolved, That Rev. Dr. 
Doddridge do open a correspondence with the Rt. Rev. Bishop 
White of Philadelphia for the purpose of obtaining through 
him permission from the general convention to form a diocese 
in the western country. From another source we learn that 
the object of the memorialists at this time was to unite the 
western counties of Pennsylvania, Western Virginia and the 
state of Ohio in one diocese. 

Dr. Doddridge was an indefatigable laborer and while 
buoyed up by the hope that his efforts for promoting the in- 
terests of the Episcopal church in the western country would 
be seconded by the zeal and ministrations of missionary breth- 
ren from beyond the Alleghenies, he exerted himself to visit 
and 'cheer desponding members of the same faith at widely 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 255 

distant points. But alas ! they were doomed to bitter disap- 
pointment. Their appeals were vain. No missionaries came, 
and those who ardently desired for themselves and families 
the formula of the church to which they had been attached 
in earlier days and more favored localities, were compelled 
to join other communions or live and die without the ordi- 
nances of the gospel. 

After his removal to Virginia in 1800 Dr. Doddridge ex- 
tended his missionary operations into the north western 
territory. His reasons for so doing are thus given in a letter 
to the bishop of Virginia. 

With a view to the attainment of an Episcopacy in this country as early 
as possible, my clerical labors have of late years been mostly in the state of 
Ohio, conceiving that that object would be more speedily accomplished by 
forming congregations in a state in which there was no bishop, than by 
doing the same thing in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia in 
each of which states there is a diocesan. 

St. Thomas's church in St. Clairsville, Belmont county, 
Ohio, was brought into existence in 1813 by the removal of 
some of Dr. Doddridge's former parishioners to that place, 
to whom he made occasional visits. Some years later, how- 
ever, he held monthly services there, and also at Morristown, 
ten miles distant, where he had organized a congregation. The 
parish of St. Thomas was represented in the first annual con- 
vention of the diocese of Ohio by John Carter as a lay dele- 
gate. In the same convention St. Peter's church at Morris- 
town was represented by Walter Thrall as a lay delegate. 
About the same period Dr. Doddridge began preaching at 
Zanesville, Ohio, and soon organized a parish there of which 
he was rector in 1818. This parish was represented in the 
first convention by John Matthews as lay delegate. Ten 
churches were represented in the first annual convention of 
the diocese of Ohio, of which four had been organized by the 
missionary labors of Dr. Doddridge, and this while he had 
charge of several parishes in Virginia, and was extensively 
engaged in the practice of medicine. 

256 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

In many of the places which he visited in his various 
missionary excursions he left the nucleus of congregations 
which, for the want of subsequent spiritual nurture, never ex- 
panded into active life. If a proper supply of missionaries 
could have been had, there might now be ten Episcopal 
churches in Ohio where there is one. As a minister of the 
cross Dr. Doddridge was untiring in his exertions, his ser- 
vices on such occasions generally averaging two per day and 
often more. 

Dr. Doddridge's correspondence with his clerical breth- 
ren was extensive, and we regret that our limits will admit 
of but a small portion of it. We select from numerous others 
a letter to Bishop White, as possessing special historical in- 
terest, inasmuch as it gives a synopsis of the religious aspect 
of the country, his reasons for desiring an Episcopal organiza- 
tion, at an early period of its settlement, and his efforts to 
effect that object. 

This letter is dated Wellsburg, Dec. 14, 1818. It expresses 
grief over the decision of Bishop White and the standing com- 
mittee that no missionaries could be sent to the west, but ad- 
mits dissipation of uneasiness over the prospect of failure to 
obtain an episcopacy in the west. Then Dr. Doddridge pro- 
ceeds to frankly explain to the bishop the religious state of 
the western country, and to set forth the laxity of the Episco- 
pal authorities in missionary work, saying: 

To the Presbyterians alone we are indebted for almost the whole of our 
literature. They began their labors at an early period of the settlement of 
the country, and have extended their ecclesiastical and educational establish- 
ments so as to keep pace with the extension of our population ; with a 
Godly care which does them honor. 

Were it not for the herculean labors of the Methodist society, many of 
our remote settlements would have been at this day almost in a state of 
barbarism. There is scarcely a single settlement in the whole extent of the 
western countrj vhich has not been blessed with the ministry of this people. 
To this ministry the public morality and piety are immensely indebted. 

With the Anabaptists I am but little acquainted, but have been informed 
that their establishments are respectable. The settlements and meeting- 
houses of the Friends in the state of Ohio are numerous and in a flourishing 

The Roman Catholic clergy, without making any ostentatious parade, are 
traversing every part of the country, carrying the ministry to almost every 
family of their people. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 257 

All these communities, as to every thing belonging to apostolic zeal for 
the salvation of men, have certainly gone far beyond ourselves. They have 
not waited for a request from their people for spiritual help ; but have gone 
into the " hedges and highways," or to use a more appropriate phraseology 
into the " bush and woods " to seek for them ; and their labors have been 
for the most part marked with a degree of disinterestedness which entitles 
their clergy to highest credit. ***** 

It is to be regretted that the Calvinists in this country are cleft into many 
divisions and that they are as Jews and Samaritans towards each other. 

I formerly indulged the hope that the Methodist society would, sooner or 
later, in obedience to the order of their spiritual father, adopt the use of the 
service book which he gave them, and that with the increase of their number 
and wealth, they would found literary institutions, so as to associate science 
with their zeal in the public ministry of the gospel. This hope may yet be 

One serious objection, in my opinion, applies to all the religious denomina- 
tions in this country — the want of established forms of public worship. My 
zeal for their introduction will Jiot be considered a zeal without knowledge, 
when it is remembered that, until the Reformation, the Christian world 
knew no other, and that even the present exceptions to the practice in this 
respect are on a very limited scale. The public reading of the scriptures 
and the participation of the people in the public offices of devotion, are cer- 
tainly matters of the highest importance to the edification, faith and piety 
of all. 

To some extent the aspect of the religious profession in the western 
country, as to its intrinsic character, is by no means such as I think it 
ought to be. In many instances, it is not that of the steady exercise of 
faith, hope and charity, exemplified by a constant succession of good deeds ; 
but that of a certain routine of supernatural feelings in which science, faith, 
and moral virtue, have little to do. Private instruction, and it is to be 
feared private devotion, also, have been partially laid aside for public pro- 
fession and the exhibition of enthusiastic raptures, which certainly have 
for their ultimate object the making of proselytes. In some parts, a pro- 
fession of supernatural feelings of a particular stamp and configuration in 
conformity to the respective models furnished by different societies constitute 
the larger amount of the claims of the applicant to church membership and 
the ministry. 

What a misfortune that a test purporting to be of so much importance, 
and yet so equivocal and delusive, so favorable to hypocrisy, should have 
been so extensively adopted by societies in which there is certainly much of 
real piety. 

As a patriot, as well as an Episcopalian, I wished for that system of 
Christian doctrine, those forms of worship, and that form of ecclesiastical 
government, which bear the impress of the primitive ages, and which, of 
course, are best for this world as for the next. For the spiritual 
benefit of the many thousands of our Israel here I was most anxious for the 
organization of the Episcopal church in this country at an early period of 
its settlement. 

All my endeavors to obtain these objects were unsuccessful. From year 
to year I have witnessed the plunder of our people to increase the number 
and build the churches of societies, in my view, less valuable than their 

How often have these people said to me in the bitterness of their hearts, 
" must we live and die without baptism for our children, and without the 
sacrament for ourselves?" 

258 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The great stales of Kentucky and Tennessee have been, for the most part, 
settled by the descendants of members of the Church of England. Not one 
in a thousand of these people have, to this day. ever heard the voice of 
a clergyman of their own church, but they have heard those of every other 
denomination. Hence it results that by far the greater number of these 
people are lost to us forever. 

The course I have pursued for the attainment of an Episcopacy in this 
country is partially known to you. The treatment of which I spoke to 
the Rev. Mr. Johnson — alluded to in your letter, shall be frankly stated, 
and I trust for the last time. As I have never asked for promotion in the 
church nor received any emolument from it these subjects of complaint 
are of little importance to myself. In proportion as they bear the aspect of 
negligence on the part of the fathers of the church to the spiritual interests 
of our people in these immense regions, they have been subjects of deep 
regret to me, and but little so on any other account. 

When, in 1810, the few Episcopal clergymen in this country made ap- 
plication through you, to the general convention, to be associated together 
in a separate diocese, we confidently expected that, as our situation so evi- 
dently required the arrangement, it would be made. We never received 
the slightest information respecting the fate of our petition until the ar- 
rival of a clergyman at my house from Philadelphia, whose name I do not 
now recollect — in 1812, about eighteen months after the session of the general 
convention in which the subject had been agitated. The issue of the busi- 
ness blasted our hopes. From that time our intercourse with each other 
became less frequent than it ever had been before ; our ecclesiastical affairs 
fell into a state of languor, and one of our clergymen, wearied with disap- 
pointment, and seeing no prospect of any event favorable to the prosperity 
of the church, relinquished the ministry. 

I kept my station, cheerless as it was, without hope of doing anything 
beyond keeping together a few of my parishioners during my own life time, 
after which, as I supposed, they and their descendants must attach them- 
selves to such societies as they might think best. 

Such was the gloomy and unpleasant prospect before me. How often, 
during these years of hopeless despondency and discouragement, have I 
said to myself, Is there not a single clergyman of my profession, of a zeal- 
ous and faithful spirit, who would accept tne holy and honorable office of 
a chorea episcopus for my country, and find his reward in the exalted pleas- 
ures of an approving conscience in gathering in the lost sheep of our 
Israel, and planting churches in this new world? Is there not one of 
our bishops possessed of zeal and hardihood enough to induce him to cross 
the Allegheny mountains and engage in this laudable work? Year after 
year answered these questions in the negative. 

You may judge how strange it appeared to me to see the annual state- 
ments of the contributions of my Atlantic brethren to Bible societies and 
other institutions for propagating the gospel in foreign countries, while no 
concern was expressed or measures adopted for the spiritual relief of their 
own people, in their own country, who were perishing for lack of know- 

Meantime other ecclesiastical societies here were blessed with the pres- 
ence and ministrations of their Episcopal fathers, while, to this day, this 
country has never been favored with the presence of a bishop of our church, i 

i In the year 1824, Bishop White made an attempt to visit the western 
country, but an accident on the road prevented his coming farther than 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 259 

We claim, and as I hope justly, the apostolic succession, but where, I 
ask, is our apostolic zeal for the salvation of mankind? While the Roman 
Catholic missionaries for the society de propaganda, as well as those of other 
denominations, are traversing the most inhospitable climes, encountering 
every difficulty, privation and danger for the laudable purpose of making 
converts to the Christian faith, will the spiritual fathers of our church never 
leave the temples erected by the piety of their fore-fathers to visit 
and administer to the spiritual wants of their destitute people even in their 
own country? 

I beseech you, my friend and brother, not to consider any thing in this 
letter as dictated by a spirit of asperity, or the chagrin of disappointment. 
The statements I make proceed from the anguish of my heart, and truth 
compels me to say, that fortunately for the Christian world, but to the 
disgrace of our community, such an instance of the utter neglect of the spiri- 
tual interests of so many people, so near at hand, and for so long a contin- 
uance, is without a parallel in the whole history of the Christian church. 

When, about three years ago, I heard through indirect channels, some 
favorable reports concerning the prospects and the extension of the Episco- 
pal church in the eastern states, I determined to make one more effort, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of planting churches to the 
westward. Accordingly, in the autumn of 1815, I made a missionary tour 
in the interior of the state of Ohio, going as far as Chillicothe, where I 
held divine service twice. I also officiated both going and returning in 
nearly all the intermediate towns between that place and my place of resi- 
dence. The prospect which this service presented was not discouraging. 
In almost every place I found skeletons of Episcopal congregations. 

The year following, in Oct., 1816, according to an agreement made 
with the Rev. James Kilbourn, at my house a few weeks previous, I went 
to Worthington, Ohio. During the tour I officiated eighteen times. The 
proceedings of our meeting at that place are known to you. The commu- 
nications which I made to you and Bishop Hobart at that time concerning 
them were never answered. 

L.ast week I made a tour of six days in the southern parts of Belmont and 
Monroe counties, Ohio, during which I officiated seven times and formed 
one congregation — in the latter county — in which I baptized thirty child- 
ren, and had it not been that a mistake of one day occurred in the appoint- 
ment, I was informed that the baptisms would have exceeded one hundred. 
Many of these people had been my parishioners previous to removing to 
their present localities, and, together with their neighbors, had delayed the 
baptism of their children, in the hope of receiving that rite from a clergy- 
man of their own church. This occurrence affected me deeply. ***** 

Your brother in Christ, 

Jos. Doddridge. 

Among the papers of Dr. Doddridge we find the copy of 
a letter of six pages addressed to the Rt. Rev. Bishop Hobart, 
written in Wellsburg in Dec., 1816, soon after the meeting at 
Worthington, above alluded to as remaining unanswered. In 
this letter he gives the bishop much information respecting 
the state of religion in the western country, the openings pre- 
sented for Episcopalian missionaries and the anxiety of the 
people for their services, etc., etc. He also speaks of the 
meeting at Worthington, giving their proceedings in detail, 
and in conclusion, " begs his Rt. Rev. brother speedily and 
freelv to communicate to him his remarks on the course thev 

260 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

had taken," adding, " If in any thing we have done amiss, or 
omitted to do any thing we ought to have done, pray let us 
know it." 

The important meeting at Worthington, Ohio, referred to 
in the preceding letter has heretofore been wholly ignored in 
the written history of the Protestant Episcopal church in Ohio. 
In it were initiated the measures which finally resulted in the 
formation of the diocese of Ohio, and the elevation to the 
episcopate of that eminent man Philander Chase, to whose 
active zeal and devotion to the cause of Christ, and Christian 
education, the diocese was indebted in a great measure for its 
early prosperity, and the establishment of one of its noblest 
institutions, Kenyon college. 

We are indebted to Gen. G. H. Griswold of Worthington, 
Ohio, for the following memoranda relative to this conven- 

Worthington, Ohio, June 17, 1861. 

Relative to the convention or meeting of Episcopalians in Ohio, in 1816, 
for the purpose of taking measures to organize a diocese, electing a bishop, 
etc., I can answer ; That such a meeting was held at this place on the 
21st and 22d days of October of that year, which was attended by Rev. 
Dr. Joseph Doddridge of Virginia and Rev. James Kilbourn, at that time I 
believe the only Episcopal clergymen in the west ; also by a number of 
lay delegates of whom I can name but the following ; Ezra Griswold and 
David Prince, who represented the parish at this place, a Mr. Cunningham i 
from near Steubenville, and a Mr. Palmer. The two latter made their 
quarters at cur house. 

This convention, originating with the clergymen before named, was, as 
I understand, the first ever held in Ohio, and from which has arisen what- 
ever of success and importance our church has attained. As I have no copy 
of the proceedings of that convention I cannot inform you what was 
therein done beyond the adoption of a circular, an appeal to the church east 
for help, and some order for further action, or subsequent conventions. 

Dr. Doddridge held services and preached three times at this place, fore- 
noon, afternoon and evening on Sunday, 20th Oct., and went to Columbus 
and preached in the evening of Tuesday 2 2d; myself and a Mr. Goodrich 
were in attendance, at Columbus, from this place. 

Dr. Doddridge was, as I well recollect, very popular with the people, 
and very generally mentioned as probably the future bishop. 

The foregoing facts I got mostly from the records of this parish, some 
old books of my father, and my own private diary kept at the time. My 
residence has been continuous at this place since 1803. 

Miss N. Dodo! ridge. Yours truly, 

G. H. Griswold. 

i Mr. Cunningham was a delegate from the parish of St. James in Jef- 
ferson co., Ohio, but may have represented the parish at Steubenville also. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 261 

This preliminary convention issued a circular addressed 
to the bishops and clergy of the Protestant Episcopal church 
east of the Alleghenies, setting forth in feeling terms the 
destitution of the church in the west, and concluding with the 
very appropriate scriptural invocation, " Come over into Mac- 
edonia and help us." 

Shortly after this circular was issued, petitions, numer- 
ously signed, from the several parishes in Ohio and Virginia, 
asking leave to form a diocese in the western country were 
sent to Bishops White and Hobart to be laid before the gen- 
eral convention at its setting in New York, in the spring of 
the year 1817. Dr. Doddridge received no direct information 
of the action of the convention upon these petitions until 
August, when a letter reached him from Rev. Roger Searle. 

This letter, dated Plymouth, Conn., Aug. 4, 1817, said : 

" With a view to the organization of the church in the state, 
of Ohio, a convention is duly appointed to convene at Colum- 
bus, 5th of January next, and you will have perceived, from 
the' journal of its proceedings, that the provisions of the late 
general convention are such as to have met your wishes, as 
made known by you to the house of bishops and to the bishops 
and. others separately." 

Another letter from Rev. Searle, dated at Zanesville, Dec. 
1., 1817, replying to a communication from Dr. Doddridge, 
dated Nov. 24th, says: 

" I sincerely regret that you did not receive a copy of the 
journal of the proceedings of the late general convention. I 
cannot for a moment entertain the idea that this neglect was a 
matter of design on the part of the bishops and clergy whose 
immediate duty it might have been to forward it to you, 
with other communications regarding the church generally in 
this western country. I should, indeed, have sent you one 
myself without delay, had I not thought you would receive 
several copies through Bishops White, Hobart and others. 
But, my dear friend, I herewith send you one per mail," etc. 

Dr. Doddridge could not but feel deeply wounded by this 
omission to make him acquainted as early as possible with the 

262 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

proceedings of a convention in which it was known that he felt 
the deepest interest. He knew how pressing was the need for 
the organization of a diocese in the west, and that in conse- 
quence of the failure of the effort made in 1810 to obtain an 
Episcopate in the western country, several of the clergy, 
though still faithful to the church, discouraged and hopeless of 
ever seeing their dearest wishes realized, made no exertions 
to extend her borders by forming new congregations. Dr. 
Doddridge, however, had never remitted his efforts, and al- 
though the measures recommended to the general convention 
were, with a few modifications, adopted, his name was not 
mentioned in the convention, no direct reference was made to 
the labors he had performed, and worst of all no official or 
unofficial notice of its action was ever sent to him. This dis- 
courteous treatment of him by the ecclesiastical authorities of 
his church certainly justifies the severe terms in which he 
refers to this subject in his Notes. 

In accordance with the action of the general convention 
the preliminary convention for organizing the diocese of Ohio 
met at Columbus on the 5th of January,' 1818. Owing to the 
want of timely notice, but one of the four parishes organized 
by Dr. Doddridge in Ohio was represented in that body. On 
the evening of the second day John Matthews, from St. 
James's church, Zanesville, appeared and took his seat. In the 
report on the state of the church made to the convention by 
Rev. Philander Chase he stated that in Zanesville he found a 
very respectable congregation of Episcopalians, duly organized 
under the pious and praiseworthy exertions of the Rev. Mr. 
Doddridge. The preliminary convention having organized the 
diocese by the adoption of a constitution and the appointment 
of a standing committee, adjourned to meet at Worthington, 
Ohio, on the 5th of June, 1818. 

The prospect of having, at length, a bishop for the west 
filled the heart of Dr. Doddridge with great joy. He attended 
the first annual convention at Worthington accompanied by 
delegates from the four parishes he had organized in Ohio. 
The lay delegates were admitted without question, but the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 263 

right of Dr. Doddridge to a seat was doubted, and a committee 
of five members appointed to examine and report whether, ac- 
cording to the true interpretation of the canons, he could be 
admitted a member of the convention. The committee after 
due deliberation made the report that, " according to the exist- 
ing canons and resolutions of the last general convention, Dr. 
Doddridge, in his present relative situation, cannot be admitted 
to a seat as a member of this convention " ; also " that he lose 
no time in taking such measures as, under the existing canons 
of the church, are essential to constitute him a member of this 
convention, so that the diocese may more fully profit by his 
labors ; " further, that Dr. Doddridge " be requested to take 
a seat in this convention as an honorary member during the 
remainder of the session." 

Dr. Doddridge appeared in convention and took his seat 
with the clergy. This strict enforcement of a technical con- 
struction of the canons did not at all please him. He thought 
the circumstances of his case were such as to make it un- 
necessary to raise the question. In a letter to a clerical brother 
written soon after the event he says : " When at the conven- 
tion at Worthington, it seemed to me that I was doomed 
to drink the last dregs of the cup of humiliation. Almost the 
first thing that took place after I entered was a lengthy dis- 
cussion on the question of my right to a seat in the conven- 
tion." It must be remembered in this connection that there 
were only four clergy in the convention aside from Dr. Dodd- 
ridge, and that of the four two, viz : Rev. Philander Chase and 
Rev. James Kilbourn, sat for St. John's church, Worthington, 
while Dr. Doddridge represented four flourishing parishes. 
Moreover the very existence of the convention itself was owing 
to measures initiated by him. 

The convention at Worthington on the 4th of June, 1818, 
elected Rev. Philander Chase bishop of the diocese of Ohio. 
Dr. Doddridge not being entitled to vote, but sitting as an 
honorary member in convention, expressed his entire satisfac- 
tion and hearty concurrence in the election of a bishop which 

264 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

had been made. On the next day Dr. Doddridge, by request, 
made his report of the state of the church. 

After the adjournment of the first annual convention of the 
diocese of Ohio, Dr. Doddridge continued his ministration to 
his Ohio congregations with as much regularity as possible. In 
the spring of 1819 he had the satisfaction of being relieved of 
his charge of the parish at Zanesville by the Rev. Intrepid 
Morse, an able and zealous minister. The second annual con- 
vention of the diocese of Ohio met at Worthington on the 
second day of June, 1819. Dr. Doddridge did not attend this 
convention, interesting as the first one presided over by a 
bishop, not yet being entitled to a seat in it. 

The address of the bishop on this occasion was one of rare 
interest as containing a vivid picture of the manner of preach- 
ing the gospel in those early -times. It contained many refer- 
ences to Dr. Doddridge illustrating the character and value of 
the work he performed. 

# # jj; 

The hardships under which the early missionary work 
was carried on required a zeal and faith equal to that of the 
apostolic age of the church. The valuable character of the 
work performed by Dr. Doddridge is shown by the fact that 
the churches were scattered over a territory extensive enough 
for a modern diocese, in a region almost entirely destitute of 
the gospel. 

Some years after Dr. Doddridge had taken orders in the 
Protestant Episcopal church, which, within the bounds of his 
labors furnished him but a meagre support, he found it nec- 
essary, in order to meet the wants of an increasing family, to 
combine with his clerical profession one that would be more 
lucrative in the region in which he lived. He chose that of 
medicine, completing his course of preparation in Philadelphia, 
under Dr. Benjamin Rush. 

Several years previous to this time he had entered into a 
matrimonial connection with Jemima, orphan daughter of Capt. 
John Bukey, who had at an early period of the settlement west. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 265 

emigrated from New Jersey, locating on a farm on Short creek, 
in Ohio county, Virginia. Mr. Bukey died some years after his 
arrival in the country, leaving a wife, three sons and four 
daughters; the youngest of whom, at the age of sixteen, be- 
came the wife of Dr. Doddridge. * Mary, the eldest, married 
Major John M'Colloch, of Short Creek, Virginia. Marcie 
united her destiny with that of Colonel Harman Greathouse, 
late of Kentucky. Two of the sons, John and Hezekiah, at an 
early age, were employed as spies under Captain Samuel 
Brady, of Indian war notoriety. The youngest, Rudolph, while 
yet a youth, settled in Shelby county, Kentucky. 

In the department of medicine Dr. Doddridge was emi- 
nently successful and deservedly popular, and to the avails 
of an extensive but laborious practice he was indebted for the 
means to rear and educate a large family of children. 

That he occupied a high position in the estimation of his 
brethren of the medical fraternity, who had opportunities for 
knowing him well, is unquestionable. One evidence of this 
fact is a certificate under the seal of the Medico-Surgical So- 
ciety of East Ohio — instituted in 1821 — announcing to him that 
" said society, being well convinced of his abilities and scien- 
tific skill, had made him an honorary member of their associa- 
tion." The secretary of the society, in a note enclosing the 
document, says : 

I do not know, dear brother, that the accompanying 1 certificate will be 
acceptable to thee, yet it may, at some future day, serve to remind thee of 
the high esteem in which thee was held by such of thy medical brethren as 
had the best opportunity of judging of thy professional and moral worth. 

Truly thy friend, 

Anderson Judkins. 

While Dr. Doddridge was pursuing his medical studies 
in Philadelphia in the year 1800 he became acquainted with 
some scientific characters, and as we learn from a printed com- 
munication over the signature of Reuben Haines, correspond.- 
ing secretary, he was, " on the 1st day of 12th month, 1812, 
duly elected a corresponding member of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences," in that city. 

i Jemima Bukey was born April 5, 1777. — (Simpson.) 

266 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

He was at an early day initiated into the mysteries of 
masonry, regarding the institution in its fundamental princi- 
ples as imposing on the initiated the obligation practically to 
illustrate in their lives the virtues of faith, hope, charity and 
fraternity, and as being secondary to the Christian religion in 
its meliorating influences upon the human family. 

He was W. M. of the lodge at Wellsburg, Virginia, and 
perhaps of a pioneer lodge at Mingo Towns, l holding a war- 
rant from the grand lodge of Pennsylvania, which charter wa.« 
recalled in 1806, having been extinct some years. 

His conversational powers were of a hi^h order. He was 
easy of access, fond of innocent anecdotes and possessed in an 
eminent degree the tact for adapting his subjects and lar 
guage to the peculiar tastes and capacities of those with whom 
he conversed. 

Ordinarily he was fond of the society of ladies and child- 
ren, saying that men in general were so engrossed with busi- 
ness matters, in which he took but little interest, that they 
could not be induced, for any length of time, to converse on 
any other subject; but the former he could understand and 
sympathize with, and they could mutually interest each other. 

He never departed from that unaffected cordiality of man- 
ner, simplicity of dress, style of living, and generous hospitality 
which characterized the pioneer society in which he had been 
brought, up, and which, in these respects, he considered much 
superior to the code of manners and etiquette of modern 

In his intercourse with his neighbors he was cheerful and 
social, in his habits industrious, temperate and domestic. To 
the gratification of the palate he was indifferent, discounte- 
nancing both by example and precept the indulgence or culti- 
vation of a fastidious appetite. 

When in health he always rose at four o'clock, devoting 
the morning hours to meditation and literature. To those who 
trimmed the midnight lamp and indulged the morning slum- 

i Ti e Mins;o Towns were situated on the Ohio river, three miles below 
the site of the present city of Steubenville. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 267 

ber, he would say in the elegant phraseology of Scripture, why 
do you purchase light, when the good providence of Him who 
said, " Let there be light and there was light," gives you thai 
blessing " without money and without price." 

His benevolence was proverbial, and like that of the good 
Samaritan, was exemplified in acts of kindness to the poor and 
afflicted, to whose relief he liberally contributed of his limitec' 
means ; on some occasions — known to the writer — using his 
own house as a hospital for the sick, who were destitute o' 
friends as well as of funds — where they gratuitously received 
the benefit of his medical skill together with such other appli- 
ances as their comfort and necessities required, until restored 
to health. 

His philanthropic feelings induced him in various ways 
to endeavor to provide employment for the poorer class of la- 
borers around him, in doing which, as he possessed no skill in 
the management of financial matters, and little discrimination 
in his judgment of human character, he very nearly impover- 
ished himself. 

In horticulture and the culture of bees he found an inter- 
esting and agreeable relaxation in his intervals of professional 
labor. His garden and orchard, both of which were well culti- 
vated, added greatly to his home pleasures. The morning carols 
of feathered songsters among the leafy bowers were to him 
sweetest music; and he was often out betimes, as he said, 
mentally to unite with them in offering the matin song of 
praise to the giver of all mercies. He would not allow one of 
these winged tenants to be injured on his grounds, telling his 
children, who sometimes objected to the birds having the nicest 
cherries and other fruits, that " the same good Being who 
provided food and clothing for them, provided also for the little 
birds, and if He sent them to his premises for that provision, 
they must not be molested." And they were not. 

In experimenting with bees, he deviated from the mode 
then prevailing — that of destroying them in order to procure 

268 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

their honey. And his success proved that his views respect- 
ing the economy and habits of these interesting insects were 
not incorrect. 

In 1813 he published a Treatise on the Culture of Bees 
in which he gives a minute description of his apiary, and de- 
tails his plan of treatment of the bees, which was that of colon 
izing them instead of killing them to procure the fruit of their 

* 5JC * , 

The fatigue and exposure to which Dr. Doddridge was 
subjected in his practice of the healing art, unavoidable in a 
new and sparsely settled country, in the lapse of years, grad- 
ually undermined his constitution — not naturally robust — and 
engendered a disease which was at times attended with much 
acute suffering and nervous irritability. 

When laboring under its paroxysms his distress was 
greatly augmented by mental depression, despondency, and a 
morbid sensitiveness ; characteristics entirely foreign to him 
when in health, being then uniformly cheerful, self-reliant and 

His published writings in addition to those already men- 
tioned, were " Logan, the Last of the Race of Shikellimus," a 
dramatic piece, sermons on special subjects, and orations de- 
livered at masonic festivals, and other occasions. In 1825 he 
commenced the Russian Spy, a series of ' letters containing 
strictures on America, and an Indian novel, neither of which 
were completed. 

During the winter of 1824 he arranged and prepared his 
manuscript of the Notes, etc., etc., for the press, but owing to 
ill health he could not give the necessary attention to the cor- 
rection of proof-sheets, consequently many errors were over- 
looked, and on the whole the issue proved to its author an un- 
profitable investment of time and money. 

Early in the fall he started eastward, having in view a 
two-fold object, that of improving his health by travel and the 
disposition of some of his books. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 269 

The letter which follows contains a brief review of his 
journey : 

Bedford, Sept. 24, 1824. 

My Dear Wife : We are here. Our progress has been slow ; but I have 
enjoyed the journey, and think my health is somewhat improved. 

The mountain scenery through which we passed is varied, some beautiful, 
some grand and sublime beyond description. Whilst gazing with delight 
upon these displays of the Creator's power and goodness, my pleasure was 
suddenly checked by the reflection that those faculties by means of which I 
now hold communion with the beautiful in nature must soon be closed in 
death. But thanks be to Him who made all things, I can look forward 
by faith to a world where beauty, peace and purity are eternal, where none 
shall know sickness and weariness, such as I now feel. 

At Brownsville and Uniontown I was invited to officiate, which I did, 
at the latter place baptizing two children. Have preached once in this place 
also. Thus without expecting it I have become a missionary. 

Before arriving here, I intended, if possible, to find the house in which I 
first drank coffee, in 1777 — and in the event of finding it, to invite a few 
friends to take a cup with me in the same room. Remembering the name 
of the landlord, Nagel, and being able to give a tolerable description of the 
house, I found upon enquiring that Dillon's Hotel, where we put up, now 
occupies the site of Nagel's house. 

Yesterday I went out to see the famous Bedford springs, about two miles 
from the town. The site, owing to the surrounding mountains, is highly 
romantic. The buildings of this watering-place consist of baths, boarding- 
houses, and dormitories. The great Hall for amusements presents many 
fanciful and gorgeous decorations. On a low piece of ground, some dis- 
tance from the Hall, on a pedestal of rock, stands a naiad, a large, half naked 
female figure, with a Grecian face and costume, holding in her left hand a 
huge concha, from the top of which the water of the spring is thrown up- 
ward to the height of ten or twelve feet ; but poor girl, her fine white 
drapery is turning yellow, from the action of the sulphate of iron contained 
in the water which is constantly falling on it. 

The spring issues from the western side of the Cove mountain, at the 
height and nearly twenty feet above the creek which runs at its base. It is 
large, and rises with great force through apertures in immense rocks, which 
still retain their primitive situation and aspect. A few rods higher up is 
another, but a smaller spring. The water of the principal spring is con- 
ducted into a large reservoir, supplying a long range of baths, which are 
filled at pleasure, by raising a small flood-gate. The water in the baths 
is reached by a flight of steps. I had not, however, the courage to make 
the descent. The side of the mountain from which the spring issues is cut 
into serpentine walks, for the convenience and benefit of pedestrians who 
wish to take exercise and inhale the mountain air. 

I have been examining the oldest records here, for names of my family, 
but can only find that of my grand-father Joseph Doddridge, who is men- 
tioned as foreman of a grand jury in 1777. 

Being within ten miles of the place of my, nativity, I wished to learn 
something concerning my father's title to the land on which he lived in 
Friend's Cove, but could find nothing, as his title, whatever it was, originated 
when this was a part of Cumberland county. I am informed here that the 
land is now owned by a Mr. Cissner, and that my father was unjustly de- 
prived of it, but by whom I have not learned. 

270 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The Court House here was built in the reign of George III. The edifice 
Is of stone, and is, without exception, the most misshapen, sombre-looking 
building I ever saw. I do not think the Bastile itself could have presented 
a more forbidding and gloomy aspect. I seated myself for a moment -on 
The bench of justice, and after taking a survey of the antiquated, ill-shapen 
jury-boxes and council-table, gladly made my escape from the forum of my 

Jos. Doddridge. 

Soon after his return from Bedford Dr. Doddridge re- 
ceived a letter from Bishop Chase, just landed in America after 
his first visit to England to solicit funds to assist him in carry- 
ing out his enlarged views relative to the missionary and edu- 
cational interests of his infant diocese — announcing his re- 
turn, and appointing the 3rd day of November for the meet- 
ing at Chillicothe of the diocesan convention. 

Taking with him a little son of eleven years, as traveling 
companion, he proceeded, by easy stages, to the convention, 
and while there, at the request of St. James's parish, at Zanes- 
ville, he accepted a missionary appointment to that church. 

In consequence of the impaired state of his health, he 
had some time previous relinquished the charge of his parishes 
in Virginia and Ohio; and, from the same cause, he had been 
compelled to discontinue the practice of medicine in his vicin- 
ity, where attention to its duties involved the necessity of his 
being on horseback much of the time and exposure to every 
change of weather. 

By restricting his labors to the parish at Zanesville, with 
proper care, he fondly hoped to regain a portion of his former 
health and vigor. But He in whose hand are all our " times " 
ordered otherwise. When winter set in he had a severe at- 
tack of pneumonia, which, together with his asthmatic disease, 
brought him to the verge of the grave, and a tedious conva- 
lescence ensued before he recovered sufficient strength to 
again resume his parochial duties. 

During the continuance of his sufferings and confinement 
from debility, he acknowledged that he had much cause of 
gratitude to God, the oft repeated kindnesses of friends who 
did a*ll they could to alleviate his sufferings and cheer him in 
his solitary confinement. But, notwithstanding these kind 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 271 

offices, how many hours of loneliness and despondency must 
have intervened, was known only to God and himself. After re- 
covering some strength he thus wrote to a friend : 

My life is fast ebbing away. It has been spent for others, and now. in- 
stead of enjoying those accommodations and that repose which my infirmi- 
ties require. I am alone, in exile from my dear family. But I must not 
murmur. God's will be done. In due time rest will be mine through the 
undeserved mercy of Him in whom I trust. 

To his other afflictions this winter was added the loss of 
his little son, Reeves, who had accompanied him to Chillicothe, 
and whom he had left there at school. This sad bereavement 
deeply affected him, yet he endeavored to exercise a cheerful 
acquiescence in the will of Him who orders all things wisely. 

* * * 

Below is another extract from the reminiscences of Hon. 
T. Scott : 

In person Dr. Doddridge was tall but not thin, dark hair, fair complexion, 
blue eyes, which were full of expression, and his whole appearance imposing. 

When preaching there was nothing in his manner that savored of ped- 
antry or rusticity, yet he did not possess that graceful action and delivery 
which are often met with in speakers in every other respect his inferiors. 
These apparent defects were, however, amply compensated by the earnestness 
with which he addressed his hearers, the purity of his style and language 
and the substance of his discourses. 

During the remainder of his life he was unable to labor in 
a professional way; he still, however, found some relief in 
travel which, in his debilitated state, was necessarily slow. 

In the course of the summer he spent some weeks with a 
sister in Chillicothe, after which he visited his son in Blooming- 
burg. Ohio. But finding that he gained no strength, hopeless 
of any favorable change in regard to his health, preferring in 
the bosom of his family to await the summons which should 
release him from suffering and from earth, he returned home, 
as he emphatically said, " To die." 

When in full possession of his mental powers he spoke of 
death with great composure. Relying solely on the merits of 
Christ for salvation, he felt no fear, but seemed anxious to de- 
part and be with God. 

272 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

His protracted sufferings terminated on the 9th of No- 
vember, 1826, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, at his home in 
Wellsburg, Brooke county, Virginia. 1 

Of the twelve children of the subject of this Memoir, four 
preceded him to the spirit-land; his wife and four others have 
since joined him there. One son, Joseph, and three daughters. 
Susan A., widow of Capt. Robert Larimore, of Chillicothe. 
Matilda D., wife of Mr. John Winters of New York, and the 
writer, are all that remain of the cheerful group which once 
surrounded his humble hearth-stone. 


John Doddridge emigrated from England and settled in the 
colony of New Jersey. He was a descendant of Sir John Dodd- 
ridge, of Shepperton, England. This- Sir John was father of the 
celebrated English divine, Philip Doddridge, author of a number 
of books and of many beautiful poems and hymns, one of the 
most notable of the latter being, " Oh, God of Bethel, by Whose 
Hand ! " etc. 

John Doddridge, the emigrant, had two children, Anne and 
Joseph. The latter married Mary Biggs. He died in Bedford 
county, Pa., February 14, 1779, leaving six daughters and two 
sons, viz : Sarah, Hannah, Elizabeth, Susan, Mary, Anne, Philip 
and John. 

The last named John Doddridge was born in Maryland, 
March 30, 1745. He married Mary Wells, daughter of Col. 
Richard Wells, of Baltimore, Md., on December 23, 1767. She 
was born in Baltimore, September 19, 1748. About the year 
1768 they removed to Friends Cove, a few miles south of Bed- 
ford, Bedford county, Pa., and left there for Washington county, 
Pa., in 1773. Their children were Joseph, born Oct. 14, 1769 ; 
Anne, born Nov. 3, 1770; Philip, born May 17, 1773, became 
very prominent in legal and political life; Susannah, born May 
6, 1775, died in infancy; Ruth, born Aug. 30, 1776. 

Mary Wells Doddridge, wife of John, died Nov. 30, 1776. 
John Doddridge died April 20, 1791. He had~married a second 

tHis wife died in Wellsburg Sept. 25, 1829.— (Simpson.) 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 273 

time on Jan. 23, 1778, with Elizabeth Schrimplin, born Oct. 26, 
1761. Their children were Josias, born Oct. 28, 1778; Eleanor, 
born Oct. 26, 1780; Abner, born Feb. 4, 1783, died in infancy; 
Benjamin, bom March 30, 1784; Enoch, born July 4, 1786; John, 
born May 6, 1789. The interment of John Doddridge took place 
on his own farm, but in 1824 the body was disinterred and taken 
to Wellsburg. 

John Doddridge was the first settler in Independence town- 
ship, Washington county, Pa., in 1773, coming from Bedford 
county, and taking up on a Virginia certificate 437 acres of land 
on Cross Creek which was surveyed to him on April 6, 1786, 
under the title of " Extravagance." James Simpson's notes say 
that the first farm upon which the Doddridge family settled was 
where William Leggett resides, on Cross Creek, and that after- 
wards they removed to the farm where Milton Murdoch now 
lives, in the same township, where they built Doddridge's fort 
of which Capt. Samuel Teter, a relative of the Doddridge family, 
had command when the Indians were troublesome. 

Most of the land owned by John Doddridge now belongs to 
Rev. Wm. Brown, of Canonsburg. 

The marriage of Joseph Doddridge, first born of John Dodd- 
ridge and Mary Wells, and author of " Doddridge's Notes," to 
Jemima Bukey, took place in Sept., 1783. Their children in order 
of birth were: 

1 — Philip Bukey Doddridge; born in Wellsburg Feb. 20, 
1795 ; died in Columbus, Ohio, Sept. 9, 1860. 

2 — Narcissa Doddridge; born in Wellsburg, April 7, 1796; 
died Jan. 30, 1874. 

3 — Hezekiah Dunn Doddridge, born July 8, 1799 ; died in 

4 — Eliza Matilda Doddridge, born in Wellsburg June 10, 
1800 ; died Feb. 1, 1819. 

5 — Harriet Tabitha Doddridge, wife of Major William 
Duval, of Fort Smith, Ark., born Aug. 14, 1802; died Jan. 20, 

6— Joseph John Gantt Doddridge, born May 27, 1806 ; died 
in Woodstock, 111., Feb. 16, 1889. 

274 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

7— Bazaleel Wells Doddridge, born March 27, 1809; died 
in infancy. 

8 — Susan Amelia Doddridge, born in Wellsburg, April 4, 
1811; died in Mt. Vernon, Ohio, Sept. 25, 1882. 

9 — Robert Reeves Doddridge, born in Wellsburg, Dec. 8, 
1813 ; died in Chillicothe, Ohio, Dec. 12, 1825. 

10 — Charles Hammond Doddridge, born in Wellsburg, May 
5, 1816 ; died in Chillicothe, Ohio, Oct. 19, 1834. 

11 — Mary Eliza Doddridge, wife of B. F. Brannan, of 
Cincinnati, born in Wellsburg, Dec. 20, 1820; died in Cincinnati, 
April 10, 1857. Their son, Joseph Doddridge Brannan, is Bussey 
Professor of Law in Harvard University. 

12— Matilda Willis Doddridge, born in Wellsburg, Feb. 28, 
1827 ; died in San Francisco, Nov. 20, 1869. 

By Narcissa Doddridge. 

Among the earliest settlers of North Western Virginia 
were the McCollochs, who emigrated from the south branch 
of the Potomac in 1770, and located on the borders of Short 
creek, a stream which empties into the Ohio river, nine miles 
north of Wheeling creek. The family consisted of four 
brothers, Abraham, George, Samuel and John, and several sis- 
ters, one of whom was the wife of Col. Ebenezer Zane, who, 
with his brothers, Jonathan and Silas, was from the same 
neighborhood, and about the same period settled at the mouth 
of Wheeling creek. 

The name which graces the head of this article is not 
unknown to readers of border history, in which some of 
his daring exploits are recorded. At present, however, we pro- 
pose noticing only a few particulars, more immediately con- 
nected with the final scene of his eventful career, which were 
communicated to the w r riter by the widow of his brother, the 
late Major John M' Colloch, of Ohio county, Virginia, and, in 
substance, corroborated by Col. M. Moorehead, of Zanesville, 
and the Hon. T. Scott, of Chillicothe, Ohio. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 275 

Between the two younger brothers of the M' Colloch fam- 
ily, Samuel and John, of whom alone we shall speak, there 
existed a more than fraternal intimacy, arising not only from 
congeniality of disposition, but from community of interests 
and pursuits ; consequently, they were much together, and their 
history is in some degree blended. Both were early distin- 
guished for intrepidity and successful prowess in Indian war- 
fare. Possessing in an eminent degree firmness and decision 
of character, they were wont, in cases of exigency, which in 
those days of peril were of frequent occurrence, to determine 
quickly and execute promptly. These qualities, combined 
with untiring energy and perseverance, in circumventing the 
various stratagems of the Indians, and indomitable courage in 
opposing them in open combat, soon placed the brothers in the 
van of the frontier bands required by the peculiarly exposed 
condition of the country to be ever on the alert and ready 
for conflict with the wily enemy, whose frequent irruptions 
into the infant settlements, for purposes of rapine and murder, 
kept the inhabitants in a state of continual dread and appre- 

To many of the savages they were personally known, and 
objects of fear and intense hate. Numerous artifices were em- 
ployed to capture them ; their enemies anticipating, in such an 
event, the privilege of satiating their vindictive and fiendish 
malice by the infliction of a lingering and cruel death. Of this 
design, on the part of the Indians, the brothers were aware ; 
and in their almost miraculous preservation, in various contests 
with them, gratefully acknowledged the interposition of an 
invisible Power in their behalf. 

Major Samuel M'Colloch commanded at Fort Van Meter, 
in 1777, styled the Court House Fort, from the circumstance 
of the first civil court in North Western Virginia being held in 
it immediately after the organization and separation of Ohio 
county from West Augusta. This fort was one of the first 
erected in this part of Virginia, and stood on the north side 
of Short creek, about five miles from its confluence with the 
Chio river. During many consecutive summers the inhabi- 

276 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

tants of the adjacent neighborhood sought security from the 
tomahawk and scalping knife of the merciless aborigines 
within its palisades ; agricultural labor being performed by 
companies, each member of which, like the Jews of old, when 
rebuilding the walls of the Holy City after their return from 
the Babylonish captivity, wrought with one hand while the 
other grasped a weapon of defense. 

On the 30th July, 1782, arrangements were made by the 
inmates of the fort for the performance of field labor. To 
the commander and his brother John was assigned the dan- 
gerous duty of reconnoitering the paths leading from the river, 
to ascertain, if possible, whether there were any Indians lurk- 
ing in the vicinity. Leaving early in the morning in the dis- 
charge of their mission, after proceeding some distance the 
former, impelled perhaps by a sudden premonition of the tragic 
fate which befell him, returned; and depositing with /the 
wife of his brother John his watch and several other articles, 
gave directions as to their disposition, in the event of his not 
returning, and leaving a kindly message for his youthful bride, 
soon rejoined his wondering companion. 

They traversed the path lying along the south bank of 
the creek till within a short distance of its junction with 
the Ohio, where they crossed and followed the direction of 
the river to the Beach bottom, a distance of three miles ; when, 
perceiving no indications of an enemy, they retraced their steps 
to the mouth of the creek, a short distance above which, they 
ascended a steep and rugged eminence, well known in the 
neighborhood by the significant cognomen of Girty's Point. 
The notorious renegade, Simon Girty, having on several oc- 
casions, when conducting parties of Indians 'into the settle- 
ment, with difficulty escaped capture by the infuriated whites, 
by a rapid flight over the craggy and precipitous path. 

Congratulating themselves on the absence of immediate dan- 
ger, the brothers pursued their course in the direction of the 
fort, on the summit of the elevated ridge rising abruptly 
from the northern bank of the creek, and had arrived at the 
termination of a deep ravine which made up from the stream — 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 277 

John, being somewhat in advance of his brother, and riding 
round the top of a large tree, which had fallen across the way 
— when a low, half-suppressed growl, from a well trained hunt- 
ing-dog which accompanied them, arrested their attention. No 
time, however, intervened for scrutinizing the cause; a volley 
of bullets from an invisible foe revealed it. On reaching the 
path John turned to look for his companion, whose bleeding 
form, with feelings of unutterable anguish, he beheld falling 
from his horse, and, ere it reached the earth, a stalwart savage 
sprang from his covert, tomahawk and scalping-knife in hand, 
with which to complete the bloody tragedy, and secure a trophy 
of victory. While the exulting victor was in the act of scalp- 
ing, the younger brother, with frenzied resolution, suddenly 
wheeled his horse, and, amid a shower of balls, elevating his 
rifle, quickly sent the swift messenger of death to the heart of 
the murderer, whom he had the exquisite gratification of seeing 
spring into the air, and then fall to rise no more. Having per- 
formed this feat he rapidly as possible, his enraged enemies 
in full pursuit, their balls perforating his hat and hunting-shirt, 
made his way down the ravine and soon reached the fort in 
safety ; his brother's horse closely following him. 

The next morning a party from the fort proceeded to 
the spot where the sanguinary deed had been perpetrated 
and found the mutilated remains of their beloved commander.- 
The Indians, influenced no doubt by that species of hero-wor- 
ship inherent in their nature, causing an unbounded admira- 
tion of personal valor, had abstracted the heart of their vic- 
tim; which, it was afterward learned from one belonging to 
the party, had been eaten by them ; a practice in which they 
occasionally indulged. Parkman, who was well acquainted 
with their habits, says : " The Indians, though not habitual can- 
nibals, sometimes eat portions of the bodies of their enemies, 
superstitiously believing that their own courage and hardihood 
will be increased thereby." 

This fatal rencounter was, doubtless, instrumental in the 
salvation of the lives of all in the fort; it being subsequently 
ascertained that the party committing the murderous act con- 

278 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

sisted of upwards of one hundred warriors en route to attack it. 
After the escape of the surviving brother, aware that notice of 
their propinquity would be given, and immediate pursuit made, 
they hastily retreated to their towns west of the Ohio. 

The remains of Major Samuel M'Colloch were interred in 
Fort Van Meter ; but not unwept nor Unhonored. There were 
present very many who knew and appreciated the sterling 
worth of the forest soldier, and by whom the memory of his 
noble qualities and tragic fate was long cherished ; and to this 
day, in the vicinity where the circumstances transpired, the 
name and fate of the hero are as familiar as household words. 


By Narcissa Doddridge. 

The particulars of the following account of the murder 
of a member of the family of Philip Doddridge, sen., and 
the capture of three of his children by a party of Wy- 
andots in 1778, were communicated to the writer by Mrs. 
Eleanor Brown, late of Wellsburg, Virginia, and Mrs. Ruth 
Carson, recently deceased in Ross co., Ohio. 

Philip Doddridge, sen., emigrated from Maryland in 1770, 
and settled near the mouth of Dunkard creek, a tributary of 
the west branch of the Monongahela in Virginia. At the time 
of this sad occurrence he had a comfortable cabin and a tol- 
erably well improved farm. His household consisted of a wife 
and four young children, also his wife's father, mother and a 
nephew, a lad of twelve years. 1 Early one morning in the 
month of May, 1778, Mr. Doddridge went into one of his fields 
to work, some distance from his house, his wife also being 

i The name of this nephew was Augustine Bickerstaff. In the course 
of his flight from the scene he encountered Lewis Wetzel raking leaves 
in a field. The savages chased them for seven miles, until they found 
refuge within the walls of Statler's, Fort. The Indians also carried away 
with them from the mouth of Dunkard two other children, David Pursley, 
aged seven years, and Susan Potts, aged 14. Nancy Doddridge died some 
years after her capture and the injury done her by a drunken Indian 
who had kicked her in the side while on the forced march to Detroit is said 
to have been largely responsible therefor. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 279 

absent ; she having" taken her infant and gone some miles to 
the house of a friend, to do some weaving for her family. Her 
three little girls, between the ages of two and seven years, 
were left in the care of her parents and the boy above spoken 
of. While he was amusing the children at the base of a high 
bank of the creek on which they lived, he espied in the dis- 
tance a party of Indians approaching the house, which they 
without seeing him, entered, tomahawked and scalped the 
aged grandfather, took such articles from the cabin as they 
fancied, and then set fire to it, leaving the body of the mur- 
dered man to be consumed with it. 

The nephew well aware that if he remained with his 
little charge he could not prelect them, and would be him- 
self killed or captured, fled to the field in which his uncle 
was at work, and informed him of what was transpiring at 
home. They both saw the flames of the burning buildings, 
and the savages amusing themselves by ripping up the feather 
beds and throwing their contents high in the open air. Hav- 
ing finished their work at the cabin, the deeply distressed 
father was compelled to remain where he was and see the 
Indians bearing off into the forest his three little girls and 
their' grandmother without the power to afford them the 
slightest relief. 

Soon after this catastrophe Philip, with his wife and re- 
maining child, left the neighborhood of the Monongahela, re- 
moving to the house of his brother John Doddridge, who had, 
in 1773, settled in the western part of Washington county, 
Pa., not far from the present village of West Middletown, 1 in 
the same county. Philip subsequently purchased from his 
uncle, Captain Samuel Teter, a farm near his brother's, on 
which he resided till about the year 1818, when he removed with 
his family, then consisting of one son, John, and five daughters, 
to the state of Indiana, himself performing the journey on 
foot, for although having plenty of this world's goods he was 
never known to ride on horseback. He was one of the early 

i See appendix for " Distinguished Men of West Middletown." 

280 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

friends and supporters of Methodism in the western country, 
and so exemplary was his life that wherever he was known 
his influence was felt. 

The fate of the grandmother was never ascertained, but 
many years subsequent to the captivity of their children the 
parents learned that they had been taken to Detroit, where 
the oldest girl was sold to a French officer, who finally married 
her and took her to France. The second one died, and the 
third, being reared with the children of her tawny captors, 
became as one of them, married a chief, 1 and although ac- 
quainted herself with her parentage, so strong was her attach- 
ment to the mode of life in which she had been brought up, 
that she carefully endeavored to conceal her relationship to 
her family. 

The late Philip Doddridge, Esq., 2 of Wellsburg, Va., 

iThis was White Eyes, chief sachem of the Delaware Nation. He was 
always the friend of the Americans — " Buckskins," he called them, — and in 
their behalf he thwarted the scheme to unite all the Indian tribes of the west 
in a league in support of the British cause. His voice was always for peace. 
He was peculiarly devoted to the American cause, says Hassler's " Old 
Westmoreland," and even " hoped that a Delaware Indian state might form 
a fourteenth star in the American union. He was the greatest chieftain ever 
produced by this remarkable Indian nation." While on his way from Fort 
Pitt to Tuscarawas, Ohio, accompanied by a force of warriors and militia- 
men, with the design of further carrying out his purpose to restrain his tribe 
from engaging in any alliance with the English, he was treacherously put to 
death ; just precisely how is not known, but he is believed to have been shot 
by a Virginia militiaman. 

2 The Hon. Philip Doddridge, brother of Joseph, 
was also a man of high character and exceptional attain- 
ments. These are adequately depicted in a notable mono- 
graph published in 1875 by the late Hon. W. T. Willey, of 
Morgantown, United States Senator from West Virginia. 
Mr. Doddridge, who was a lawyer, had served Virginia in 
her House of Delegates in 1815-16, in 1822-23, in 1828-29, 
and in the convention which revised her state constitution 
in 1829-30. In 1823 and 1825 Mr. Doddridge was de- 
feated as a candidate for representative in Congress from 
the Wheeling district of Virginia but in 1829 he was 
successful. He died suddenly on Nov. 19, 1832, in Wash- 
ington City, in the 60th year of his age, while attending 
the sitting of a committee of the two Houses which was 
preparing a code of laws for the government of the Dis- 
nIIIIin ™™x, T ™™ trict of Columbia. Chief Justice Marshall declared that, 
philip doddridge. ag a lawyer> Doddridge was second to no one at the bar 
of the United States Court. It was of Philip Doddridge 
that Daniel Webster said, while on a visit in Wheeling : " He was the only 
man 1 ever feared to meet in debate." When, in 1845, the legislature of 
Virginia created a new county out of parts of Harrison, Lewis, Tyler and 
Ritchie counties, it was named Doddridge, in honor of Philip. 

Philip Doddridge was born in Bedford county, Pa., May 17, 1773. In 
the spring of the following year his father, John Doddridge, removed with his 
family to Washington county, Pa., now Independence township. This sec- 
tion was at that time within the jurisdiction of Virginia, and was presumed 
of course to be Virginia territory. But the later drawing of Mason & Dixon's 
line, and definite establishment of the western boundary of Pennsylvania 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 281 

averred that this woman had often been at his house, with 
other Indians, who came into Western Virginia to sell bas- 
kets and other articles. After seeing and conversing with her 
several times he recognized her resemblance to her family, 
and one day made some enquiries of her respecting her history, 
telling her that he was her cousin, and offering to take her to 
see another of her relations, Rev. Joseph Doddridge. He said 
she looked displeased, ceased to converse, and never to his 
knowledge returned to that part of the country. 

placed John Doddridge's family and property in the latter state, a few 
miles from the border. Philip Doddridge settled in Wellsburg, Brooke 
County, Va., in 1796, and that was his home throughout the remainder of 
his life. His legal practice was quite large, and extended from Virginia 
into Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

A curious episode in his life occurred in 1822, while he was in 
Washington City as counsel in a case before the Supreme Court. He was 
seized with catalepsy. The functions of life were apparently wholly sus- 
pended. Physicians declared him dead, and preparations were made for 
coffining. While these were going on Mrs. Doddridge thought she noticed 
a slight movement of one of his legs, which was raised a little. She pressed 
it down, and it rose again. Thinking this might not be an altogether in- 
voluntary muscular action, she lifted her husband's head high upon a 
pillow and rubbed his body vigorously with brandy. This gradually brought 
him back to conscious life. When fully restored Mr. Doddridge said he 
had been in perfect control of his mental powers all the time, and knew 
everything that was transpiring. Horror stricken by what was going on 
around him, and by fear of burial alive, he contrived by a powerful effort 
to make the slight motions of his limb that had arrested the attention of 
his wife. In consequence of this narrow escape Mr. Doddridge solemnly 
charged his friends that, in case death should ever again appear to have come 
to him, they should be sure indeed before interment that life had really left. 
So, when he expired in 1832. the President of the United States, the mem- 
bers- of the cabinet, heads of departments and friends, assembled to attend 
the funeral ; yet, to meet the wish of the deceased, and satisfy his family 
and relatives, the large crowd dispersed, to reassemble the next day and 
assist in burial of the remains in the congressional cemetery. 

282 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

By Narcissa Doddridge. 

This fort was situated on the south side of Short creek 
a few miles above its junction with the Ohio river, in Ohio 
county, Virginia. The land on which it was located be- 
longed to the widow and heirs of Mr. Joseph Van Meter, and 
was subsequently owned by his eldest son, Morgan Van 
Meter. It now, 1847, belongs to the heirs of Mr. George 
Mathews, and adjoins the farm formerly owned and occupied 
by the late Captain John Bukey, son-in-law to Maj. William 

There are many interesting reminiscences connected with 
this early fort in the wilderness, some of which hav% perhaps 
never been recorded, indicative of the sufferings and bravery 
of those who lived in its vicinity, and who frequently sought 
refuge within its rude palisades. 

Mr. John Van Meter at one time lived in this fort, and at 
the period of the occurrence narrated resided on the farm now 
owned by Alexander Walker, Esq., in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the fort. It was during his occupancy of this 
farm, in 1789, that a party of Indians visited his peaceful 
domicile, murdered his wife, daughter, and two small sons, 
taking the three elder sons prisoners, and burning the house. 

Hannah, the daughter who was killed, was washing at 
a spring a short distance from the house; she had on a sun- 
bonnet and was stooping over the tub, unconscious of danger, 
when one of the savages stealthily advanced and, supposing 
her to be an old woman, buried his tomahawk in her head. 
When the Indians saw her face and pterceived that she was 
young and beautiful they deeply lamented their precipitancy, 
saying, " She would have made a pretty squaw." This infor- 
mation was subsequently communicated by the notorious 
Simon Girty, who was one of the party which committed the 

The spring at which this tragedy was enacted is still 
designated as Hannah's Spring. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 283 

Whilst these events were transpiring at his home, the 
husband and father, John Van Meter, was absent at a neigh- 
bor's house, Mr. Charles Hedges, breaking flax. He heard the 
report of the guns, and saw the flames in which his house 
was enveloped, without power to afford the least relief, well 
knowing that to go single-handed would but insure his own 
destruction without benefiting his beloved family. 

Abraham, Isaac and John were the names of the three 
sons carried into captivity. They were taken in one of their 
father's fields, in which they were at work. The two former 
ultimately escaped and returned to their friends. John re- 
mained with his captors, became attached to their mode of 
life, and finally married a young squaw. He subsequently 
visited his father several times, but could never be prevailed 
on to remain with the whites, preferring that reckless inde- 
pendence, self-reliance and irresponsible freedom enjoyed in 
forest life, to the vapid and wearisome conventionalities of 
civilized society. 

Several years after the murder of Mr. Van Meter's family, 
he married the widow of Mr. John Bukey, one of the early 
emigrants from New Jersey to Western Virginia. Mrs. Bukey 
had' four daughters by her first marriage. Mary, the eldest, 
became the wife of Major John M'Colloch, of Short Creek, 
Va. Marcy, the second, married Col. Harman Greathouse, 
late of Lexington, Kentucky. Elizabeth, the third, from 
whom the writer has received the particulars of this article, is 
Mrs. Jacob Roland, of West Liberty, Va. Jemima, the fourth 
daughter, became the wife of Rev. Dr. Joseph Doddridge, of 
Wellsburg, Brooke co., Va. She had also three sons, John, 
Hezekiah and Rudolph. The two former were for some years 
spies under Capt. Samuel Brady, lived and died in Virginia. 
Rudolph at an early age emigrated to Kentucky, where many 
of his descendants still reside. 

Mrs. Bukey had but one child by Mr. Van Meter, Sarah, 
who is now the wife of Robert Patterson, Esq., of Wheeling, 

284 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 


Memorandum Made by Mr. Brown Himself at Wellsburg, 
Brooke County, W. Va., in February, 1845. 

April 8, 1775, I stood in front of the first cannon fired 
by the British on the Americans at Lexington- 
June 17, of the same year, I was in the engagement at 
Bunker Hill. 

Was with our army on York Island, participated in the 
battle of Harlem heights, where we beat the British. I com- 
manded a company of thirty men and two field pieces. Lost 
fifteen of my men killed and wounded. 

Next, I was in the battle of the White Plains, where we 
were defeated. 

I was in the battle of Trenton, also in the battle of Prince- 
ton ; was stationed at Bound brook after that engagement. 

Was next stationed at Meed fort. 

Was at the battle of Brandywine, where we were engaged 
throughout the day. At sundown our army drove the red 
coats into Germantown, where they took refuge in an old stone 
house. Winter coming on we did not do much. 

Next year I was in the battle of Monmouth, where our 
artillery did much execution. 

After this battle I was ordered to Fort Schuyler, where, 
during the year, we had some skirmishing with the Indians. 

I always belonged to the artillery of the Massachusetts 
line ; was capt.-lieut., in the artillery, and served under Gen. 
Washington four years, by whom I was entrusted with many 
small adventures, for the execution of which I received his per- 
sonal thanks. 

I was present at the Boston Tea-party, a looker on only. 

I pulled down the king's statute in New York, a leaden 
one, which we made into bullets. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 285 

I came to this place, Wellsburg, in 1790, no town here 
then. The Indian war was not yet ended. I served in the 
militia ranks. Every one at that early period was obliged 
to carry arms for self-defense. I believe I am the oldest re- 
volutionary soldier in this state, Virginia. 

Capt. Oliver Brown was born in Lexington. Mass.. July 25, 1753. and 
died Feb. 17, 1846, at the home of his son-in-law, Stephen Colwell, near 
Wellsburg, W. Va„ blind but not infirm — the year following the making of 
the foregoing memorandum. 

The statue of George III., referred to by Mr. Brown as " pulled 
down," was destroyed on the night of July 9, 1776, by a party of 40 men, 
half of whom were sailors, led by Capt. Brown. It stood on a white marble 
pedestal 15 feet high, in the center of the bowling green in New York City, 
having been erected by the obsequious assembly of New York in 1770 to 
commemorate the anniversary of the birthday of Frederick, second child of 
the king. Capt. Brown concealed his followers in a dark aHey near the 
statue. At an opportune hour several sailors, having no fears as to punish- 
ment for lese majeste, climbed up the leaden image of his royal highness and 
tied ropes around it. When the pull-all-together came these ropes broke. 
The second attempt, however, was successful. The statue came smashing 
down over the iron fence that had cost the city $4,000. 

" And all the king's horses and all the king's men 
Never put it together again — never again." 

George Washington issued an order the next day disapproving this 
adventure of Capt. Brown and his fellows, but his censure was very mild. 
Capt. Brown, however, always declared later in life that it was the one act 
of his career of which he was really ashamed. Most of the statue is said 
to have been taken to Litchfield, Conn., and there run into bullets for the 
American army, which was putting it to quite a useful purpose. But about 
1880, more than a hundred years after this historical demolition, the complete 
tail of the horse, and parts of the saddle and housings, comprising in all 
about 200 pounds, were dug up in a marsh near Stamford, Conn., and sold 
to the New York Historical Society. 

In 1790 Capt. Brown, with his wife and children, came west of the 
mountains and stopped on land on King's Creek, in what is now Haricock 
county, W. Va., farming there for a short while and then going to the site 
whereon Wellsburg now stands, where they settled permanently. Patrick 
Gass's Journal says that in Wellsburg, in 1790, " there was but one building 
to be seen, and it was a log house on the lower end of the bottom, near 
midwaj- between the river and the hills." 

Here Oliver Brown became in 1800 one of the subscribers to the sup- 
port of Trinity Church, of which he had become a member, and of which Dr. 
Doddridge was the rector. Capt. Brown served three years with the militia 
in the frontier struggles with the Indians. He held a state appointment from 
Virginia as an inspector of flour, the transportation of which in boats down 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers was quite heavy, Wellsburg having become 
an important point of shipment. 

Capt. Brown brought with him from the east his wife Abigail and his 
Massachusetts-born children — Abigail, John, Sarah, Danforth, Catherine, 
William and Oliver. Four more children were born in Wellsburg, viz., 
George, James, Richard and Elizabeth. There are now many descendants in 
Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Ohio, of Oliver Brown and his wife 
Abigail. One of these is Thomas Stephen Brown, the well-known Pittsburg 
lawyer — a great grandson. 

280 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Worth noting as a curious phase with some of these Brown children 
is their marriage with ministers of the gospel. Sarah Brown's first husband 
was Robert Colwell. Four of their daughters chose ministers for life partners. 
Catherine married Rev. Martin V. Schoonover, a Dutch Reformed minister of 
Brooklyn ; Mary married Rev. Wm. McCombs ; Elizabeth married Rev. Robert 
Fulton ; and Harriet married Rev. Samuel McFarren. After the death of 
Robert Colwell his widow married Rev. Blisha Macurdy, D.D., a noted Pres- 
byterian minister of the early days in Western Pennsylvania, and their 
daughter, Sarah Macurdy, became the wife of Rev. Samuel Fulton, D.D., 
pastor of the fourth Presbyterian church of Pittsburg. Sarah Fulton, 
daughter of Elizabeth Colwell and Robert Fulton, married Rev. Wm. T. 
Beatty, D.D., first pastor of the Shadyside Presbyterian church, Pittsburg, 
and their daughter is the famous grand opera singer, Louise Homer — (Mrs". 
Louise Dilworth Beatty Homer). 

Kate McFarren, daughter of Harriet Colwell and Samuel McFarren, 
became a missionary in South America. 

Sarah Brown's granddaughter Mary, daughter of her son Stephen Col- 
well, became the wife of Rev. Dr. Henry W. Greene, of Princeton Seminary. 

Richard Brown, youngest son of Oliver Brown, entered the ministry of 
the Presbyterian church and preached for many years in Eastern Ohio. His 
daughter Catherine married Rev. Alexander Swaney, of Cadiz, Ohio. 

Oliver Brown's granddaughter, Eliza Vilette Brown, daughter of 
John Brown and Mrs. Eleanor (Doddridge) Gantt, widow of John Gantt, 
married Hon. Daniel Polsley, of Point Pleasant, W. Va., judge of the Seventh 
Judicial Circuit of W. Va., (1862) and member in 1867 of the Fortieth 
Congress of the United States. 

By William T. Lindsey. 

Capt. Samuel Teter, who was one of the conspicuous figures 
in the early history of Washington county, Pa., where he owned 
large tracts of land, settled there with the Doddridge's and Wells's 
in 1773, in what is now Independence township, on the farm of 
1,000 acres which he sold in the spring of 1797 to Isaac Man- 
chester. It was named in the warrant " Plantation Plenty," and 
lies near the present village of West Middletown. 

Captain Teter was born in 1737. He took part when a very 
young man in the ill-fated Braddock expedition in 1755, and in 
the Forbes expedition in 1758, in which he bore a gallant part, 
leading one of the assaulting parties at Fort Pitt, in which his 
little company was almost annihilated. 

He was a resident of Bedford county, Pennsylvania, in 1769, 
and married Mary Doddridge, daughter of Joseph Doddridge and 
his wife, Mary Biggs. She was an aunt of the Rev. Joseph 
Doddridge, and also of the famous Indian fighters, the Biggs 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 287 

brothers, of whom Gen. William Biggs of West Liberty, Ohio 
County, West Virginia, and Surveyor-General Zaccheus Biggs of 
Ohio, were the most prominent. 

Captain Teter left a large family. His descendants have 
become prominent in professional and business life. All his 
sons but Samuel served in the war of 1812. George Teter was 
an ensign in Capt. Samuel Davis' company, Trimble's Mounted 
regiment, Ohio volunteers and militia. John Teter served as first 
lieutenant in Capt. Jacob Gilbert's company of infantry, Second 
(Hindman's) Regiment, Ohio militia, afterwards First (An- 
drew's) Regiment, and Daniel as a private. Several of Capt. 
Teter's descendants also served with credit in the Union army 
during the civil war. Numerous intermarriages have taken place 
with the most prominent families of Ohio, among them the Mc- 
Arthurs, McDonalds, McLenes and other historic families, in- 
dividual members of which were Gen. Duncan McArthur, Gov- 
ernor of Ohio, Col. John McDonald, author of " McDonald's 
Sketches " and Hon. Jeremiah McLene, Secretary of State of 
Ohio for twenty-three years; and they are also allied to the 
Allen, Trimble, and Anderson families. 

During the years in which Capt. Teter was a resident of 
Washington county he became the commandant of Fort Dodd- 
ridge^ as related by his nephew, the Rev. Joseph Doddridge. 
After the sale of his farm to Mr. Manchester he went to Ross 
county, Ohio, settling on Lower Twin Creek, removing in his old 
age to the home of one of his sons-in-law, a McDonald, near 
Marysville, Union county, Ohio, where he died October 8, 1823. 
His wife survived him until May 3, 1838, attaining the great age 
of ninety years. Their remains lie buried in the McDonald burial 
ground near Marysville, where a granite monument has been 
erected to their memory by some of their descendants. 

On " Plantation Plenty " Mr. Manchester lived and wrought 
until his death in 1851, aged 89 years. His farm descended to his 
son, the late Col. Asa Manchester, who died in 1896; was born 
in 1811. Here was raised by Mr. Manchester the fine 15-room 
brick mansion, now occupied by his granddaughters, which is 
the most notable of the very few important survivals in this 

288 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

region of the typical architecture and admirable constructive skill 
of the early days of the republic, being in as entirely good con- 
dition now as when built. Fifteen years, from 1800 to 1815, were 
required in the preparatory and final work. The dwelling was 
erected on the site and within the lines of the stockade fort pre- 
pared by Capt. Teter as a protection against Indian forays. One 
of the corner stones of this fort is still preserved in the front 
yard of the mansion. 

Isaac Manchester came from Newport, R. I. He was of 
English descent, maybe English born, and in the arrangement of 
his Washington county residence and farm buildings he had in 
mind, apparently, the reproduction of an English manor house 
and home. The first step in the making of this home was a com- 
modious tool house, in which to manufacture the tools and im- 
plements necessary for use by the artisans, farm hands and house 
help. This tool house still stands on the premises, as 'serviceable 
as the day it was put up, and contains all the tools, many of them 
long since obsolete, with which Mr. Manchester and his me- 
chanics wrought. There are 40 or 50 planes of various shapes 
and. sizes, some three to four feet long, and most of which are 
unknown to the woodworkers of to-day. Also augers, bits, draw- 
ing knives, saws, hammers, hatchets, axes, anvils, adzes, etc., 
fine tools of every description essential to the elaborate and dur- 
able work to be done, for Mr. Manchester intended to build and 
did build an elegant and artistic dwelling that should last for 
ages. One hundred years old now, it is as well preserved as the 
day when the last workman put his finishing stroke upon it. And 
not a nail used in it anywhere, nor in any of the minor buildings. 

It is said by those familiar with the historical aspect of 
architectural and building construction in this territory, at the 
beginning of the last century, that Mr. Manchester's artisans 
must have been brought from east of the mountains to do this 
special work, as it required a much higher grade of manual skill 
than was then ordinarily available here. It is doubtful if a dupli- 
cate of these premises in unique attractiveness, and impressive 
stability, combined with rare suggestiveness of " the olden 
time," exists anywhere else in the United States. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 289 

The masonry, brick and wood construction of the mansion 
and subsidiary buildings was carried forward under the personal 
supervision of Mr. Manchester. The fine hardwood interior 
finish, the mouldings, newel posts, banisters, fire fronts, railings, 
base boards, etc., was executed by mechanics whose peculiar tools 
for doing the intricate work uncommon here to that period were 
first made on the ground under the direction of Mr. Manchester. 
The brick and stone masonry nowhere shows signs of disintegra- 
tion. The mortar is as smooth and hard as cement. The 
immense frame work of the great barn, which was finished ten 
years before the house, is held together with wooden pins. Dur- 
ing the finishing of his mansion Mr. Manchester found himself 
short of a much needed piece of important wood with which to 
complete a capital of the parlor mantel. Mounting his horse he 
rode over the mountains to Philadelphia for this wood and brought 
it home with him in his saddle-bags— a trip of 800 miles. 

All the plows ever used on this farm, from the one with 
which Mr. Manchester first turned up the virgin soil down to the 
finest modern plow of the present day, are kept in the old tool 
house. They show every step in the development of the Amer- 
ican plow during a century and a quarter. There are also many 
other discarded implements of husbandry and household work, 
including wind-mills, flax-mills, cleaning-mills, flails, a cheese 
press, yokes for oxen young and old, a carriage built after de- 
signs of the Napoleonic era, copper kettles, iron skillets, waffle 
irons with handles several feet long, spinning wheels, tin lanterns 
for tallow candle illumination, complete outfits for making boots, 
shoes and harness, a lace-making loom, which could be used now 
by any one knowing how, a loom for weaving linsey-woolsey 
cloth, which is a combination of flax-linen and wool, along with 
many other curious utensils of field, shop and kitchen. 

290 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

By William T. Lindsey. 

The quaint old-fashioned village of West Middletown was 
incorporated as a borough as early as 1823. It has been a post- 
office since 1805. Its roadway was macadamized, its sidewalks 
flagstoned, and its gutters sandstoned nearly a hundred years ago. 
John W. Garrett, founder and first president of the B. & O. 
railroad, and Charles Avery Holmes, the famous Methodist 
preacher, were born here. Joseph Doddridge lived but three miles 
distant. Here also lived Col. David Williamson, who led the 
expedition that slaughtered the peaceful Moravian Indians. Yet 
— how strange the contrast! — this is also the birthplace of the 
Campbellite or Christian church, now numbering a million and 
a half communicants. The building in which the first congrega- 
tion was organized by the Campbells on Brush Run in 1810 stands 
to-day in West Middletown, to which it was removed. Alex- 
ander Campbell, founder of this great church, was born at Bally- 
mena, County Antrim, Ireland, Sept. 12, 1788, and died March 
4, 1866, at Bethany, W. Va., where he had founded Bethany 
College in 1840. His father, Rev. Thos. Campbell, was a rela- 
tive and namesake of the celebrated Irish poet. Thomas Camp- 
bell came to America in 1807, his son following two years later. 
Within an hour's drive of West Middletown George Washington 
owned 3,000 acres of farm land which he sold in 1796 for 
$12,000. It is now worth half a million or more. 

Early in the last century Robert Fulton, the steamboat in- 
ventor, bought here a farm which he gave to his parents and 
sisters as a mark of his affection ; and further as a manifestation 
of pride that on his twenty-first birthday he was able to make 
them so substantial a gift. Fulton lived in this vicinity for some 
time, and the hardy yoemanry generally regarded him as a fop, 
such being the impression made upon them by his refined and 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 291 

courteous manners and unusually genteel apparel. The heavy 
current of travel flowing westward at that time into Washington 
county, and through Washington county into the Ohio country, 
coupled with the building of the National Pike, had greatly en- 
hanced the value of land in the West Middletown section, as 
also in many other localities, and this fact was the determining 
influence in Fulton's farm purchase. Many of the Hessian sol- 
diers who had fought for Britain in the war of the Revolution 
did not return to Europe after the conclusion of peace, and some 
of them came to this part of Washington county, settling as 
farmers on a branch of Buffalo Creek, to which they gave the 
name of " the Dutch fork." 

Joseph Ritner, governor of Pennsylvania, had his home near 
West Middletown. James Clemens, ancestor of Samuel L. 
Clemens (Mark Twain), settled here many years ago. He lived 
near Taylor's Fort, now Taylorstown, Washington county, and 
had twelve children, six boys and six girls. It is said by one of 
his descendants now living in the west that three of these boys, 
Jeremiah, William and James, were of the number who took part 
in the massacre of the Moravian Indians at Gnadenhutten ; and 
that, on their return home, the feeling was so strong against the 
participants that two of these boys left home. Jeremiah went to 
Alabama, where, years afterward, his son Jeremiah became a 
brilliant lawyer, a general of militia, a United States senator, 
and an author. One of his books was a life of Aaron Burr. 
James Clemens went to the territory of Missouri, where his 
descendants are now wealthy and influential. Mark Twain — 
Samuel Langhorn Clemens — belonged to this branch. William 
Clemens' son Sherrard became a noted lawyer of Wheeling, W. 
Va., and represented that district in congress. But any statement 
that the Clemenses left Washington county because of public dis- 
approval of the Moravian massacre must be taken with allow- 
ances. There was probably as much public apprpval as disap- 
proval ; but we shall not attempt to draw any exact line of dis- 
tinction. The fact that Col. Williamson, v who led the expedition, 
was twice elected sheriff of Washington county after the massacre 
is of the highest significance as indicating the drift of popular 

292 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

sentiment in the matter of crediting or discrediting him for what 
he had done. And, of course, the public attitude toward him 
was extended to his followers, or many of them. 

The village of West Middletown was one of the most im- 
portant stations on the Underground Railroad. Here often came 
John Brown, the fanatic, the Abolitionist, to buy sheep and trade 
in wool, and to deepen and strengthen by association with this mys- 
terious line the anti-slavery sentiments for which he later sacri- 
ficed his life at Harpers Ferry. A dozen or more frontier forts, 
ante-dating and succeeding the revolution, were erected at many 
places in this region to protect settlers from Indian forays ; and, 
post-dating the revolution, here surged in full force in 1791-3 the 
ominous tide of that Whisky insurrection which almost carried 
the people into another revolt. 

James Simpson, author of many of the footnotes in this 
book, and a life-long dweller near West Middletown, was born in 
Washington county, Pa., in 1824, dying December 18, 1902, at 
his home in Cross Creek township, where he had lived since 
1828. He was a successful farmer, with a turn of mind that led 
him to give his leisure hours to the study and investigation of 
local and county history, in which he acquired a wide-spread 
reputation for thoroughness and accuracy. He became an au- 
thority on Western Pennsylvania history, accumulating a library 
of large extent and value. He wrote " Early Sketches of Smith 
Township " for the Burgettstown Enterprise, and compiled an 
elaborate and reliable historical record of the old Cross Creek 
burial ground and the interments therein. His weather reports 
were sought by all his neighbors and by the local newspapers. 
He kept a registry of all visitors at his home. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 293 


By John S. Ritenour. 


" I appeal to the White Man ungrateful to say, 
If he e'er from my cabin went hungry away? 
If naked and cold unto Logan he came, 
And he gave him no blanket and kindled no flame?" 

Three of the most conspicuous characters of the Pittsburgh 
region during the period covered by Dr. Doddridge's " Notes," 
from 1763 to 1783, were Logan, the Cayuga savage, Michael 
Cresap and Simon Girty. Logan is popularly remembered alone 
for the lofty sentiment and touching pathos of his, " I appeal 
to any white man," etc. ; Girty for his treacheries and cruelties ; 
and Cresap chiefly for the charge made against him that he was 
responsible for the murder of Logan's kindred at Yellow Creek. 
It may be of some value to review cursorily, in connection with 
the republication of these " Notes," such incidents in the lives 
of these three men as are likely to interest and instruct the reader 
of this book. 

However noble an Indian Logan may have been early in 
life, he succumbed at last, like many another hapless red man, to 
the white man's whisky. His savage name, " Tah-gah-jute," 
means "Short Dress." He got the name of Logan from his 
father, Shikellamy, as a tribute of paternal esteem for James 
Logan, secretary of the province of Pennsylvania, and a firm 
friend of the Indians. Shikellamy was head chieftain of the 
Cayugas, and a disciple of the Moravian missionaries. He lived 
at Shamokin, on the Susquehanna river, where Logan, his second 
son, was born in 1725. Logan died, slain, in 1780 ; and even in 
this year, long after the killing of his family, he had accompanied 
a force of English regulars, Canadians and savages, on an in- 
vasion of Kentucky. The crime at Yellow Creek had alienated 
him forever from the Americans. 

294 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Butterfield says Logan was known on the border of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia because of his friendship for the whites, 
his engaging qualities and his fine personal appearance. " He 
was a remarkably tall man, considerably above six feet high," 
says R. P. McClay, " strong and well proportioned, with a 
brave, open, manly countenance ; and, to appearances, not afraid 
to meet any man." 

In 1770 Logan came west of the mountains and made his 
first home on the Ohio river below the mouth of the Big Beaver. 
He followed hunting and trapping. He was gradually being 
alienated then by his dissolute habits from any feeling of friend- 
ship for the whites, and history says that in 1772, two years before 
the killing of his relatives, he was already painted and- equipped 
for war. 

In the spring of 1774, on the 30th of April, it is believed, 
(some say May 3 or 4), Logan's relatives were murdered by 
whites at their home near the mouth of Yellow Creek, about 30 
miles above Wheeling. Just who these relations were is not 
known, but John J. Jacob's life of Cresap says they numbered 
three — his mother, younger brother and sister. The latter had 
there a half-breed son ten years of age who was not slain. 
Logan's father has even been alleged to have been one of the 
victims, but this was wholly untrue, for Shikellamy had died at 
Shamokin as early as 1749. Logan's speech charges Cresap with 
the crime, but the historians of later days discredit this. Cresap 
was fifteen miles away at the time. Logan believed, however, 
that he had directed the deed. 

Some time after these murders Logan and eight other sav- 
ages were on a vengeance raid in Virginia, at the headwaters of 
the Monongahela, and while on the north fork of Helston Creek 
they captured two white men, Wm. Robinson and another named 
Hellew. The prisoners were taken to Waketomic, a Shawanese 
town on the Muskingum. Here Hellew was adopted into the 
tribe. Robinson was doomed to the stake, despite the plea of 
Logan for his life; but before the death fire was lighted Logan 
with his tomahawk boldly cut the thongs that bound the prisoner 
and took him away with him to what is now Newcomerstown, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 295 

Ohio, where he dictated to Robinson a letter, dated July 21, 1774, 
directed to Capt. Cresap, asking Cresap why he had killed Logan's 
family on Yellow Creek? This letter was written with ink made 
from gunpowder. It was tied to a war club and left in the 
cabin of a murdered settler to be found by whoever should happen 
along. Robinson is said to have remained with Logan until the 
treaty of Fort Pitt, when he returned to his home in Virginia. 

The same Fall, at a November meeting on the Scioto between 
the whites and Indians, at Camp Charlotte, to conclude the treaty 
which ended Dunmore's war, Logan heard personally from the 
lips of Col. John Gibson, who was Dunmore's interpreter, that 
Cap. Cresap himself had told him he was not one of the Yellow 
Creek party, and had had nothing to do with that crime directly or 
indirectly. Cresap was far away when the killings were done, 
and had no prior cognizance that the deed was to be committed. 

After the Yellow Creek tragedy Logan at once began re- 
prisals on the scattered white settlers in the Ohio valley and 
for months fearful barbarities were practised on men, women 
and children, during which Logan is said to have taken thirty 

The circumstances of the origin of Logan's celebrated speech, 
or message, are these, in brief: When Lord Dunmore was 
marching against the Indians in the Scioto valley, in November 
of 1774, his progress was arrested about six miles from the 
Indian camp at Chillicothe by the arrival of messengers from 
there suggesting a suspension of hostilities, with possible nego- 
tiation of a peace treaty. Logan took no part in the conference 
that followed, and was not present. Dunmore was unwilling to 
conclude so important a transaction without the participation 
and consent of this influential Indian. He sent Col. John Gibson 
into the Delaware town to hunt up Logan and ascertain the 
cause of his aloofness. The two met, and Logan invited Gibson 
to accompany him to the woods for a talk. Some of the chiefs 
advised Gibson not do this, as Logan was in an ugly mood, but 
Gibson paid no heed. His confidence in personal safety with 
Logan may have been due to the fact that Logan's sister had 

296 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

been his squaw ; and it is altogether likely that this woman's 
half-breed boy who had escaped massacre at Yellow Creek was 
Gibson's own son. 

Logan led Gibson a mile and a half away from the camp, 
and into a dense coppice, where they sat down together on a log. 
Here Logan, with passionate vehemence, dramatically related to 
his listener the story of his woes at the hands of the whites, 
weeping as he spoke. He used the Delaware tongue. When 
Gibson returned to Dunmore's camp he told the earl what had 
occurred, and then himself translated into English on paper the 
great speech of Logan, to which he had been the sole listener. 

When Gov. Dunmore got back to Virginia, after the conclu- 
sion of peace, he took this paper with him, or a copy of it, and 
there it was printed for the first time in the Virginia Gazette, at 
Williamsburg, on February 4, 1775. About two weeks later, on 
February 16, 1775, it was republished in New York City. But 
it was Thomas Jefferson who introduced it to almost world- 
wide popularity. 

Finding in his pocketbook a memorandum of this speech, 
which he is said to have secured from Dunmore, possibly a 
complete copy, Jefferson used it in his " Notes on Virginia " to 
disprove a theory put forth by Buffon and others, to the effect 
that all animal nature, both human and beast, degenerated in 
America. Jefferson pointed to Logan's speech as an illustration 
of Indian character and genius. The " Notes on Virginia " were 
written in 1781-2, and they included this stigmatization of 
Michael Cresap, who had been named by Logan as the destroyer 
of his family. 

" A man infamous for the many murders he had committed 
on those much injured people." 

This allegation' was modified in a later publication of the 
"Notes" (1800) but never wholly withdrawn. Luther Martin, 
son-in-law of Cresap, attorney general of Maryland, a very able 
man, an active Federalist, and a bitter political opponent of Jef- 
ferson, attacked the latter for accepting and endorsing Logan's 
charge against Cresap. He insisted that Cresap had nothing to 
do with the crime. And time has sustained him. Cresap had 
nothing to do with it. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 297 

There are two versions of Logan's speech. The one accepted 
by Jefferson, and by historical writers generally, names Cresap. 
But Jacob's story of the episode at Camp Charlotte relates that 
Benjamin Tomlinson, one of Dunmore's officers, heard the 
speech read three times, once by Gibson and twice by Dunmore, 
and Col. Tomlinson says that neither the name of Cresap or of 
anybody else was mentioned in it. Jacob believes that Cresap's 
name was interpolated either by Dunmore or his malevolent Pitts- 
burg lieutenant, Dr. Connoly, for the purpose of throwing upon 
Cresap (and thus avoiding their own legitimate burden), re- 
sponsibility for the frontier irritation which culminated in Dun- 
more's War; that Dunmore and Connoly thus hoped to divert 
attention from themselves. 

On May 15, 1851, Brantz Mayer delivered at Baltimore the 
annual address before the Maryland Historical Society. His 
subject was " Tah-gah-jute, or Logan and Cresap." The purpose 
was to definitely fix Cresap's innocence of any complicity what- 
ever in the destruction of Logan's family. This address, en- 
larged and revised, was published in 1867. Mr. Mayer says 
Jefferson's comments tended to exhibit Cresap in an odious light, 
despite the fact that Mr. Jefferson had in his possession at the 
time a letter from George Rogers Clark wholly exculpating 
Cresap from participation in the slaughter. 

On May 15, 1798, Dr. Samuel Brown of Lexington, Ky., 
had written to George Rogers Clark asking for his recollection 
touching the authenticity of Logan's speech, and of Cresap's 
conduct. On June 17, 1798, Clark replied that while .Logan had 
reason to suspect Cresap, because of his conduct several days 
before the slaughter at Yellow Creek, Cresap was in fact not 
involved. As to the speech, Clark wrote : 

'*■ Logan's speech to Dunmore was generally believed, in- 
deed not doubted, to have been genuine, and a declaration by 
Logan. Logan is the author of the speech." 

On Sept. 4, 1798, Dr. Brown sent Clark's letter to Jefferson. 
This was two years before Jefferson published his second edition 
of the " Notes," in which he only modified the aspersion against 

298 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

It was thought for a long time that Jefferson had never got 
this letter ; that it had miscarried ; but it was found later among 
the papers Jefferson had turned over to the government. Mr. 
Mayer was unable to figure out why a man of Jefferson's position 
and character had written as he did about Cresap, in view of the 
accurate information before him. He thinks it may have been 
one of the phases of the political animosity of the time. In 
1800, when Jefferson revised his " Notes," Cresap had been dead 
24 years ; and Clark's letter had been in Jefferson's possession 
two years. 

One of the earliest publications of Logan's speech omitted 
Cresap's name. Others embodied it. The two versions brought 
on a controversy between Thomas Jefferson and his enemies as 
to the authenticity of the speech, but it decided nothing. 

Campbell, in his " Gertrude of Wyoming," paraphrases 
Logan's speech for one of his heroes, making him say: 

" Nor man, nor child, nor thing of living birth ; 
No, not the dog that watched my household hearth 
Escaped that night of blood upon our plains. 
All perished ! I alone am left on earth 
To whom nor relatives nor blood remains ; 
No, not a kindred drop that runs in human veins." 

C. W. Butterfield's "History of the Girty's," (1890) refer- 
ring to the peace meeting already noted as being held for the 
making of a treaty to end Dunmore's war, prints the version that 
Simon Girty was sent to bring Logan to this meeting, and that, 
while Logan was there on the scene, he refused to be a party to the 
negotiations. When .Girty returned he had a personal talk with 
Col. John Gibson on the outskirts of the crowd. Gibson then 
went to his own tent, and shortly afterward returned with a 
manuscript speech for and in the name of Logan. This was read 
to the conference. Girty had verbally translated to Gibson what 
Logan had said to him, and Gibson had put it into English, 
" which he was well able to do." Girty could neither read nor 
write. " It is now well established," says Butterfield, " that the 
version first printed was substantially the words of Logan." This 
story gives to Girty the credit of being the first translator of 
Logan's speech, which is altogether improbable. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 299 

Col. John Gibson was an uncle of John Bannister Gibson, 
the great chief justice of the supreme court of Pennsylvania. 
On April 4, 1800, he made an affidavit before J. Barker, of 
Pittsburg, certifying to the accuracy of the speech and to Logan's 

Before he published his " Notes " Mr. Doddridge, who had 
never lost faith in and respect for Logan's character, had written 
a dramatic piece entitled " Logan, the Last of the Race of Shi- 
kellimus, Chief of the Cayuga Nation." Its object was to prove 
the sincerity of Logan's friendship for the whites. 

" I thought," wrote Dr. Doddridge, " his bravery, talents and 
misfortunes, worthy of a dramatic commemoration. For at- 
tempting the task of doing justice to the character of Logan I 
have no apology to make. The tear of commiseration is due to 
Logan. Like Wallace, he outlived the independence of his 
nation. Like Cato, ' he greatly fell with his falling state.' Like 
Ossian, he was the last of his family, all of whom but himself 
had fallen by assassinations which, for their atrocious character, 
are scarcely paralleled in history." 

Another literary production by Mr. Doddridge, which ap- 
peared in July, 1821, is entitled " The Backwoodsman and the 
Dandy." It is a quite commonplace dialogue designed to picture 
the habits and customs of frontier life. Most if not all of this 
information the author also incorporated in his " Notes." 

There are several different stories about the manner of 
Logan's death. One is that while attending an Indian council 
in Detroit he got hilariously and viciously drunk and violently 
struck his wife. She fell insensible to the ground, and believing 
he had killed her he fled, fearing the blood vengeance of her 
relatives. While on this flight, alone, and still under the influence 
of liquor, he encountered in the wilderness a band of Indians 
with their squaws and children. They did not know of his deed, 
and he seems to have been in a state of delirium. But he 
recognized his own cousin, or brother-in-law, Tod-kah-dos. 
Declaring that the whole party should die, he was dismounting 
from his horse to begin his work of extermination when Tod- 
kah-dos shot and killed him, prompted by fear of what Logan 

300 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

might do in his condition. This version is from Dah-gan-on-do, 
a Seneca, who said he got it himself from Tod-kah-dos. The 
latter lived until his death in 1844 on the Cold Spring, in the 
Allegheny Seneca reservation. Logan's wife was a Shawanese 
woman. They had no children. She recovered from her hus- 
band's blow and returned to her own people. 

" Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio " credits to Good 
Hunter, a Mingo chief, the version that Logan was slain while 
sitting at a camp fire near Detroit with a blanket over his head. 
An Indian clove his skull with a tomahawk. One phase of the 
story is that this Indian was a friend of Logan, who had hired 
him to do the deed, and another is that he was an enemy who 
seized a favorable opportunity to end the Cayuga's life. 

" While intoxicated," says . the Encyclopedia Americana 
(1903), " Logan attacked a party of friendly Indians and was 
killed by his relative, Tod-kah-dohs, in self-defense." 

The story of Logan's death as related by Maj. Chas. Cra- 
craft, of Washington, Pa., to his son William, and repeated by 
the latter, is that while Logan, under the influence of liquor, was 
on his way from Detroit to his home on the Scioto, he stopped 
at the tent of his cousin and asked for food. The squaw told him 
there was none. He disbelieved her, and beat her with the ram- 
rod of his gun. Then he left. When the woman's husband got 
home shortly afterward he found her in tears. Ascertaining the 
reason, he started off on a short cut by which he knew he would 
intercept Logan. They had some words, and the Indian shot 
Logan as he was dismounting from his horse. Logan fell dead 
on touching the ground. This is the story heard by Major Cra- 
craft while himself a prisoner of the British in Detroit. 

At this stage of his career Logan had fallen so low that, 
while in Detroit, and there intoxicated, he was ignominiously 
kicked out of the commissary house by Capt. Bawbee.' This so 
deeply offended him that he is said to have declared to a friend 
he would desert the British, and take up with the Virginians, if 
he thought the latter would overlook his deeds against them. 
But he did not live to undertake the consummation of his threat. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 301 

u In his intercourse with our race," says Mayer, " Logan 
lost nothing but the few virtues of a savage, while he gained from 
civilization very little but its vices. His last years were melan- 
choly indeed. He wandered from tribe to tribe a solitary and 
lonely man. Dejected by the loss of friends, and the decay of 
his people, he resorted constantly to the stimulus of strong drink 
to drown his sorrow." 

Where his remains lie nobody knows. 


Michael Cresap, youngest son of Col. Thomas Cresap, was 
born June 29, 1742, in that part of Alleghany county, Maryland, 
which formerly belonged to Frederick county. His father, an 
English immigrant from Yorkshire, courageous, aggressive, cap- 
able and enterprising, gave his son a good education. Young 
Cresap was not successful in the mercantile business east of the 
mountains, largely because of his easy and generous disposition 
in allowing injudicious credits, so he came west early in 1774, 
bringing with him six or seven men to build houses and clear 
land in the Ohio valley. He made an investment at Redstone 
Old Fort, now Brownsville. But late in the autumn of the same 
year Cresap returned to Maryland in poor health. Spending the 
winter at home, he was back in the spring of 1775 in the Ohio 
valley with more young men to finish the work he had begun the 
year before. This time he got as far south as Kentucky, where 
he is said to have contemplated settling finally. But, being still 
sick, he determined to go home again to Maryland. Approaching 
the end of his journey he was met by a friend who told him he 
had been selected to command one of the two companies .of 
riflemen required of Maryland by resolution of the Continental 
congress. This responsibility was not in harmony with the 
purpose that was carrying him home, but he accepted it, never- 
theless. He led the first company of Maryland riflemen, some 
of whom were recruits from Pittsburg, to Boston, where they 
joined the American army under Gen. Washington. Here he 
was attacked by fever. Starting home he reached New York 
city on Oct. 12, but was not able to proceed further, dying' there 

302 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

on Oct. 18, aged 33 years. His funeral the next day was " at- 
tended by an enormous concourse." A place was found for his 
body in Trinity church graveyard, on Broadway, where it still 
rests. But it might, possibly, be difficult to find the marking 

John J. Jacob, who wrote a life of Cresap, clerked as a boy 
for Cresap during his career as a merchant, and in 1781 he 
married Cresap's widow, with whom he lived for 40 years. He 
had all of Cresap's books, papers and memoranda ; he had known 
Cresap intimately, his character, nature, purposes, motives and 
conduct ; he was personally familiar with the history of the 
events of Cresap's life, civil, commercial and military. He insists 
that Jefferson did Cresap a very great wrong in attributing to 
him many infamous Indian murders ; and, moreover, that no 
evidence has ever been produced to prove Logan's alleged charge 
that Cresap was responsible for the murder of his family. " No 
idea,'-' says Jacob, " was entertained by the Virginia Commis- 
sioners who settled the expenses of Dunmore's War, as that he 
was the murderer of Logan's family, or that he was a man of 
infamous character as an Indian murderer, or that he was the 
cause of the war." The commissioners held sessions at Pitts- 
burgh, Redstone Old Fort, and Winchester, which were attended 
by Jacob, as the representative of Cresap, for the purpose of 
securing orders for payment of bills for goods sold by Cresap to 
Dunmore's soldiers. Therefore, when he writes of the sentiments 
of the commissioners he does so from knowledge gained by close 
personal association. 

Throughout all his home life Michael Cresap had been asso- 
ciated with kindliness toward Indians. His father owned a 
landed estate of 1400 acres on both sides of the north fork of the 
Potomac river, in Virginia and Maryland, a few miles above its 
junction with the south fork. Here, as representative of the 
Ohio company, which made the first English settlement in Pitts- 
burgh before Braddock's war, Col. Thomas Cresap had engaged 
Nemacolin, the famous Indian, to mark and lay out a road over 
the mountains from Cumberland to Pittsburgh. This Nemacolin 
did, and he did it so well that Gen. Braddock followed it when he 

• Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 303 

marched in 1755 to the attack on Fort Duquesne. While this 
road was ever afterward known as Braddock's road, its real 
name should have been Nemacolin's. So great was Nemacolin's 
affection for Col. Cresap and his family that he left his son 
George to live with them, and George liked it there so well that 
he stayed with the Cresaps all his life. 


There were four of the Girty sons — Thomas, Simon, James 
and George. Then there was a half brother, John Turner. The 
first Girty, Simon, Sr., came from Ireland. In this country he 
married an English girl named Mary Newton. They made their 
home at Chambers Mills, on the east side of the Susquehanna, 
above Harrisburg, now Dauphin county, Pa. Here Simon Girty, 
Jr., the second son, was born in 1741. In 1749 the family re- 
moved to Sherman's Creek, in Perry county, along with a num- 
ber of other settlers, to engage in farming. But the Indians re- 
garded this as an unauthorized encroachment upon their lands, 
and they protested to the government. Evidently this protest was 
accounted well-grounded, for the authorities forcibly expelled 
the settlers and burned the houses they had built. 

The Girtys then returned to Chambers Mills, where the 
father was killed in 1751 in a drunken frolic by an Indian called 
" The Fish." In 1753 Mrs. Girty married John Turner, who 
had been a boarder in the family. Turner took them back to 
the Sherman's Creek valley in 1755, and here all fell into the 
hands of Indians when the latter captured and destroyed Fort 
Granville there on the Juniata. All were brought over the 
mountains to Kittanning. The Indians recognized John Turner 
as one who had injured their race, so in retaliation they sacrificed 
him at the stake. Gordon's " History of Pennsylvania " says 
they tied* him to a blackened post, made a great fire, danced 
around him, heated gun barrels red hot and run them through his 
body, and after three hours of such torture scalped him alive. 
Then a savage held up to him a boy who gave him the finishing 
stroke with a tomahawk. If this is not an exaggerated tale, 
Turner must have been a man of extraordinary endurance to 
withstand such treatment so long. 

304 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Mrs. Turner and her son John Turner were claimed by the 
Delawares, who baptised them and carried them off into the 
wilderness, to Fort Delaware. The other four boys were kept 
by the Indians for a while at Kittanning. Thomas was recap- 
tured when Lieut. Col. John Armstrong attacked Kittanning in 
September, 1756. Simon, James and George had been taken 
west by the routed savages, but all eventually got back with the 
whites. Thomas had been a captive for only 40 days. Simon 
was 15 years old when he returned. All three were brought back 
from the woods when the French had been expelled from the 
country, and English domination had become assured. Simon 
had been taken with the Senecas, George with the Delawares and 
James with the Shawnees. Mrs. Girty and her son John, when 
delivered up by their captors, made her home in Pittsburgh. It 
is not known when she died. The Girty boys proved to be a 
bad lot. This sketch, however, deals chiefly with Simon. He 
was wholly uneducated, but was a man of talent, and of great 
influence with the Indians. He made his early home at Fort Pitt, 
as did his brothers, where he was a laborer, trader, hunter, scout, 
interpreter, anything, indeed, he could get to do within his 

At the opening of the Revolution Girty joined the militia at 
Fort Pitt, says one historian. In 1778 he asked for a captain's 
commission in the Continental service, which was denied him. 
This is said to have embittered him, and to have been one of the 
reasons why he joined with Capt. Alexander McKee in deserting 
to the British. 

This desertion took place on the night of Saturday, March 
28, 1778, from McKee's house at McKee's Rocks, because McKee 
and some of his Tory associates were suspected, and with good 
reason, of instigating the Indians to make war on the colonists, 
thus aiding the British. " Until within a few weeks of this 
flight," says Hassler's " Old Westmoreland," " Girty had been a 
faithful servitor of American interests. In the absence of posi- 
tive knowledge of any reason for his desertion, he is believed to 
have been tempted by McKee with promises of preferment in 
the British service. James Girty, brother of Simon, was then 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 305 

with the Shawnees on the Scioto, having been sent from Fort Pitt 
by the American authorities on a futile peace embassy. He had 
been raised among the Shawnees, was a natural savage, and at 
once joined his brother and the other tories. For 16 years Capt. 
McKee, Mathew Elliott and the Girtys, were the merciless 
scourges of the border. They were the instigators and leaders of 
many Indian raids, continuing their hostility until long after the 
close of the revolutionary war. They were largely responsible 
for the general war 1790-94." 

In the dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia as to which 
had authority over the territory of the Pittsburg region Simon 
Girty, singularly, sided with Virginia. He was active in behalf of 
Lord Dunmore in this matter, and also as a scout and interpreter 
•for him when on his way to attack the Shawnees and Mingoes. In 
the matter of importance of service to Dunmore, and trustworthy 
discharge of responsible duties, Girty seems to have ranked with 
those other great lieutenants of the Virginia governor, George 
Rogers Clarke, Simon Kenton and John Gibson. But in the end 
he and all his brothers identified themselves with, the savages in 
their bloody border struggles with the white settlers. 

Girty's life is so fully described in the frontier literature of 
recent years that it is needless to reproduce an epitome of it 
here. (See Butterfield's " History of the Girtys.") After his 
flight from Pittsburgh in 1778 Girty's course was one of con- 
sistent enmity to the Americans, with occasional manifestations 
of personal friendship. He showed no such feeling, however, to 
Col. Wm. Crawford, with whom he was well acquainted, and 
who it is believed he could have saved from burning at the stake 
on the Tymochtee. 

Girty's career south of Lake Erie came to a close with the 
surrender of Detroit to the Americans in 1796. On March 6, 
1798, the British gave him a farm of 164. acres near Fort Maiden, 
in Essex county, Canada, not far from Detroit. Here he lived 
on his half -pay from the government, on such money as he got 
for his services as an interpreter, and on the produce of his farm. 
He had married Catherine Malott, of Detroit, but she had left 
him in 1797, after the birth of their last child, Prideaux Girtv, 

306 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

because of long continued ill-treatment. But when he had lost 
his eyesight, and was no longer able to take care of himself, she 
returned to him and nursed him until his death. The renegade 
had surely secured a good wife. Girty died on this farm Feb. 
18, 1818, and was buried there. English soldiers from Fort 
Maiden fired a salute over his grave. 

It is hardly worth while to undertake the framing of a per- 
sonal description of Girty when one historian says " his eyes 
were black and penetrating " and another speaks of " his gray 
sunken eyes." Mrs. Girty died in January, 1852. Their chil- 
dren were all thoroughly respectable. John Turner, Girty 's half 
brother, died May 20, 1840, on Squirrel Hill, in the city of 
Pittsburgh, south of the mouth of Four Mile Run, where he 
lived on a farm. 

The histories relate a good many instances of kindness by 
Simon Girty, especially to the young. When Christian Fast was 
captured by the Indians at Lochry's defeat he was about 17 years 
old. He was adopted by a family of Delawares to take the place 
of a son who had been killed, and was initiated into the tribe. 
This was in 1782. Fast was taken to live with the Delawares 
at Pipestown, on the Tymochtee. But he was discontented and 
melancholy. In the woods one day, brooding over his captivity, 
and supposing himself to be alone, he was suddenly accosted by 
Girty, who inquired of what he was thinking. Fast gave him an 
evasive answer. 

" That is not it," replied Girty. " You are thinking of home. 
Be a good boy and you shall see your home again." 

And Girty made good as to this promise to Fast. He is said 
to have always been kind to young prisoners. 

Says Jonathan Alder : " I knew Simon Girty to purchase at 
his own expense several boys who were prisoners and take them 
to the British and have them educated. He was certainly a friend 
to many prisoners." 

Pittsburg, June, 1912. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 307 

By E. Dana Durand, Director of the Census. 

Washington, Jan. 22, 1912. 
Dear Sirs: — In reply to your letter of January 14, 1912, I 
give you below a list showing the Indian population at various 
dates from 1789 to 1910 : 

Date. Authority. Number. 

1789 Estimate of the Secretary of War 76,000 

1790-1791 Estimate of Gilbert Imlay 60,000 

1822 Report of Jedediah Morse on Indian Affairs *471,417 

1825 Report of Secretary of War fl29,366 

1829 Report of Secretary of War 312,930 

1832 Estimate of Samuel J. Drake 293,933 

1834 Report of Secretary of War 312,610 

1836 Report of Superintendent of Indian Affairs 253,464 

1837 Report of Superintendent of Indian Affairs 302,498 

1850 Report of H. R. Schoolcraft . 388,229 

1853 Report of United States Census, 1850 400,764 

1860 Report of United States Census 339,421 

1867 Report of Hon. N. G. Taylor (exclusive of citizen 

Indians) $306,925 

1870 Report of United States Census 313,712 

1880 Report of United States Census and Indian Office 306,543 

1890 Report of United States Census 248,253 

1900 Report of United States Census 237,196 

1910 Report of United States Census 265,683 

* This included Texas, not then in the United States, 
t Indians of extreme west apparently not included. 

JThe Indian population by this count foots up 306,925, but, by an 
apparent clerical error, was printed as 306,475. 

The figures given are in some instances, as stated, mere es- 
timates by various persons who were supposed to have made a 
study of the Indians at the different dates. The later returns, 
from 1870 to 1910, were made from the returns of the United 
States censuses. I am also inclosing a statement showing the 
Indian population of the United States in 1910 in the various 
states and territories. 

A preliminary statement giving for continental United States 
the distribution of the Indian population by states and territories, 
as shown by the returns of the Thirteenth Decennial Census, 

308 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

taken as of April 15, 1910, was issued December 14, 1911 bj 
Director Durand, of the Bureau of the Census. The statistics 
were prepared under the supervision of William C. Hunt, chiei 
statistician for population in the Census Bureau, and are subjec' 
to later revision. 

In 1910 the Indian population of continental United State: 
was 265,683, as compared with 237,196 in 1900, and 248,253 ir 
1890. According to these figures there was an increase in th< 
Indian population from 1900 to 1910 of 28,487, or 12 per cent, a: 
compared with a decrease from 1890 to 1900 of 11,057, or 4J 
per cent. The decrease in the decade 1890-1900 suggests th< 
possibility that the enumeration in 1900 was not so accurate o 
complete as in 1890 or in 1910. For the 20-year period fron 
1890 to 1910 there was an increase of 17,430, or 7 per cent. 

The Indian population in 1910 is distributed among the sev 
eral states and territories, arranged according to geographica 
divisions, as follows : 

New England Division. — Maine, 892 ; New Hampshire, 34 ; Vermon 
26; Massachusetts, 688; Rhode Island, 284; Connecticut, 152. 

Middle Atlantic division. — New York, 6,016; New Jersey, 168; Penr 
sylvania, 1,5 03. 

East North Central division.— Ohio, 127 ; Indiana, 279 ; Illinois, 188 
Michigan, 7,519 ; Wisconsin, 10,142. 

West North Central division. — Minnesota, 9,053 ; Iowa, 471 ; Missour 
313 ; North Dakota, 6,486 ; South Dakota, 19,137 ; Nebraska, 3,502 ; Kansa: 

South Atlantic division. — Delaware, 5 ; Maryland, 55 ; District of Cc 
lumbia, 68; Virginia, 539; West Virginia, 36; North Carolina, 7,851; Sout 
Carolina, 331 ; Georgia, 95 ; Florida, 74. 

East South Central division. — Kentucky, 234 ; Tennessee, 216 ; Als 
bama, 909 ; Mississippi, 1,253. 

West South Central division. — Arkansas, 460; Louisiana, 780; Okl£ 
noma, 74,825 ; Texas, 702. 

Mountain division. — Montana, 10,745 ; Idaho, 3,488 ; Wyoming, 1,486 
Colorado, 1,482 ; New Mexico, 20,573 ; Arizona, 29,201 ; Utah, 3,123 ; Nevada 

Pacific division. — Washington, 10,997; Oregon, 5,090, California, 16,37 

The distribution by geographic divisions of the Indian population ( 
continental United States at the last three decennial censuses was as follows 

Geographic Division. Indian Population. 

1910. 1900. 1890. 

Continental United States 265,683 237,196 248,25 

New England 2,076 1,600 1,44 

Middle Atlantic 7,717 6,959 7,2C 

East North Central 18,255 15,027 16.2C 

West North Central 41,406 42,339 46,82 

South Atlantic 9,054 6,585 2,3E 

East South Central 2,612 2,590 3,3£ 

West South Central 76,767 65 574 66,0 

Mountain 75,338 66,155 72, 0( 

Pacific T 32^58 30,367 32,77 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 309 

A letter from C. F. Hauke, Second Assistant Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, dated Washington, February 10, 1912, says: 

" The birth rate among the Indians during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1911, was slightly in excess of the death rate. 
Of 156,631 Indians, being all upon which the office has reliable 
data, the births during the fiscal year 1911 averaged 36.09 per 
1,000 and the deaths 35.55 per 1,000. 

" This office has never made a comparative study of the past 
and present Indian population of the United States and is not, 
therefore, qualified to state whether there are more Indians in 
the United States now than ever before in the history of the 

The Indian population in some states, as shown by the 
reports of superintendents of the Indian Office of the Department 
of the Interior, exceeds that shown by the Census Bureau enum- 
eration. Also, the figures of the Indian Office include 23,345 
freedmen and 2,582 intermarried whites in the Five Civilized 
Tribes in Oklahoma, a total of 25,927 persons who, while not of 
Indian blood, are treated as such, because those in the Cherokee, 
Creek and Seminole Nations are entitled to share in the lands and 
funds of these three nations, and those in the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw Nations are entitled to share in the lands of those 
two Nations. 

The 1912 figures of the Indian Office, compiled from reports 
of Indian School Superintendents, supplemented by information 
from advance report of 1910 census for localities in which no 
Indian Office representative is located, show a grand total of 
Indian population of the United States, exclusive of Alaska, 

of 322,715 

Five Civilized Tribes, including freedmen and intermar- 
ried whites 101,287 

By blood 75,360 

By intermarriage 2,582 

Freedmen 23,445 

Exclusive of Five Civilized Tribes 221,428 

310 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 


The frontier forts, blockhouses and stockades, as they were 
variously called, situated within the borders of Washington 
county, and dating from 1770-73, were about 37 in number. 
Most of these were in the western part of the county, in the sec- 
tions drained by Raccoon Creek, Cross Creek, Buffalo Creek and 
their tributaries, all emptying into the Ohio river. 

In the Raccoon Creek region were Dillow's blockhouse, 
named for Mathew Dillow, in Hanover township, on Fort Dillow 
run ; Beelor's fort, named for Capt. Samuel Beelor, near the vil- 
lage of Candor, in Robinson township ; McDonald station or fort, 
at the present town of McDonald ; Burgett's blockhouse, built by 
Sebastian Burgett, where Burgettstown now stands ; Vance's fort, 
named for Joseph Vance, one mile north of Cross Creek village, 
in Smith township, on the headwaters of a branch emptying into 
Raccoon Creek; Hoagland's blockhouse, named for Henry Hoag- 
land, on the north branch of Raccoon Creek, in Smith township, 
near Leech's old mill; Cherry's fort, on the Cherry farm, in Mt. 
Pleasant township ; William Reynold's blockhouse, one and a half 
miles southwest from Cross Creek village, in Cross Creek town- 
ship, and Wilson's blockhouse, on the Wilson farm, in Mt. Pleas- 
ant township. 

On Cross Creek were Alexander Wells's fort, near the junc- 
tion of the north and south forks, in Cross Creek township ; Col. 
James Marshal's blockhouse, in Cross Creek township, which 
was never attacked so far as known, and Downey's fort. 

On the north fork of Buffalo Creek, in Independence town- 
ship, were Doddridge's fort, three miles west of West Middle- 
town, two miles east of Independence Town, and three-quarters 
of a mile southwest of Teter's fort; also Teter's fort itself. 
Doddridge's fort took the place of Teter's fort, which had become 
indefensible. The latter had been built by Capt. Samuel .Teter, 
and enclosed about one-eighth of an acre. It was one of the 
first forts in that locality. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 311 

On the south or Dutch fork of Buffalo Creek were Rice's 
fort, 12 miles from the Ohio river, Miller's blockhouse, on the 
farm of Clinton Miller, in Donegal township, Wilson's fort, 12 
miles from the Ohio river, and Wolfe's fort, named for Jacob 
Wolfe. The latter was situated five miles west of Washington. 

Then further to the south, near the western line of the 
county, were Roney's blockhouse, large and strong, built by 
Hercules and James Roney, in Finley township ; with Campbell's 
blockhouse, still further south, in Finley township, on the north 
fork of Wheeling Creek, one and one half miles from Good In- 
tent. Ryerson's fort, in what is now Greene county, was on the 
south fork of Wheeling Creek. 

Off directly toward the east, some miles from Campbell's 
blockhouse, according to the Pennsylvania state map, was Lind- 
ley's fort, on the north branch of Ten Mile Creek, near the 
present village of Prosperity. This was one of the strongest 
forts in the western country. 

Still other forts were Allen's fort, named for John Allen, 
near the line between Smith and Robinson townships, and used 
before Fort Beelor was completed ; James Dinsmore's fort in 
Canton township ; Beeman's blockhouse, on Beeman's run, which 
empties into the north fork of Wheeling Creek ; Abraham En- 
slow's blockhouse, in East Findley township, on Wheeling Creek ; 
Forman's fort, on Chartiers Creek, opposite Canonsburg, accord- 
ing to the historical map of the state; Bayon's blockhouse in 
Cross Creek township ; Taylor's fort, near Taylorstown, on 
Buffalo Creek; Norris fort, on the land of William Norris, in 
Chartiers township ; Lamb's fort, four miles from Rice's fort, 
likely on the farm of Luther Davis, in Hopewell township ; a 
fort in West Bethlehem township, at the village of Zollarsville, 
on -the north branch of Ten Mile Creek, 16 miles from Washing- 
ton ; forts Milliken and McFarland, built respectively by James 
Milliken and Abel McFarland on their farms in Amwell town- 
ship, near the border of Greene county ; and Woodruff's block- 
house, on land owned in 1870 by Nehemiah Woodruff. 

Hon. Boyd Crumrine, of Washington, Pa., writing to the 
publishers of this book about the so-called old fort at the village 
of Zollarsville, or " Jobtown," referred to above, says : 

312 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

" I have been familiar with it from boyhood, and have 
studied it in all its aspects. It was undoubtedly a protective for- 
tification, built upon the high point of level land between the junc- 
tion of Ten Mile Creek and another smaller stream coming into 
it at Ullery's Mills; real earthworks, and nothing like the block- 
houses which our pioneers constructed. Nor was it, in my judg- 
ment, built by the Indians of the days of our settlements. They 
never built earthworks. But it must be the remains of the work 
of the mound builders of a race preceding the Indians. Besides 
all, there was no need for it by our pioneers. Its locality is just 
between the Quaker and the German settlements in that section, 
and the Indians were always at peace with both the Germans and 
Quakers. I do not know of an instance of an Indian raid down 
the valley of Ten Mile Creek, eastward from the locality of 
Prosperity, or through East Bethlehem or West Bethlehem town- 
ships. Of course there was many a raid through the southern 
part of Greene county." 

In Fayette county, Pa., so far as the historical records dis- 
close, but three white persons were slain by Indians during fron- 
tier days. Fayette, like some sections of Washington county, 
was practically immune from savage forays. 

Dr. Alfred Creigh's history says Becket's fort was near the 
Monongahela river, but there is no definite data available as to 
its existence or location. The only fort in Washington county 
known positively to be near the Monongahela river was Cox's 
fort or station, built by Gabriel Cox, on Peters Creek, in Peters 
township, one mile from Gastonville and 14 miles from Pittsburg. 
There is doubt, however, as to its exact site. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 313 

By Joseph Doddridge. 

Where Alleghany's towering, pine clad peaks 
Rise high in air and sparkle in the sun, 

At whose broad base the gushing torrent breaks, 
And dashes through the vale with curling foam, 

My father came while yet our world was young, 
Son of the trackless forest, large and wild, 

Of manners stern, of understanding strong, 
As nature rude but yet in feeling mild. 

Then our Columbia, rising from the woods, 
Obeyed the mandates of a foreign king, 

And then the monarch as a father stood, 
Nor made us feel his dread ambition sting. 

For him no splendid mansion reared its head, 
And spread its furniture of gaudy forms, 

His was the humble cot of forest wood, 

Made by his hands, a shelter from the storms. 

No costly dress, the work of foreign hands, 
Nor silks from Indian or Italian realms, 

His clothing plain, the produce of his lands, 

Nor shaped with modern skill, nor set with gems. 

Simple his fare, obtained from fields and woods, 

His drink the crystal fountain's wholesome streams, 

No fettered slave for him e'er shed his blood, 
To swell in pomp ambition's idle dreams. 

Look back, ye gaudy sons of pride and show, 
To your forefather's humble, lowly state — 

How much they suffered, much they toiled for you, 
To leave their happier offspring rich and great. 

With meek Aurora's earliest dawn he rose, 

And to the spacious, trackless woods repaired, 

When Boreas blew in autumn's whirling snows, 
To hunt the prowling wolf or timid deer. 

And when stern winter howl'd thro' leafless woods, 
And filled the air with bitter, biting frost, 

He hunted to his den the grisly bear ; 

Nor without danger faced the frightful beast. 

The shaggy native cattle of the west, 

The bounding elk, with branching antlers large, 

The growling panther, with his frowning crest, 
Were victims to his well aim'd, deadly charge. 

314 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

In hunting frock and Indian sandals trim, 

O'er lengthening wastes with nimble steps he ran, 

Nor was Apollo's dart more sure in aim, 
Than in his skillful hand the deadly gun. 

To masters, schools and colleges unknown, 
The forest was his academic grove, 

Self taught ; the lettered page was all his own, 
And his the pen with nicest art to move. 

Think not ye lettered men with all your claims, 
Ye rich in all the spoils of fields and floods, 

That solid sense, and virtue's fairest gems, 

Dwell not with huntsmen in their native woods. 

When chang'd the woodsman, for hard culture's toil, 
To fell the forest, and to clear the field, 

And cover o'er with waving grain the soil, 
He was the husband, father and the friend. 

His was an ample store of ardent mind, 

Rich in liberal and creative arts, 
To trace the landscape with correct design, 

And ply in many ways the tradesman's parts: 

With feeling heart sincere and ever kind, 
He was the friend and father of the poor, 

His was the wish for good to all mankind, 
And pity often taxed his little store. 

His length'd years of sickness, toil and pain, 
When cherish'd by religion's heavenly call, 

Strong was his faith in the Redeemer's name, 
He sunk in death and died beloved of all. 

My father and my friend, it was thy aim 
To make thy children rich in mental store. 

To thy expanded mind the -highest gain ; 
And may they honor well thy tender care. 

My mother, sweetest, loveliest of her race, ' 
Fair as the ruby blushes of the morn, 

Adorn'd with every captivating grace — 
Her piety sincere and heavenly born. 

With hope elate she saw her little throng, 

Ruddy as morn, and fresh as zephyr's breeze, 

Chanting with voice acute their little song, 
Or sporting thro' the shade of forest trees. 

By fatal accident, in all her charms 

Snatch'd from her babes, by death's untimely dart, 
Resigned me to my second mother's arms, 

Who well fulfilled a tender mother's part. 

Say, then, shall the rough woodland pioneers 
Of Mississippi's wide extended vale, 

Claim no just tribute of our love or tears, 

And their names vanish with the passing gale? 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 315 

With veteran arms the forest they subdued, 
With veteran hearts subdued the savage foe ; 

Our country, purchased by their valiant blood, 
Claims for them all that gratitude can do. 

Their arduous labors gave us wealth and ease, 
Fair freedom followed from their double strife, 

Their well aim'd measures gave us lasting peace, 
And all the social blessedness of life. 

Then let their offspring, mindful of their claims, 
Cherish their honor in the lyric band — 

O save from dark oblivion's gloomy reign, 
The brave, the worthy fathers of our land 

My dear Eliza i (Oh! fond hope beguil'd) 

Sweet as the rose bud steeped in morning dew, 

Tho' withered now, I claim my lovely child ; 
Nor have I bid thee yet a long adieu. 

Sweet little tenants of this dark domain, 
Yours was but a momentary breath, 

You ope'd your eyes on life, disliked the scene, 

Resign'd your claim, and shut them up in death. 

Soft, be your rest, ye tenants of my tomb ! 

Exempt from toil and bitter biting care ; 
Sacred your dust until the general doom 

Gives the reward of heavenly bliss to share. 

i The author's daughter, aged fifteen. (D) 


Allen, Lieut., 176. 

Arbuckle, Capt. Mathew, 174, 180. 

Ashley, Lieut., 211. 

Asbury, Rev. Francis, 245, 246. 

Atwater, Caleb, 33. 

Armstrong, Lieut. Col. John, 304. 

Alder, Jonathan, 306. 

Amherst, General, 166. 

Brown, Col., 89. 

Buford, Capt., 176. 

Bilderback, Chas., 189. 

Biggs, Gen. Benjamin, 185. 

Biggs, Capt., 199. 

Brady, Capt. Sam., 203, 265, 283. 

Brodhead, Col., 224, 225, 226. 

Biggs, Capt. John, 211. 

Butterfield, 207. 

Brown, Mrs. John, 226, 229. 

Brown, Jane, 227. 

Big Foot, 232. 

Bayne, Col. Thos., 64. 

Barton, Dr., 40. 

Bukey, John, 264, 282, 283. 

Bukey, Jemima, 264. 

Bukey, Mary, 265. 

Bukey, Marcie, 265, 283. 

Bickerstaff, Augustine, 278. 

Brown, Mrs. Eleanor, 278. 

Bukey, Elizabeth, 283. 

Brown, Capt. Oliver, 284, 285. 

Brown — Abigail, John, Sarah', 
Danforth, Catherine, William, 
Oliver, George, James, Richard 
and Elizabeth, children of 
Oliver Brown, 285. 

Brown, Thomas Stephen, 285. 

Beatty, Rev. Wm. T., 286. 

Brown, John, 292. 

Biggs, Gen. Zaccheus, 287. 

Biggs, Gen. Wm., 287. 

Brown, Eliza Vilette, 286. 

Brown, Dr. Samuel, 297. 

Barker, J., 299. 

Bawbee, Capt., 300. 

Braddock, Gen., 23, 302. 

Bowers, Rev., 151. 

Bouquet, Col., 166. 

demons, Oliver, 82. 

Crawford, Col. William, 189, 202, 

207, 211, 212, 305. 
Carpenter, John, 188, 205. 
Clark, Coh, 186. 

Cornstalk, 176, 178, 179, 180, 181. 
Campbell, Chas., 201. 
Crawford, John, 211. 
Campbell, Bishop Alexander, 227, 

Cranmer, Judge G. L., 229. 
Cherry, John, 235. 
Castleman, Wm., 235. 
Carter, John, 255. 
Cresap, Michael, 6, 172, 178, 183, 

293, 301. 
Cook, Capt., 32. 
Cuthbertson, Dr. John, 79. 
Cherry, Thomas, 61. 
Carson, Mrs. Ruth, 278. 
Colwell, Stephen, 285. 
Colwell, Robert, 286. 
Clemens, Sherrard, 291. 
Clemens, William, 291. 
Clemens, Jeremiah, 291. 
Clemens, Samuel M. (Mark 

Twain), 291. 
Clemens, James, 291. 
Connoly, Dr., 297. 
Cracraft. Major Chas., 300, 
Creigh, Dr. Alfred, 312. 
Cox, Gabriel, 312. 
Campbell, Rev. Thos., 290. 
Crumrine, Hon. Boyd, 190, 311. 
Clark, George Rogers, 297, 305. 
Chase, Rev. Philander, 262, 263. 


280, 281. 



Mrs. Joseph, 119. 
Philip, 246, 280, 281. 
John, 243, 246, 279, 

(Joseph's), children, 

Narcissa, 5, 243. 
Reeves, 271. 
Joseph, 272. 
family record, 272, 273, 




Doddridge, Nancy, 278. 
Doddridge, Philip, Sr., 278, 279. 
Doddridge, Mary, 286. 
Dillon, Lieut, 176. 
Dunquat, 235. 
Dunlap, Wm, 246. 
Durand, E. Dana, 6, 307. 
Dunmore, Lord, 82, 174, 177, 178, 

179, 182, 295, 305. 
Dimit, Jacob, 62. 
Dah-gan-on-do, 300. 
Dalyell, Capt, 166. 

Edgar, James, 61. 
Elliott, Mathew, 305. 
Ecayer, Capt., 166. 

Fleming, Col., 175. 
Fields, Col., 176. 
Farrar, Wm. M., 200, 203. 
Fast, Christian, 217, 306. 
Fullenweider, Peter, 219. 
Felebaum, Geo., 219. 
Forbes, Gen., 167, 222. 
Fulton, Rev. Robert, 286. 
Fulton, Rev. Samuel, 286. 
Fulton, Robert, 290. 

Glendennin, Archibald, 169. 
Greathouse, Daniel, 172. 
Greathouse, Col. Harman, 265, 

Greathouse, John, 265. 
Greathouse, Hezekiah, 265. 
Greathouse, Rudolph, 265. 
Goldsby, Lieut., 176. 
Green, John, 189. 
Gibson, Col. John, 185, 186, 187, 

295, 298, 299. 
Graham, John, 201. 
Gault, David, 201. 
Glass, Mr., 227, 228, 229. 
Girty, Simon, 6, 212, 276, 282, 293. 
Girty, Thomas, Simon, James and 

George, 303. 
Girty, Simon, Sr., 303. 
Girty, Mrs. Simon, Jr., 305. 
Girty, Mrs. Simon, Sr., 304. 
Girty, Prideaux, 304. 
Greene, Rev. Henry W., 286. 
Gantt, John, 286. 
Gantt, Eleanor Doddridge, 286. 
Garrett. John W., 290. 
Griswold, Gen. G. H., 260. 
Gibson. John Bannister, 299. 
Good Hunter, 300. 

Gass, Patrick, 285. 
Gladwin, Major, 165. 
Grant, Major, 167. 

Hall, Capt., 181. 
Hargus, John, 183. 
Heckewelder, Rev. John, 199, 224. 
Holmes, Obadiah, Jr., 201, 202, 

Holmes, Col. J. T., 201. 
Holmes, Dr. Shepley R., 203. 
Harrison, Major, 211. 
Hughes, Rev. James, 227. 
Harriman, David, 246. 
Hammond, Geo., 252. 
Harmar, Gen., 16. 
Henderson, Mrs. Joseph, 62. 
Hardie, Thos., 76. 
Hobart, Bishop, 259, 261. 
Hedges, Chas., 283. 
Homer, Louise Dilworth Beatty, 

Holmes, Chas. Avery, 290. 
Hunt, Wm. C, 308, 309. 
Hauke, C. F., 309. 

Irvine, Gen., 211. 

Johnson, Sir William, 170, 171. 

Johnston, William, 190. 

Jack, John, 235. 

Jackson, Philip, 235. 

Jacob, Rev. John J., 245, 294, 

Johnson, John, 237. 
Johnson, Henry, 237. 
Jefferson, Thomas, 28, 42, 48, 296. 
Johnson, Rev. Mr., 258. 
Judkins, Anderson, 265. 
Johnson, David, 247. 

Kelly, Tady, 182. 

Kerr, David, 201. 

Knight, Dr. John, 211, 213. 

Kilbourn, Rev. James, 259, 263. 

Kenton, Simon, 305. 

Lewis, General, 174, 177, 179, 181. 

Lewis. Col. Charles, 175. 

Lefler, Jacob, Jr., 219. 

Lefler, Geo., 219. 

Langheim, Col., 217. 

Leet, Major Daniel, 208. 

Lysle, John, 61. 

Lysle, Aaron, 61. 

Lysle, Robert, 61, 203. 



Larimore, Susan, 272. 
Larimore, Capt. Robert, 272. 
Logan, James, 293. 
Logan (the Indian chief), 6, 174, 

178, 181, 268, 293. 
Logan's Address, " I appeal to any 

white man," etc., 178. 
Lindsey, Wm. T., 286, 290. 

McPeak, Daniel, 83. 

Murrey, Capt., 176. 

McClenachan, Capt., 176. 

McConnell, Samuel, 188. 

Mitchener, C. H., 184. 

Mcintosh, Gen., 184, 186. 

McDonald, Col. Angus, 182. 

McWilliams, John, 201. 

Marshall, Robert, 201. 

Marshall, Thos., 201. 

Merchant, Samuel, 201. 

Moore, Dr., 218. 

Miller, Jacob, 217. 

McGuire, Major Francis, 229. 

Mills, Thomas, 230. 

Mathews,. John, 255, 262. 

Morse, Rev. Intrepid, 253, 264. 

Moore, Rev. Dr., 252. 

Moody, David, 252. 

Moore, Bishop, 248. 

Mercer. Rev., 247. 

Munsell, Joel, 5. 

Manchester, Isaac, 6, 286, 287, 

Marchand, Dr. Samuel S., 64. 
Marchand, Dr. Louis, 64. 
Marchand, Dr. Daniel, 64. 
Marchand, Dr. David, 64. 
McCalmont, Alex., 61. 
McCamant, John, 58, 61, 62. 
McColloch, Major John, 265, 274, 

McColloch, Major Samuel, 274, 

275, 278. 
McColloch, Abraham, 274. 
McMahon, Major Wm., 282. 
Mathews, Geo., 282. 
Marshall, Chief Justice, 280. 
Moorehead, Col. M., 274. 
McColloch, Geo., 274. 
McCombs, Rev. Wm., 286. 
McFarren, Rev. Samuel, 286. 
Macurdy, Rev. Elisha, 286. 
McFarren, Kate, 286. 
McClay, R. P., 294. 
Manchester, Col. Asa, 287. 
McLene, Hon. Jeremiah, 287. 

McDonald, Col. John, 287. 

McArthur, Gen. Duncan, 287. 

Martin, Luther, 296. 

Mayer, Brantz, 297. 

McKee, Capt. Alexander, 304. 

Malott, Catherine (Mrs. Simon 

Girty, Jr.), 305. 
McMillan, Rev. John, 151. 

Nicholson, Thomas, 182. 
Newton, Mary, 303. 
Nemacolin. 302. 

Pipe (chief), 212. 

Pekillon, 225. 

Patterson, Moses, 201. 

Pennypacker, Hon. S. W., 5. 

Patterson, Thos. M., 54. 

Parkinson, Dr., 62. 

Pursley, David, 278. 

Potts, Susan, 278. 

Polsley, Hon. Daniel, 286. 

Poe, Adam, 232, 235. 

Poe, Simpson R., 232. 

Poe, Andrew, 232, 235. 

Patterson, Rev. Robert, 246, 283. 

Patterson, Rev. Joseph, 246. 

Paxton Boys, The, 167, 168. 

Redhawk, 180. 

Ross, James, 201. 

Richardson, Jane, 203. 

Rose, Major John, 211. 

Rice, Daniel, 219. 

Rice, Abraham, 219. 

Rankin, William, 235. 

Reeves, Josiah, 246. 

Rankin, Capt. Zachariah, 58, CO, 61 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 264. 

Roland, Mrs. Jacob, 283. 

Ritner, Joseph, 291. 

Robinson, William, 294. 

Reed, Hon. Jos. R., 64. 

Ritenour, Jno. S., 293. 

Stuart, Capt, 181. 

Shabosh, John, 189, 193. 

Slover, John, 213, 214. 

Stuart, Chas., 221. 

Shepherd, Col., 224. 

Sikes, Philip, 229. 

Scotosh, 235. 

Scott, Hon. Thomas, 5, 245. 250. 

251, 271, 274. 
Simpson, James, 6, 292. 
St. Clair, Gen., 16. 



Searle, Rev. Roger, 261. 

Schoonover, Rev. Martin V., 286. 

Swaney, Rev. Alexander, 286. 

Shikellamy, 293. 

Smith, Rev. Joseph, 151. 

Scott, Thos. (Prothonotary), 190. 

Tennell, John, 82. 

Taylor, James, 201. 

Thrall, Walter, 255. 

Teter, Capt. Samuel, 6, 100, 222, 

279, 286. 
Tomlinson, A. B., 28. 
Teter, John, 287. 
Teter, Samuel, 287. 
Teter, Geo., 287. 
Turner, John, 303, 306. 
Tomlinson, Benjamin, 297. 
Thompson, John, 186. 
Tod-kah-dos, 299, 300. 

Urie, Polly, 190. 
Urie, Solomon, 201. 

Van Meter, Morgan, 282. 
Van Meter, Jos., 282. 
Van Meter, Abraham, 283. 
Van Meter, Isaac, 283. 
Van Meter, Sarah, 283. 
Veech, James, 83. 
Vernon, Major, 187. 
Vance, Joseph, 201, 203. 
Vaile, Solomon, 201. 
Van Meter, Mr., 227. 
Vance, Robert, 76. 
Van Meter, John, 282, 283. 

Walker, W. V., 82. 
Ward, Capt., 176. 
Wilson, Capt., 176. 

Williamson, Col. David, 190, 199, 

200, 201, 202, 203, 207, 209, 210, 

290, 291. 
Wallace, Mary, 200. 
Wingemond, 212. 
Wetsel, Lewis, 229, 230, 231, 278. 
Wetsel, John, 229. 
Wetsel, Martin, 229. 
Wetsel, Geo., 229. 
Wetsel, Jacob, 229, 230. 
Wetsel, Susan, 229. 
Wetsel, Christiana, 229. 
Whitacre, 'James, 235. 
Well's, Col. Richard, 243. 
Wells, Mary, 243. 
Waterman, Rev. John, 247. 
White, Right Rev. Bishop, 248, 

254, 256, 258, 261. 
Williams, Alfred, 5. 
Wayne, Gen., 16, 240. 
Wells, Thos., 54. 
Wells, Isaac, 61. 
Wells, Alexander, 82, 89. 
Winters, Matilda D., 272. 
Winters, John, 272. 
Walker, Alexander, 282. 
Webster, Daniel, 280. 
Willey, Hon. W. T., 280. 
White Eyes, 280. 
Washington, Geo., 284, 285, 290, 

Wallace, Robert, 188, 200, 201. 
Wallace, Win., 188. 
Williamson, John, 190. 

Zane, Jonathan, 182, 274. 

Zane, Noah, 8. 

Zane, Col. Ebenezer, 8, 172, 274. 

Zane, Silas, 274. 


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